Skip to main content

Full text of "Penman's Art Journal"

See other formats


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



Vol. 16. No. 2. 

Western Penman's Convention. 

The Journal for January contained 
a brief note of the meeting of the WesterD 
Penman's Associa- 
tion, at Louisville, 
Ky., during the last 
week of December. 
The editor of Tub 
Joi'itNAL had made 

every arrangement to 
be present, but was 
prevented from go- 
ing at the last 
moment by a death 
in the family. The 
subjoined report, >^- 
prepared from notes taken for Thb Journal 
by Howard ChampUn, assisted by W. F. 
Gieaseman and of her friends, with illustra- 
tions by Webb and Zaner, shows that iu 
spite of thi? accident The 
Journal was very faith- 
fully represented, and w( 
take this occasion to re 

Besides the active members the roll 
shows the following honorary members in 
attendance : 

W. H. Bartholomew, Miss Eva Burks, 
Miss Minnie Burks, Miss Cornelia Wieni- 
man, Miss Amelia B. Litterle, Miss Julia 
F. Litt(rle, Mrs. Rosa D. Spencer, Miss 
Mary Lakeman, Miss Sarah Diefel, Louis- 
ville, Ky. ; Mrs. W. T. Parks, Nashville, 
Tenn. ; Mrs. Helen W. McLean, Coving- 
ton, Ky.; Miss Pearl Johnson, Frankfort, 
Ky. ; Mrs. A. N. Palmer, Cedar Rapids, 
la. ; Mrs. Frankie Poland, Verona, Ky. 

The following members, unable to be 
present, emphasiztd their regrets by re- 
mittances to cover their annual dues: 

J. E. Calkins, Milledgeville. III.; L. C. 
Horton, Wilkesbarre, Pa. ; A. E. Parsons, 
Creston, la. ; C. A. Wessel, Tama, la. 

The tap of President Palmer's gavel 
called the association to order on the 

ence." This was listened to attentively by 
the members, and the after discussion was 
participated in by Messrs. Zantr. Stipp, 
Lyon, Harman, Giesscman, Goodman, Fish 
and others. QiU. Callahan's excellent 
paper will be published next month, hav- 
ing been crowded out of the present 

' ' Points in Teaching, Critical and Other- 
wise " was the subject of a paper by W. 
F. Giessemsn. Here are some of the 

It is easier to criticise than otherwise. I have 
purposely made my article on " Points in 
Teachiug " more critical than otherwise. To 
criticise in a convention like this is more difS- 
cult than to praise ; it makes one a target that 
must stand the fire of tlie whole membership. 

Care must be exercised on the part of the 
student to produce legible, good forms. In 
the howl for monement and speed, anything 

called good business writing, whether it can 

Palmer followed. 
The members 


experiences, opin- 
ions, etc., through 
the medium of a 
"Question Box," 
which is best 
undtrstood by re- 

of the questions 

To G, W. Harm AN.— Should we t«ach form 
ostead of movement first ? Ans.— No. 

To Enos Spencer.— How do you stop tardi- 
less ! ..ins.— We send tliem home if habitually 

To A. N. Palmer.— What cai 
for a student in penmanship t ^ 
should do the best be could. 
Spencer.— Would Palmer 

a teacher do 

n s.— Teacher 

From Enoa 

for tbemf 


tily read or not. 

ir thanks to those 
friends mentioned and 
others for courtesies ex- 

It is doubtful if a more 
enthusiastic or successful 
convention of the West, 
ern Penman's Association 
was ever held. The sec 
retary's roll showed the 
following to be in atten. 



Barllett, C M., Cincin- 

Chambers, W. V,, Louis- 

vUle. Ky. 
Champlin, Howard, Nash- 

» for tbem, praise them, scold 
lets of capitals in presence of 

To J. B. Lucket.— What 
would you do with a bad 
boy * -4ns.— Make him do 
right (write) or send hira 

To I. G. Sthunk.— What 
is good business penman- 
ship f Anit.—lh&t which 
can be executed rapidly and 
that is pleB.sant to the eye. 

To R. W. Fisher- Can 
any person use finger move- 


To H. J. Knapp.— Can a 
poor penman teach penman- 
ship successfully? Ans. — No 

ToG. W. Harsian.— How 
about the gold medal i 
Ans. — It is iu the soup. 

To W. V. Chambers.- 
What would you do with a 
giggling girli Ans.— It 
would depend upon where 

To C. P. Zaner.— Would 
you change a left-handed 
writer to a right-handed 
writer f Aii.v.— Yes, some- 

Uesmond, M. M., Joliet. III. 
Dixon, J. W.. New Castle, Ky. 
Evans, Samuel, Williamstown. Ky. 
Faust, C. A., Galesbm-g, IH. 

Goodman, Frank, Nashville. 
Harman, G. W., New Orleans. 
Hesser. J. H., Cincinnati. 
Keuuedy, W, L.. Lula, Ky. 
Knapp, H. J, Nashville. 
Kramer, Geo. W.. WLeelinK, V 

ksonville, III. 
eiinr Rapids, la. 

I. A., New York. 
Stevenson, Mary H., Cinciim 
Slipp. W. E., Bushnell, lit. 
Strunk, Ira Q , New Albany 
Stump. W. H.. Frankfort. K 
Warr. J, W..Moliue. ni. 
Webb, A. C. Nashville. 
Wright. K. J.. Louisville. 
Zaner, C P., Columbus, O. 

morning of Dec. 28. The members were 
warmly welcomed by Mr. James Farrell of 
the B. & S. College. 

Pi-csiflenI Faimn- Raps fur Order. 

The business wheel of the convention 
was started in motion by J. M. Callahan 
with a paper on "Penmanship as a Sci- 

Again,thespecial teacher who gives pei-soual 
help must have the co-operation of the other 
teachers, and good healthy position, and 
legible forms insisted upon in the bookkeep- 
ing and arithmetic work. Doing the work 
well an hour a day and wrong six will not 
produce good writers. 

Another point is against dropping other 
studies for special pemnanship, A good 
English education, especially iu spelling and 
tliB use of language, is essential to good writ- 
ing, and the young teacher must study 
methods of teaching and controlling indi- 
viduals and classes. 

In the discussion which followed many 
of the members took part. 

J. B. Luekey was the next talker. His 
subject was "Methods of Teachin^j Writ- 
inj{ to Beginning Grades in Business Col- 
leges." Ilis paper was freely illustrated. 

At the evening session the members and 
a number of visitors were regaled with an 
address on "Our Country, Our Schools 
and Our Teachers," by M. M. Desmond. 
A talk on ornamental writing by A. N. 

To W. J. MrssER.— What proportion of five- 
month pupils become good business writers ? 
Ana. — About one- 
half, in oui' schools' 

To C. A. Faust. 
—What would you 
do with a bad girli 

To Frank Good- 
MAN.— Should boys 
and girls be taught 
the same size of 
writing /^l»i».— No, 

To S. S. Pack 
ARD. — Do you bi-' 
lieve In co-educa- 
tion, and iPso, why i 
Anit. — Doyou believe 
in the same family i 

To A. C. Webb.— Should we not have a 
Bureau or Teachers' Agency for securing posi- 
tions for teachers of penmanship ( Ana.~Ye%. 

To W. F. GiESSEMAN.— Cana finger-move- 

a having boys and girls 


10 ^ 


cJen/fum^ Q^^tCoJi^icmaL? 

To S. & Packabd.— Wijol* yoa aw «DB 
eD»r ^M.— I do. tmt woald 
priB to Um<i> m » writPTB. 

The Kcond d>j'* buiine* wm mhet^ 
Id by to eloriueut addreu by Prof. W. H. 
Btrtbuloroew, priocipftl of the Vduok 
L«di<<t High School of I>ouisrille. Mr 
Btrtbolomew Bpokc of the ii««fulD«9 of 
writiog in crjiUltiziog i<lea», re»ffinn«i 
the tUtemeot that the pen w truly greater 
thao the flword aod in)ii*t<d that bid wnl- 
log ill ao iodicitioD of pure lazioess rftlbcr 
Ihao of true grcitocM. 8. 8. Pickwd, 
whom the Ix)ui« 
T i 1 1 e papcra de- 
acribe as the 

trv, replied on be- (^ 


liair of the Ansocla >. 


tioQ Id hi« charac ~^^ 


tvriHttc wav~and ^Sfl 


■ioi'HNAi, readers "^B 


need not be told "^Bl 


that he said manr fli 


bricht thfouB which I^B 


pleaMd the " bojs" ^ 


immeDRely. He wna J. F. 

ifUk liitet to 

followed by J. M. 


witty editor of the Bimn, 


The first busiat-sa exercise of the day 
wai a preiicntatioD by W. F. Lyoo, super- 
inteodcDt of peomaoship fn the public 
("fbooU of Detroit, of hia method of teach- 
ing peomanshfp. The exposition was 
made more striking by making it an actual 
lesson, a class of pupita from the public 
Mcbooln hB%'iDg come to the coDveottOD 
hall for the purpose. The following is a 
condensattoD of Mr. Lyon's remarks pre- 
Hmionry to the lesson: 

Tlierc oro citIaIu fundamental priDciptes 
which uiKli-rUf nil ko<kI ttfoehing. 

Mere theories are worth very little. One 
(tno<l fdrn pnt Into actual proctic* Is worth a 
(lor^Q thought* on paper. Children should 
l?ftrn what they will practice in aft«r life. 
Careful hablt« should be formed and cultivated 
all througb the school life. Traioiog that is 
nystcmatixed will be felt ever afterward. Im- 
mediate results often amount to but little. 
Any present result which has not iu it that 
which tcndH to nnmetbinK in tlie future is 
worthless, and often prove.1 harmful because of 
the false improRsioQ made upon the mind of 
tlie child, 

In schools when* the sentence method is 
u<ed, the child is expected to begin writing 
sentences from the very start. The claim is 
made that the writing will improve gradually 
AS the work progresses. 

This may woik well if the teacher is a very 
careful writer and b«s n hiRb ideal of writing, 
but t<x> many are very easily satiaSt-d ; 
being poor writers 
themselves, they oc- 
cept work that is 
not good, and wbeu 
the child flnds 
that ouythiug will 
do be will do just 
enough to pass, and 
very soon he falls 
iuto carcleie habits. 

tbis i 

Section of ¥*mf. Lyon's Wnling Clnsx. 

Drill u|ion tb« lettet , then put it (ntoa word, 
tfaen put tlte word into a sentenoe. 

Tite first tbing is position, and that should be 
the " front position." because it is easiest or 
most natural 

Why does the child kink up tbe first finger i 
Uy obwrvation is that the short slate pencil i« 
the cause, bence we forbid the use of tbe short 
alat^ pencil for any purpn««e. The child rolKIhe 
hand over on the ngbt side ttecauw be takes 
bold of the pencil tio near tbe point : so we 
say take hold of tbe pencil one inch from the 
point. If the position at the desk is correct, 
with elbows out very near the comers, but 
little trouble will be experienced in getting 
the pencil to point toward the right shoulder: 
then, by rataing tbe wrist slightly from the 
paper, allowing the hand to rest on the third 
and fourth Hngers. 

A. C, Webb. .1. M. Callahan and others 
joined in tbe discuasion which followed. 
A scientific and analytical paper on pen- 
manship was read 
by C. P. Zaner, who 
showed himself to 
be one of the cloaest 
thinkers, as well as 
one of the best art- 
ists of the associa- 
G.W. Brown thtn 
I told what he knew 
about penmanship 
as applied to book- 
keepiog. He re- 
peated and erophft 
sized the good 
point made by Mr. 
Packard at a recent 
B. E. A. meeting, 
that a'l tiacbers in 
a commercial col 
lege should be ca- 
pable of instructinj 
in peDmaosbip. whether they are profes- 
sional "pen artiata" or not. Messrs. 
Packard, H. A. Spencer, Fish, Ilarman, 
Luckey and others gave their views on the 
point in question. 

nd was In every sense a big-bearted. liberal- 
linded Christian gentleman. 
Nowhere outside of his family circle will he 
be mis»d more than at the annual meetings of 

a engmssod copy of these 

' of , 

C. Bpt!ttc 

itions of 8 

At this juncture res 
and condolence at the death of the veteran 
worker, Henry C. Spencer, were read, and 
many members feelingly testified to the 
love and respect in which Prof. Spencer 
had always been held. The resolutions 
referred to were as follows- 

Whereas, It fans ple.a«ed tbe All-Wise 
Ruler to remove from araonc us our beloved 
brother and co-worker. Prof. Henry C. 
Spencer of Washington. D. C. 

Resolvkd, That while we bow in meekness 
til the Htroke, yet we feel that we hove each 
!i pergonal friend— One whose pres- 



When the 
cbildrcn w«Te in the 
first year they wa-e 
allowed tu write 

onn way. and tbat 
" -^way slays by them 
— thrcugh the whole 

M,. /.y,.,. f,Mv., W., T»IK. indefinitely. 

The foundation atones of all good writing 
are the >tnught line, thirteen short letters, and 
tbe loops. When these are properly learned 
the child will write any letter of the small al- 
phabet with tittle dilBcultT. 

Movement alnne is Hke a machine out of 
gear. It runs on and on. but accomplishis 
nothing. Movement to l»e effecli 
coimtvtnl to definite f'lrm— i. c. ihere 
in tbe mind a definite ideal. 

With young children the development 
l*e gradual, the system very simple, 
unifonn. Our tbeories must be adapted 1 
clans and number of cbiMien. 

Badi step must Imd naturally up 
next. Si.) tttat tbe child passes from tbe 
lo the unknown without rMtliiing that be 
made a c^iange. 

He was not only a leader in bis profession, 
)ut was in the tment sense a brother to every 
■amt'st teacher. 

pew teachers could inspire students i 

a was to regard him 

& friend. Hewoswilhoutmalice, 


Resolved, That i , ^^ 

resolutions bv prewnted to his famdy iu Wash- 
ington. D. C.and a written copy be sent to 
each of his brothers. 

G. E. Nellleton addressed the ^Vseocia- 
lion on advanced penmanship in business 
colleges. laying 
much stress on 
training tbe eye 
to study the 

Mechanical ap- 
pliances for se- 
curing correct 

commented upon 
by W U. Car- 

as the patentee 

of one of the 

moat popular of Sicretary NftflrtMn fi>ii> 

these devices. *" '"'^• 

'* Business Figures" was the subject of 
a paper by C. T. Smith, who handled it 
in a business like manner. 

At the evening session Mr. Packard en- 
tertained the convention with the story of 
his early e.xperiencea, as a penmanship 
teacher, which have so much of interest to 
the fraternity at large that we de\ote a 
considerable space further on in Ibis i^s le 
to presenting them in full. 

Mr. Warr described the evolulioos of 
tbe ])en in his usual humorous style. Tbe 
session closed with an "experience meet 
ing," in which many of the members re 
counted observations and incidents hu 
morous, thrilling, wise and otherwise 

At the Wednesday morning sessioii tl 
attention of the members was held by i 
e.\position of the 
elements of draw- 
ing by Howard 
Champlin. La- 
ter in the day Mr. 
Champlin also 

"Supervision of 
Pc nmanahip in 
Public SchoolB," 
demon st rating 
the utility of the 
spe<^ial teacher. 
O. W. Ilarman 
and W. F. Lyon 
gave interesting "'^^^ 

penmanship talks *"■ ^- ^""'*- 

and lessons. An effective illustrated lec- 
ture on movement, etc., was given by 
H. A. fipencer. The convention then ad- 
journed to accept the hospitalities of the 

Commenual Club, which *ere bountifuUj 
exieoded. Tbe members tbcn came un- 
der the eye of a local photogrtpber's cam- 
era, with the result shown in the central 
illustration on tbe preceding page. 

"Pen Drawing" was the subject of a 
paper and lecture at the afternooD seMton 
by A. C. Webb, who used the blackboard 
freely for purpoites of illustration, and as- 
tonished the member«i with bis quickness 
and precision. 

Handling mixed penmanAhip in public 
tchoola was treated I y O. W. Ilarman io a 
way to show 

The penmen then fell into i 
of the World's Fair and the importance of 
being well represented there, most of the 
members taking part in the discussion. 
This matter, it maybe remembered, waa 
discussed ut tbe previous convention New 
committees to further the interest of the 
fraternity in preparing a aatiafactory ex- 
hibit were appointed by President Palmer, 
as follows : 

Southern Sfet!on.—A.. C. Webb, Nash- 
ville, Tenn.. chairman; G. W. Harman. 
New Orlciins; (;. W. Ware. Dallas, Texaa. 

Ea»t./;rn Section.— X. H. Hinmao, Wor- 
cester, Mass., chairman; W. E. Deonis, 
Brooklyn (with authority to choose a third 

Wes'rrn Section.— V'iC\diog Schofield, 
San Francisco, chairman; C. L. Stnbbs, 
Portland, Ore. (with authority to choose a 
third member). The original committee 
having the matter in charge and consisting 
of A. N. Palmer, G. E. Nettleton and I. 
W. Pieraon was continued in authority. 
The chairman was instructed to confer 
with the Executive Committees of the B. 
E. A. of A. and the Pacific B. E. A., with 
a view to arranging a consolidated exhibit. 

At the evening session C. A. Fauat, the 
well-known "automatic" penman, talked 
about that 

iedby rhetorical selections well 

"^Cye/imanA Q7lAjtyQjvwuicU3 

rendered by Professor He 

New officers for the ensuing year 
elected as follows: President. W. F. 
:e president, G. E. Nettle 
ton; secretary, A. C. Webb; assistant sec- 
retary. G. \\ Harman ; trfiHurer, J. F. 
Fish. Executive Committee, C. P. Zi 

, Frank Goodman (with author 
ity to choose another) 

'itations for the holding of 
the convention at difl-reiit point? were 
received, but the prize went to Columbus, 
Ohio, by a large majority. The time of 
meeting will be at the close of the year, as 

Leaves Fpom the Book of a 
Writing Master That Was. 


^^ , . . u .• Head before thp. Cotivenlion of the Wes 

The JoDRNAi. sent to the convention a p,„„,,„., Ass>-clotw,>, Lonisvile, 

large blackboard upun which various />^ 29, 1891. 

members wrote their authographs with ^^ p 

— hut becni 

It seems to me but jefeterday, and yet 
I am forced to acknowledge that it is 
nearly fifty yeais since I first tried to teach 
writing. 1 am sorry to have to make this 
confession, not that I am ashamed of 
growing old— for everybody ia doing that 
ght, by this time, to be 
a better wiiting master 

Thin Sketch, Oy A. L. Hickok; Show* 
How the " Onp" Prevented One 
Penman from Attending the Con- 

ohalk. These autograi'hs as they appear 
on the board, vary from one to two feet 
in length. Such "copy," as may well be 
imagined, is not best adapted for purposes 
of plate reproduttion and it was with con- 
siderable difliculty that we were enabled 
to get the accompanying reduced fac- 
Himitf. It is, however, a precise ./af-»/Mi7tf 
from the original work, and has not been 
redrawn or changed in any respect. When 
it is borne in mind that this is not a re- 
production from nicely drawn or written 
pen lines, but that the originals were of 
lari^e size, as stated, and with the natural 
roughness of chalk lines, no one, we think, 
will quesliun the skill of the writers. 

several timw. At Inst one oC tbe profe-isors, 
urowins; impatient, thnndered out, " Why, 
you cannot quote a siugle passage of Scrip't- 

"Yes, I can," exclaimed the candidate. 
'* I just happen to remember a i>as9itge in 
Revelation. • And I lifted up my eyes and 
beheldfour great beasts '.' — " Dresdtnfr An- 


twenty - five - year - old 
boys who surround me 
can give rac points, oot 
only in teaching, but in 
executing penmanship, 
and the regret I have 
for my own shortcom- 
ing is about evenly bal- 
anced by my pride in 
and admiration for the better work that 
others are doing. 

I taught writing before I had heard of 
Spencer, ai'd before the word "Spence- 
rian " had been used as applicable to a 
system of penmanship; and yet, the style 
of writing that was taught in those days — 
so far as the small letters are concerned — 
was quite similar to what we know as the 
Spencerian style. It was called *' semi- 
angular," and was written with the com- 
bination of tbe forearm and fingers. It 
was known as the "Carstairian system," 
and many of the exercises for forearm and 
fingers were precisely what is practiced to- 
day, engraved in copy books and slips, 
and paraded upon the blackboard by our 
best teachers. 

My tirst writing lessons were received 
from my father when I was seven years 
old. and the first copy I can remember was 
a lesson in morals as well as in penman- 
ship. This was it: " Foolishness is bound 

up in the heart of a child, but the rod of 
correction will drive it far from him." 

I was made quite familiar with the " rod 
of correction," I am sorry to say, but it 
did not diive the "foolishness" far from 

My first writing-master was a Baptist 
minister of the name of Barlow, from 
whom, also, I got my religion. I think, 
however, I got more good out of the writ- 
ing than I did out o f the religion. At any 
rate, I practiced it more, and the improve- 
ment was more perceptible. Nevertheless, 
when I got older I not only taught writ- 
ing, but led in prayer meetings and 
pitched the tunes for the choir. 

Jlr. Barlow's writing was like copper- 
plate. The lessons were given by candle 
light and the books were taken by the 
teacher who set the copies during the day. 
This man was a brother of J. H. Barlow, 
the venerable pen-artist who died in New 
Yoik but a few days ago. I remember J. 
H. as a dapper young man with bright 
eyes and curly hair, who used to astonish 
US boys with his womlrous peu gymnastics. 
He was one of the early birds who could 
execute a flying eagle or a spouting whale 
without lifting pfn from paper, A few 
years later, Knapp »& Rightmeyer of New 
York published a book filled with these 
rra/.y curlicues, and called it the highest 
achievement in pen art. 

The luevt'able lirelve-I.eason Meuayerh' 

My next teacher was a traveling show 
man by the name of Shull. ■ I call him a 
" traveling showman " because he traveled 
and got up IS-leseoD writing classes, ex- 
hibiting a menagerie of animals and birds 
in red and blue ink, "all done with a 
quill pen," which he took great care to 

post CD the walls of the public room of tbe 
village tavern. Tbe artifice was always 
successful, as, aided by a glib tongue and a 
knowledge of human nature, he had no 
difficulty in drumming up big classes and 
getting out of town at the end of a fort- 
night or so. with a pocketful of money. 
But be always left behind him a certain 
achievement in the art, and a spirit of 
competition among tbe boys and girts 
usually resulting in permanent improve- 
ment. He was the first writing-master 
I had ever known who practiced and 
taught the whole arm movement, and be 
did it with a vengeance. It was this de- 
vice that captivated his students and en- 
abled them to achieve so much in so brief 
a fcpace. He used some of the Carstairian 
exercises, but had a more sweeping way 
of enforcing them. 

It must be remembered that this was 
before steel pens were in common use. In 
fact, I doubt if at this period I had ever 
seen a steel pen. A few years after, I re- 
member seeing cards of Gillott pens, 18 
on a card, which sold for 25 cents. Kvent- 
ually, I was able to buy one of these cards, 
and as the pens grew sharp and scratchy. 
I used to grind them carefully on a hone 
to produce a better point. Thus, a card 
of pens would last me a good while. But 
the quill pen was in general use, with 
writing teachers and everybody else, un- 
til about 1848, when " Gillott's 303'' 
began to be generally known, and to be 
accessible in boxes at a lower than tbe 

A Itiff 

I began my teaching of writing as a 
regular professor early in the year 1843. 
My first school was in Eden, Delaware 
County, Ohio, where I taught a course of 
fifteen lessons at fifty cents a scholar- 
payable in wheat. After gathering in my 
wheat and paying my board I bad left 
$3.75, which was the largest sum of money 
I had ever owned. It was all in silver, and 
seemed to load my pockets down. But I 
got rid of it all in a eommendabty short 
time, spending it mostly for powder and 
shot and percussion caps. I was a great 
squirrel hunter, and would be now if there 
were any fquirrels to hunt. 

The apparent success of this first effort 
decided me to make the teaching of writ- 
ing my profession, and 1 set to work to 
equip mjself. I prepared a dozen speci- 
mens of such ornamental writing as I was 
equal to, framed Item wiih ray own hands, 
made a box that would hold them, with a 
strap to go over mj shoulder, and shaking 
the dust of home from my sandals, started 
on foot and alone to meet my destiny. 

Having gone ihree miles to a small 
town without getting a lift on the way, as 
I had expected, I found myself tired, and 
determined to stop and rai?e my first class. 
I went to the tavern and got permission to 
hang my framed specimens on the wall, 
and asked for the name of the most influ- 
ential citizen. I was directed to a doctor. 

The Above Cut is pvm a Hastij Design in my Scrapbook by J. H. Harlow. It w 
made on Scrap Paper in pi-obabty less than a minute. Some of the boys 
The Journal Ojpre had asked the old gentleman for " Specimenn," and 
had complied— datihiny thmi off with vareless swiftnem. Just as Mr. Packa 
describes. This design was one of the "Leavings" which I fished out fri 
the wftste-baskct. — D. T. A. 


.' tJcnmcmA Qytct oJi-'ui 


and went at onoe to hb offloe, and iotro* 
dadog mjKlf, unfolded my numiscript 
and mj plaoi He looked at the writing 
qQJzzio^lj aod then a«ked me U I hid 
arer feeo I>olljear'i eoffraved iTitem of 
peDina&ihip. I had oever seen aoj eo- 
grared ■jitem of [womaDiihip aod told 
him lo He went to hit library and 
haoded me down a little octaro volume 
that fairly darjiled mv with ils mignifi- 
ceocc. I aaktd him what be would take 
for the l>ook. He laid a dollar and a half. 
It waji all the monoy 1 bad, but 1 paid it 
to him and took the book, went back to 
the lavero. took down aod boxed mj 
■pecimcDfl. and left for home by the road 
I bad come. 

I Htaid at home three montbi practicing 
on copies from that book, but failing to 
e(]tuil it. I did not at that time know botr 
copies were engraved. I recovered from 
the xhock, however, and wai aoon known 
throughout our part of the Rtat« as a re- 
R]Mrctablc teacher of penmanship. 

Mrrking Frr»h FMds. 

In the fall of \fi4r, I joined fortune with 
a friend who owned a nmart pony. I 
added n pony of my own, bought a buggy 
on time, and with this outfit we started for 
Kentucky, intendlDg to travel and teach. 
We halted Gist at Pikcton, Ohio, where wo 
i|uickly raised a cImb. which I stopped to 
tcBch while my partner drove on to the 
promised land. 

I rrgrct that it is foreign to the purpose 
of my paper to tipeak with some particu- 
larity of this writing school at Piketou, 
for it was (juitc an ovcnt in my life, I 
miidc the acquaintance of Sam Pike, who 
wa.H afterward well known in Kentucky 
as the editor of the FlrmiiuiKburgh Flag, 
and later of the Kmfufh/ Flmj, at Mays- 
ville. His paper here wah the Piketmian, 
which he delighted to say was published 
by Sam Pike, at Pikcton, I*ike County, 
nltuiited on the turnpike tuid on \hc banks 
of the Scioto River, which abounded in 
pike. This Sam Pike was a queer fish, 
and had the distinguished honor of pub- 
lishing more Democratic newspajiers in 
more places than any other living Ameri- 
can. I think his last pajicr was the7*(/y(^;- 
i/rii/>h, publinhed at Bloomington, III. 
Stinic newspaper once inquired, "Who is 
IbiH Sam Pike f Where is he from ?" To 
which the Maysville /i*rty/r replied, "He 
is Irooi everywhere except Maysville, and 
will (*oon be from here." Pike took a 
groat interest in nie, and puffed me to the 
nkies. He sent his »od to my school, and 
offered mo his daughter in marriage with 
n partnership in hfs bustmsi). He. in fact, 
installed me as editor for a day, and I here 
wrote my first editorial, corrected my first 
proof, and saw a newspaper go to preis for 
the tirst time. I have with me a letter of 
recommendation he gave me, which is 
quite a curiosity in its way, and which I 
have carried and prized foi more than 40 

Our first Kentucky school was got to- 
sether in the little town of Mooreficld. 
Nicholas County. It was taught in n log 
scboolhouse, with the desks held against 
the wall by atakcs driven icto the togtt— 
the seats were made of split and hewn 
loga, and the eirls of the finest quality of 
flesh and blood. I speak of the girls par- 
ticularly because they arc first in my mind 
as I look back u)ton that delightful expe- 
rience. And I have yet another reason. 
A* you all know, everylwdy in Kentucky 
rides on horseback; and the girls in par- 
ticular. They came thus to the school. 
and I was not long in tinding out that it 
was the school -maaier's religious duty 
after the lessons were over to help some 
of them to their saddles. This was a new 
exnerience to me, but I was more than de- 
lighteil to undertake it, and if I had used 
the precaution which in liter life I have 
found so convenient at times, I might have 
escaped a blunder which it took me a long 
time to outlive. In leading my first lady's 
horse up to the mounting- block I pre- 
sented to her the wrong side of the saddle 
She very quietly said to me that she 
would need a ladder to get over the horns 
But I never got over them! They were 
"■eo worse than the "horns of a di- 
lemma." I revrraed the horse and got the 

girl OB, but the jfers of the yonag men 
were more penisttot than kind. 

Prom Moorefield I went to the county 
town of Carlisle, and iooo bad a flourish 
ing class working on the " whole-arm 
movement." I had a strange experience 
here, which has nothing to do with teach- 
ing writing, but is an interesting episode 
in the life of a writing master. I was a 
smoker, of a mild type, in those days, and 
1 found it generally advantageous to keep 
at hand a good supply of cigars. 1 don*t 
know now how it happened, but in buy- 
ing cigar* on one occasion I put them 
temporarily in my bat. Shortly after I 
met a young gentleman who wished to in- 
troduce me to a la<ly teacher; and we went 
together to the school. We stepped at 
once into the school-room, and my friend 
went through the preliminary form of in- 
troduction. I lifted my hat without 
thinking of its contents, and & dozen Ken- 
tucky cigars clattered on the floor. The 
natural politcnem of the lady induced her 
to stoop in order to pick them up. 1 was 
even more suddenly seized with a similar 
impulse, and our two heads came together 
with a crash. It was an object lesson 
which was not lout on the school nor on 
me, and it put a kind of restraint on my 
iiflcr ac4|umiitancc with the lady, coupled 
with a good deal of cmbarra^snient. But 
it had one good effect; it cured me of the 
smoking hiiblt. I van now go into the 
presence of ladies without suffering the 
mconvenience of leaving my cigar at the 
door or apologizing for a bad breath; and 
better than all, I can easily resist the 
temptation of making myself a nuisance 
and a boor by smoking in the presence of 
people to whom it is an offense. 

I cannot say that I ever liked to teach 
penmanship, nor that I was particularly 
successful as a teacher. I do not doubt 
that I was a fair average teacher, but that 
is saying very little for those days. There 
was little or no trouble about my writing. 
It was smooth as to shades, even as to 
spacing, and not at all bad as to form. 
And then it had a variety in it not pos- 
sessed by the regulation penmanship of 
the present day. One of the chief attrac- 
tions presented by the writing teacheis of 
that time was the ability to write a dozen 
or more different "hands." There was 
the "commercial hand," the "Italian 
hand " (which the boy asketl to have ud 
ministered to him when being whipped— 
"heavy stroke up and light stroke 
down")— the "back hand." the "drag 
hand," with a lateral connecting stroke 
running heavily along the base line, and 
various other hands which I need not 
enumerate. It was a great achievement to 
do these various styles, and the love letter 
that bad the most of them in was the most 
apt to catch the unsophisticated girl. 

There is andther distinction which I 
wish to claim for myself, as it belongs to 
me. I was the first teacher of penman- 
ship, as fuch, who ever gave instruction 
in a commercial school. A friend of mine 
from Kentucky had gone to Cincinnati to 
reside, and was attending Bartlett's Com- 
mtrcial College, which is generally con- 
ceded to have been the first commercial 
college in the country. I wrote to this 
friend, and he showed my letter to Bart- 
lett, who was so well pleased with the 
style that he at once offered me what I 
considered a muniticent salary— viz., $300 
a year — to come and teach for him, I was 
then conducting a private school in Clarke 
County, but it did not take me long to 
close it up and emigrate to the big city. 
I sold my saddle hoise and various belong- 
ings, and posted on the school-house door: 
" Gone to Cincinnati." 

I took up my labors at Bartlett's on the 
1st of January, 1848. and for a little more 
than two years I astonished the people of 
that city with my undisputed gifu as a 
teacher of penmanship and a rare artist. 
Bartlett was a man of great individuality 
of character, and he stood up for himself 
and his school against all comers. He was 
a great fighter, too, and the columns upon 
columns of controversy which he held 
through the newspapers with his competi- 
tors made interesting reading. His prin- 
cipal antagonists were Gundry & Bacon, 
wno had a " mercantile college ' at Fifth 
and Walnut sirecta. Bacon nad b^en a 
teacher for Bartlett, and, as Bartlett 
charged, bad stolen his manuscript course, 
while Gundry bad been a pupifof P. r! 
Spencer, and was thus a competitor of 
mine. The rclaiicna between Gundry and 
mjself, howtvcr, were very pleasant; 
though the acquaintanceship had to be 
curicd on. on my part, surreptitiously. 
The first blackl>oard illustmtio'n of pen- 
manship I ever saw was in Gundrv's writ- 
ing class. He was too lazy to teach much, 
but he was a good penman and a man of 
intellectual force. He and Bacon sepa- 
rated, and aft«rward Gundrv's College had 

a fitful existence until his death, some ten 
or fifteen year* ago. I caught some new ideas 
of Gundry as to the conducting of classes 
in penmanship, and used them to the 
extent of my ltmitc<l ability. It was not 
until years afterward, when I had met P. 
K. Spencer and James W. Lu«k — especially 
Lusk — that I learned to know what power 
there was in a piece of chalk. 

SprHCf^r onrf Luak. 

Piatt R Spencer will live forever in the 
memory of the world — not only as an 
author of practical and practicable penman- 
ship, but as a teacher of rare skill and 
efficiency; and the unexampled following 
which h.! has had in bin five sons, begin- 
ning with Rot>ert and ending with Lyman, 
leavca the name and fame of Spencer 
secure; but no one who knew James W. 
Lusk can ever fail to give him a prominent, 
if not the most prominent, place among 
all the early lieutenants of the great author. 
Lusk was a man of wonderful physique, 
and of fine personal presence. He was six 
feet two in hi:t stockings, solidly built, 
with thick black hair, distinctly marked 
eyebrows, and keen, piercing blue eyes. 
His voice vm phenomenal. Not only 
deep and musical was it, but soft, floxible 
and pervading to such an extent that its 
most ordinary tones could be distinctly 
heard in any part of the largest classroom. 
There was, besides, a sort of solemnity in 
its cadences, as there was also in his 
manner, which not only commanded atten- 
tion, but suggested prompt obedience, so 
that his slightest word was always heeded. 
There wan about him, too, an affectation 
of self depreciation which put him on a 
plane with his students, thus helping them 
to condone their own faults, and to over- 
come them without loss of self respect. 
There was at times, however, an under- 
lying snrcasm in this uncalled-for modesty 
which cut deep. I was ouce a victim to 
it. I asked him to visit a country writing 
school which I was conducting a short 
distance from Buffalo, in order to decide a 
contest for greatest improvement. lie 
came, and I invited him to address the 
class and their aaseinhled friends. He 
stepped to the blackboard, lookup a piece 
of chalk, and began his talk. Assuming 
that he was going over the cround that I 
had gone over, he revieweu the lessons 
that I should have taught — but didn't, and 
gave the pupils more instruction in half an 
hour than I had given them during their 
entire course. It was a terrible rebuke to 
me, but a profitable lesson, all the same; 
and if it was meant to humiliate me, I 
pocketed the insult and respected the 

lout combination of cunrea, and iiutituted 
what he styled the " Boston Longwharf 
whiplash curve." starting without a pre- 
liminary circle, turning with a round 
sweep at the top and coming down to the 
finish with a single curve, the J always 
parsing below the line and resembling a 
driving whip in .repose, the lash being a 
continuation of the stock This was the 
one lesson for practice which the old pro- 
fessor constantly placed before his pupils, 
his theory being tnat nboever coula make 
a "Boston Longwharf " J with a proper 
swinging movement could make anything, 
and was. necessarily, a good writer. While 
in the Lockport school I received a call 
from Mr. Lusk, who was then settiuc the 
Western Reserve on fire with enthusiasm 
for good writing. I fhowcd him the 
"Boston Longwharf" J. It caught his 
fancy at once and soon afterward became 
the standatd J of Spem erian penmanship. 
A great innovation in the teaching of 
writing was the publication of engraved 
lines as copies at the top of the writing 
book. This departure was instituted by 
Mr. Spencer, in the ci'y of Buffalo, about 
the year 1858. The first copies of this 
kind were engraved on copper by Mr. 
Compton of that ciiy. and published by 
Phinney A Co. I think it would afford food 
for reflection if some of our gushing peo- 
men of the West, who tiro out the photo- 
engravers, could lay their hands on some 
of these books and find out what was 
being done for them before they were 

The first real interpreter of Spencerian 
penmanship in engraved copy lines waa 
Archibald McLees of New York, who on- 
graved on steel and had his work trans* 
ferred to stone. He needs no introduction 
to the progressive penmen of this Associa- 
tion, for his work is familiar to you all. 

,■1 Flirty' Ytar Rrtrotpeft—Honn- of tht 

of tk« •• Bot 

In the fall of 1851 I removed from 
Michigan, where for two years I had been 
disastrously fighting malarious fevers, and 

Thr first J nbovci 

of fh. 

opened the commercial department of the 
Union School, at Lockport, N. Y. Here 
I found old "ProfcfBor Hurlburt," who 
had been teaching writing for twenty 
years and had filled the town with good 
penmen. He practiced a system which he 
calleil the "Boston Longwharf." It was 
a rapid, swinging hand, and had as a trade- 
mark the present Spencerian capital J. If 
any of you are curious enough to lookup 
the evolution of Spencerian penmanship 
you will find that the exigencies of en- 
graved copy lines have had much to do 
with important departures from the origi- 
nal style of the author. The greatest 
changes have come in the capital lettera, 
which have not only liecn simplified but 
beautified and made practical. The top 
of the capital J and I, for instance, in the 
original Spencerian was a study and a 
curiosity. It began with a circle to the 
right, passing thence with a prolonged 
curve to the top. where a sharp turn was 
made, the downward movement for the 
stem passing through the center of the 
circle and finishing with a compound 
curve. Both I and J usually rested on 
the line, the difference being in the wider 
sweep of the tenniuating oval of the J. 
Professor Hurlburt ridiculed this anoma- 

Since receivinfj your kind invitation to 
be present at this convention of writing 
teachers, I have been wondering what 
would have been the result of an attempt 
to bring together the Knights of the Quill 
forty years ago. In the tirst place, of 
course, there would not have been enou'^h 
of Ibem to run a convention, but boyond 
that there would have been scarcely on 
inch of common ground on which to stood. 
•It IS dillicult for you who have been in the 
habit of comparing notes on methods of 
teaching, as well a.^ upon the canons of 
excellence in your art, to appreciate the 
dithculty of which I speak. With the 
introduction of Spencerian penmanship, 
and especially with the use of the black- 
board in elucidating the principles of the 
art, there came a new life and dignily into 
the business of teaching writing. Up to 
that time there was very little draft upon 
the intellect. The most that any teacher 
was expected to do was to set a copy and 
tell the boys to beat it if they could. Mr. 
Spencer was one of the first teachers to re- 
duce instruction to a science; and the 
necessity of having fixed forms and rules 
in the production of engraved copv lines 
required serious thought and considerable 
consultation, and has resulted in the 
changes to which I have alluded in the 
forms of some of the letters. 

So far as I know, the first teacher who 

depended entirely upon the blackboard for 

of the old school timl copies was John D. Williams, and this he 

nuhn-ih A r,irU,ti,.n „„8 fo^j.^d t^ do from the inability to uae 

, " ',, "i 'i,'",, his fingers in writing. Owing to a casu- 

"/':■' ■■■'..■:/ .i"j,„/c altyin 18.5 a the thumb of his right hand 
' ■!■' "/ ' 77ir became entirely useless, except to bold the 

''' " '"' /'"<"" pen while using the whole arm. Thisdif- 

""'""' ■'• ficulty threw him entirely upon this move- 

ment, and may account in some measure 
for his eminent succens in off-hand flour- 
ishing. In fact, as I remember, there 
were comparatively few among the emi- 
nent teachers twenty-five years ago whose 
ordinary writing would pass muster. Mr. 
Spencer himself was a rare artist with the 
pen, but he wrote with great care aod de- 
liberation. His flourished work was gen- 
erally traced with a pencil and filled in 
carefully. Mr. Lusk was a man of such 
steady muHCulor power, and was so careful 
in bis babiiBof living, that he never wrote 
poorly. He did comparatively little 
blackboard work, except in the way of 

with copy slips written by i 
It. C. Spencer, who baa always been 
known as one of the best business writers 
of the country, never wrote differently 
from what he does now. He never as- 
pired to the fine arts of penmanship, but 
has always stood as about the beat ex- 
emplar ol slrooe bu*incss writing. 

Mr. E. G. Kolsoin, who early dropped 
out of the pcumaniihip work, was a co- 
ttniporary with Lusk and Spenrcr, and 
waa, in most respects, a fine teacher. 
Neither has his hand forgotten its cunning 
to the present day. Mr. Folsom deaerres 
more than a paasing notice. He was al- 





ways a marked man ia his profession — al- 
ways an enthusiast and always a gentle- 
man. In bis famous fight with Bryant & 
StrattoD, in Cleveland, 1853 and 1854, he 
carried a good many guns and knew bow 
to load tbem. He may aometimeg have 
got to the wrong end of the gun, but not 
often, and his explosions were frequent 
and loud. Among the new ideas which 
he brought into play at that time was the 
use of the metronome in teaching writing. 
With this instrument be created quite a 
furor not only in bis own classes, but in 
the public schools of Cleveland. His 
methods were adopted to some extent 
throughout the country, and were pro- 
ductive of great good. 

One of the best, mo3t faithful and most 
methodical of the writing teachers of 
thirty five years ago was Warren P. Spen- 
cer, then of Buffalo, now many years dead 
— a nephew of the great author. There 
was nothing really artistic about his work, 
but it was always acceptable, and the 
fidelity which attended his teaching never 
failed to produce the best results. There 
are teachers of penmanship and heads of 
business colleges to-day who owe a great 
debt of gratitude and love to Warren P. 

A stately figure in this panorama is 
Victor M. Rice of Buffalo, who became 
the first Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion in the SUte. To know this man was 
an ediicatiou in itself. When I made hia 
acquaintance he was probably filty years 
of age, and was portly and jolly to a de- 
gree possessed by few men. As a young 
man he bad had a hard tussle with the 
problems of life, and never quite got the 
upper hand, lie had won the heart of the 
great Spencerian author, however, who 
made bim a special favorite and was repaid 
with a love and devotion rarely equaled 
among men. In his younger days he was 
a good penman and an excellent teacher, 
but when I first knew him adipose tissue 
and a natural inclination to let other 
people do the hard work bad somewhat 
dulled the edge of bis achievements. But 
he was always a splendid critic of penman- 
ship and a friend to everybody. 

George W. Eastman of Rochester was a 
dashing Spencerian penman and a unique 
character. Together with Mr, Levi Ful- 
ton, a teacher of bookkeeping, he estab- 
lished a commercial department in the 
Union School at Lyons. N. Y., and here 
the first attempt was made to institute 
what in later years has been known as 
"actual business" in the teaching of 

I have not the space for a complete list 
of the Spencerian experts of thirty years 
ago, but I must not leave out the names 
of W. P. Cooper, B. M. Worthington, J. 
V. B. Chapman, Delvin R. Brown, the 
famous artist of the Lord's Prayer, and 
Isaac Bates, who believed in plenty of ink, 
heroically laid on, and gloated in speci- 
mens ten feet square, never forgetting the 
imposing effect upon the youth of the 
land of " St. George and the Dragon." 

And I should be outraging history 
did 1 forget to mention asamonijtbeprod- 
nets of Mr. Spencer's teaching art H. D. 
Slrattoo, the great projector of business 
colleges. Mr Stratton's most indulgent 
friends never considered him a brilliant 

writer, and I have sometimes thought he 
bad serious doubts on the subject him- 
self. But what he lacked in artistic skill 
he made up in pervasiveness and the fac 
ulty to see improvement in his pupils not 
porceptible to the ordinary eye. He was a 
pilgrim to the log cabin shrine at Geneva, 
and, having received his diploma, started 
for Boston to dust Comer's coat. And, ac- 
cording to his own account, he did it. At 
any rate he got up some writing classes in 
the suburbs of Boston, where it is gener- 
ally believed that he evolved out of his 
inner consciousness that famous measure 
of the writing unit, the " Bos' on X." 
This is ahout tha way the great '^Boston 
X " lool-ed when enjoying 
good health. Most people 
would take it for an H. Mr. 
Stratton used it as a unit of 
ftpaee. The M, for instance, 
he called a one-and-one-Iialf 
space Utter^that is, it should occupy jvat 
half again as riiwJi late-i'al space as the X. 
Stratton died in 1867, find I supposed I 
had bidden bim a last adieu on this earth 
Whether I was right in my conjecture I 
leave you to judge. 

In the spring of 1870 I had occasion to 
call with a friend on the far famed spirit- 
medium Charles Foster. I had no purpose 
to serve of my own. but I had experienced 
a recent turn in my affairs which gave me 
great uneasiness, and doubtless this was 
more or less in my mind as I entered the 
room. I had never seen Foster, aud I 
much doubt if he had ever even heard of 
me. I bad no sooner crossed the threshold, 
however, than the medium exclaimed, 
"Mr. Packard, there are hosts of friends 
attending you, and one of tbem requests 
me to say that you are having unnecessary 
anxiety about your business. He aays the 
thing you have decided to do is the right 
thing, and you are to succeed, only don't 

Well, you can imagine I was intereated 
in this statement, aud I said : "Who is this 
kind and wise friend '{ What is bis name 'i " 
The medium replied, "He is a tall, 
spare man with sunken cheeks and rather 
high cheek bones. He says he died three 
years ago of consumption." 
"What is his name?" 
"He says he will tell you his name, 
though you ought to know without," and 
with that he took up his alphabet card 
and began to go over the letters. "No, 
no, he says this is too slow a method. He 
will write it for you." And with that the 
medium seized a pen and wrote with great 
speed, "All right, Silas, you are on the 
right track. Go ahead. H. D. Stratton." 
I don't know bow much I imagined, but 
I thought I recognized Stratton's hand- 
writing. The signature, however, showed 
that he had either been practising too 
much or too little in hia new life, or else 
had taken on some new ideas. I made 
one more essay, though I felt that it was 
venturesome, and I wrote: "Do you have 
any use in Heaven for the Boston X?" 
To this I got DO reply, and am still in 
doubt as to the perpetuation of Spencerian 
penmanship according to Stratton on the 
other side. 

It would be scarcely fair in me to close 
these reminiscences of the eminent penmen 
of the past without mentioning a few who 
stood outside of the Spencerian coterie. 
Among these was J. H. Barlow, to whom 

I have alluded, aud cvho was an excellent 
exponent of the Carstairian system, but 
whose modesty and lack of business 
acumen kept him always in the back- 
ground. Some of his artistic pen work 
has within the last few years appeared in 
The Penman's Art Journal, and most 
of you are familiar with it. 

Among the most self assertive and per- 
vading penmen of forty years ago was 
Oliver B. Goldsmith, wb-i lived and 
flourished in the great city of New York, 
and was the author of an ambitious book 
entitled "Gems of Penmanship." I re- 
member well when this book first came 
into my hands, in 1849. What attracttd 
me most in it was the engraved picture of 
the author, who styled himself "The 
Great American Penman." I have even 
now a sense of the reverence with which I 
gazed at that picture and the wuuder 
which came into my heart if in my future 
life I should have the distinguished honor 
of knowing this great man, who. it seemed 
to me, was the most distinguished and 
worthy of all the great citizens of the 
metropolis. Mr. Goldsmith was never, in 
any fair sense, a pen-artist or a teacher of 
peomanship. He was a courtly gentleman 
in appearance, aud seemed always to feel 
that the world was under great obligation 
to him for coming into it. He prided 
himself, principally, upon the fact that 
many of the most eminent men of the day 
were pupils of his, and in his latter days 
so presumed upon this fact as to imagine 
that they were still under his instruction, 
with unpaid tuition bills, which he period- 
ically presented, and in many cases was 
successful in collecting. He might prop- 
erly be called a peripatetic teacher, for, 
although he never left the city of New 
York, he rarely stayed three months in a 
place. He acted upon the common saying 
that " it is cheaper to move thau to pay 

When I was teaching for Bartlett there 
came into his office one day a dapper and 
florid gentleman of thirty-five, with curly 

capable of coping with the best in the 
land. He fairly captivated Mr. Bartlett 
with bis tact and eloquence, and without 
consulting me, my astute employer paid 
this charlatan $'35 for giving me three 
days' instruction in pen evolution. I sup- 
pose I must have taken the instruction, 
but I have no record of the results. 

The nuntonian Author. 

Among the teachers of the olden time 
should be meutioned A. R. Dunton of 
Boston. I did not have the good Torture 
to kaow Mr. Dunton in his prime, but in 
the later years of his life I got to know him 
somewhat intimately, not only as a rare 
teacher and exponent of penmanship, but 
as a genial gentleman and a man of great 
intellectual force. Dunton was the author 
of " Duntonian " penmanship, and one of 
the strong competitors of the Spencerian 
2') years ago. He did very much to sys- 
tematize foim in engraved copies, and the 
sharp contest which was waged between 
the Spencerian and "P. D. & S." copy- 
books did much to bring the whole system 
of writing, as practiced in the public 
schools, into harmonious relations. As an 
expert oenman, A. R. Dunton had few 

And speaking of expert penmen, it 
would be more than invidious to leave out 
of our list D. T. Ames of New York, the 
well-known publisher of Thb Penman's 
Art Jodrnal. Ames was one of the first 
exponents of Duntonian penmanship, and 
early in his professional career took to pen 
drawing and general oroamental writing, 
which he has pursued in New York with 
distinguished success for nearly thirty 
years. His fame, however, rests mainly 
upon bis skill in detecting forgery. He 
has, probably, been employed as chief 
witness in more important law cases turn- 
ing upon the detection of forgery than any 
other man of the present time; and he is 
almost uniformly on the winning side; 
which is to be accounted for mainly by the 
fact that he never accepts a retainer against 
his private judgment as to the justice of 
the side for which he appears. 

The above is an example of Old Spencerian Penmanship. It is Photo-engraved direct from 
the Old Spencerian Compendium, published in 1857. Reduced in size about one-third 
This style is very similar in form and movement to the old Carstairian, to which Mi: 
Packard also refers. Both sf/stems arc " semi-angular^^ and succeetled the old time 
English round hand, itlnistrated above. 

xple of Spencerian Penmanship as taught to-day. 

Photo-E}igraved From Design in Knapp 
and Iiiyhtmeyer\s '' Pniman's Paradise."" 
Reduced iiboHt One-Half. 

hair, deep blue eyes, and a general air of 
owning things. He had a book under his 
prm and introduced himself as Mr. Knapp 
of New York. This book was the joint 
production of Koapp & Rightmyer, and 
he confidentially informed Mr. Bartlett 
that under his instruction I could in a very 
few days become a wonderful pen artist, 

As this is not a funeral, I do not propose 
to draw any lessons for the living from the 
livts of those who have gone before. The 
only thing I have desired to do was to 
awaken a tender consideration from that 
great army of ink-slingers, who to-day in- 
herit the earth, for those who worked 
against greater odds and under different 
skies, I want you not to forget that we 
had difficulties to surmount that do not 
come in your way, and if I can induce you 
to believe, ever so slightly, that some of 
the problems that were worked out by 
candle-light before most of you were born 
have made your own work easier, if 
not more effective, I shall be doing you a 
favor, whether Ibenefit anybody else or not. 

Some of these veteran workers of whom 
I have spoken are still among you, not as 
active, perhaps, as they were twenty or 
thirty years ago. or as you are to-day ; but, 
as you know them, you can bear witness 
with me thai they do not " lag superfluous 
on the stage." If you wish to know 
whether senility is apparent in their mus- 
cular efforts, address a respectful note to 
E. G. Folsom, R. C. Spencer, Piatt R. 
Spencer, Lyman P. Spencer, Harvey A. 
Spencer. D. T. Ames, C. R. Wells. C. C. 
CurtisB, W. H Sadler, and a dozen others 
whom I could name, and who are already 
in your minds. You will get an answer 
by return mail which you will be likely to 
{Continued on page25,last column.} 

h Jen/nan^ QJytkt oJlm ukUP 


RKADERS of tbiJ aepartmeot will be 
glad to ItDOW that J. O Wise, tbe 
ueoial and nicccisful supcmsor of pen- 
roawbip in Ibo Akron, Ohio, Public 
Schooli, ban doI fleserted us. He will 
have another bright article in an early \*- 
giie on the um of practice paper and blank 
lK)oki. and how to use them in conntc- 
lion with copybooks. Bro. Wise bait 
Ik-cd in Akron an umber of years, paininR 
annually in salary and in the estimation 
of the citizcDB ol that flouiisbiog cii J. 

SupcrvUor W. H. BelU of Alliance. 
Ohio, in an encouraging personal letter, 
says: " We are progressive here in Alii 
ancc and have a deep interest in w riling 
and drawing. I will stand by jou and do 
all I cm to advance the interesis of these 
two useful branchca." 

The Bridgeport High School is fortu- 
nate in hMving a Principal. 11. D. Simr•nd^ 
who rtalizvB the importance of, and en- 
courage*. fcuch prnctical studies as pen- 
manship and drawing, and an Afsistant 
I'rinnipal, 11. 11. Todd, who wns a pupil 
of Kibbc, constqutntly an enthusiast on 
the subject of penmanship and a good 
teacher of Ihia branch. 

Judging from Supervisor Chunipln's 
iirticle on the condition of the work in the 
public schools of Nashville (and he is not 
the man to overrate anything! much hard 
work has been done there this year. It 
rcijuirea extraordinary tact and executive 
ability for a stranger to go into a large 
city like Nashville and in so short a time 
got control of the reins as Bro. Champlin 
9cems to have done. 

Several valuable articles which we hoptd 
would appear in this iesue must go over 
until next monlh. We are very grateful 
(or the hearty support Ibis department 
has thus far received from tbe rtpresenta- 
tivctcachci!), and hope it will continue until 
vour influence may be felt throughout ihc 
public school system of Ibis country. 

Standard Capitals the Groundwork 
L'p to the fourth or lifth jtar in school 
1 would advise giving only standard ciipi 
tals. My reasons therefor are that this 
greatly i>impliflc8 tbe work of teachers and 
pupils, and iillons the latter a better 
vhnnce to learn to write a good hand. A 
Urge pcirootage of pupils leave school at 
an early age. Lot passing through the 
higher grades; and these pupils should 
all he in possession of a fair handwriting. 
To accomplish this requires systematic, 
persistent work on tbe standard forms 
Kriltcring away the practice and distract- 
ing the aim of the pupil does not give a 
good groundwork. We are not undertak- 
ing to teach shorthao *, but good Engl bh 

I'nitied or standard forms are the direct 
outrt>iuc of natural movement. The move- 
ment drills are preparing the way for Ihese 
unified capitals, by training the hand and 
arm to move easily and freely to executing 
all the natural curves of writing. The 
education in movement runs right along 
with the practice of standard forms, and 
makes tbe latter blossom right out of the 
movement. Just so loLg as plenty of 
movement practice is given to pupils the? 
will be able to launch right into tbe ctand 

ard forms, and will thereby gain a com 
mand of hand and a msslerv of form that 
can he obtained by no eccentric method. 
Tbe graceful oval of I be capital stem is a 
necessity in free movement, as tbe hand 
niturally desires to complete the curve. 
Every professional teacher knows that 
thcpe completed curves are easier of execu- 
tion than are the abbreviated or curlailcd 
letters. The latter, allhougb apparently 
simplier, require that the hand should have 
been previously well trained in completed 

There is a tendency to disintegration of 
the capital letler!<, and some of the cur- 
tailed forms look as though they had been 
struck by lightning, leaving only a few 
snags to tetl Ibe tale. A mutilated set of 
capitals in place of the standard forms is 
not a goodly heritage for our public fcbcol 
children. The- refore, give tbe pupils com- 
plete, full forms of e-apitalp, Ihatlhcy may 
have a good groundwork iu peniuHDship. 
Practicing right along on these forms will 
enable them to master all others nt a later 
period. Concentration and not dispersion 
of effort for the fiist three or four years 
will tell the story of a good handwriting 
that will stay by Ihe pupil for the rest of 
bis life, and enable him to use his iritiug 
toward earning a livieg. providing that he 
has to leave school and not complete the 

We need to keep our English script in 
good standard molds, where so many ec- 
centricities of style are being conjured up, 
and are edging their way into the public 
schools. Any pupil who could write good 
standard capitals in an easy, flowing style, 
at a fair rate nf speed might well be ex- 
cused from pjrotecbnicnl feats of penman- 
ship, lie will win his way in the bank, 
insurance oftice. counting room or wher- 
ever his services are sought by the aid of 
his good, common-senae handwriting. He 
will be required to write and not gyrate 
over tbe ledger. 

Htathdanl Varmn for Blackboard. 

*' English as the is spoken" is almost 
outrivaled by " English as she is written '" 
on the public school blackboards in too 
many instances. All laws of form, propor- 
tion, slant, spacing and shade are violated 
in the lirst, second, third and fourth de- 
grees. To lack on a little piece of indi- 
viduality to a hieroglyph seems to satisfy 
the average writing conscience. But what 
a medley for the pupils! litre will be 
fuund in the different grades all the varia- 
tioi 8 upon English script that are known 
or unknown. In the face of this black- 
board chirography, let us emphasize the 
demand for good standard forms iu copv- 
books for a good period in school to offset 
the corrupt blackboard styles. Let the 
copybooks once ruu loose from standard 
forms and the chances are that standard 
writing will become a lost ait. 

Jnaividuatity ra. laiotynrraay. 

Remember that idiosyncrasies are to be 
elamped out— not individuality. The lat- 
ter ia a persistent force, and will work its 
way into the standard leltera even. But 
tbe public schools to day have no use for 
idiosyncrasies in writing, either in copy- 
b-oks or on th*- board. Ttfaintain the 
standard of form in our English capitals. 
Let every pupil be initiated into a good, 
standard style of penmanship. Let ever; 
teacher up to a certain erade put standard 
capitals only on the blackboard. Make 

capitals that arccohcrcDtaDd thatcoDform 
to good copybook models. Study tbe 
conftniction of each capital, and dwell 
upon the relation of the lines. You will 
make diaooveries that wilt help you in 
teaching pcnmaoahip. Persevere in your 
adherence to standard form, and you will 
advance the standard of writing among 
your pupiU. 

^eiai Teaeher of Penmaa^ip^ Bart- 
ford, Conn. 

Editob Penman's Art Joirnal: 

In compliance with your request to send 
you " an article upon the condition of pen- 
manship in the South," I shall confine my 
remarks entirely to the public schools of 
Nashville, Teno.. as I do not know of any 
special teacher of writing further south. 

There are ten white and seven colored 
schools, with an enrollment often thousand 
and seventy-one pupils. 

The firf-t and second grade pupils write 
thirty minutes each day. upon slates, from 
blackboard copy of teacher, and all higher 
grades except the junior and senior write 
thirty minutci each day in exercise books 
and regular copy books, dividing the time 
evenly between the movement book and 
regular Spencerian copy book. 

In my high school classes I use Apple- 
ton's exercise books entirely, as the pupils 
need more practice upon "muscular" 
movement exercises than on form, al- 
though this important matter of form is 
not entirely neglecied there. 

My lessons for the first two years are 
printed upon my hectograph and dis- 
tributed among the teachers of these 

No movement exercises are given in 
first grade and pupils count and write in 
concert, using only finger movement. 

My second grade pupils practice fifteen 
minutes each day upon sliding movement 
exercise?, and fifteen in concert writing, 
counting each separate movement of the 
pencil as in first grade. 

My third and fourth grade pupils, who 
use copybooks and exercise books, Nos, 
1 and 2, count and write in concert as in 
first two grades. 

In these grades we give much attention 
to pen holding and form, as the pupils' 
arms have not sufficient muscular power 
(o do anything except glide from letter to 
letter, forming the letters with combined 
finger and fore arm action. 

In all grades except the junior and 
senior, a pen drill is given before every 
lesson. This has improved the pen hold- 
ing very much. 

To insure uniform slant in the down 
strokes of small letters, every pupi! above 
tbe third grade uses an ordinary calling 
card, with the lower right-band corner 
cut off at an angle of 52"' from the hori- 
zontal and after nearly every line written, 
tests his down strokes after having first 
tested the engraved copy at the top of the 

In passing this card along on the line 
just written, each pupil learns to crilictse 
hia or her own work, and each teacher 
uses a number of marks of criticism with 
which pupils are familiar, marking with 
lead pencil on pupils" copy any general 

Each teacher is provided with a large 
pastelK)ard slanting card, and in writing 
the copy upon the blackboard tests her 
own work under tbe critical eyf« of the 
class. This simple device has improved 
the blackboard writing of my teachers 
very much, as I insist upon having them 
obserTe proper slant in writing, especially 
in first and second grade rooms. 

Nearly all of my classes are in large, 
well lighted, well veotilated rooms, and 

in some of these haUt I teach claasea of 
two hundred and fifty or more. 

By using a special movement exercise 
book and making the pupils count and 
write in it the first fifteen minutes of each 
lesson, to the time of my metronome, I 
have succeeded in developing a large |>er 
centage of "muscular" movement writ- 
ing, especially in the higher grades. 

At the Montgomery Bell Institute Prof. 
Webb is initiating the boys into the mys- 
teries of "muscular" movemeut, but I 
have not heard of any special teaching of 
penmanship in any of the other private 
schools which are so numerous here. 

Our pupils are making a special effort 
in both penmanship and drawing, as we 
intend to be well represented at the 
World's Fair at Chicago next year. 


6ufit. Writinff and Drawing in PtihUe 
Se/toott of yathvilh, Tenn. 

The following is an excerpt from Ibe 
official report of Sup't Ware of Fort 
Worth, Tex., referred to in our "Frater- 
nal Notos last month:" 

I teach my pupils that there are certain 
essentials or requisites in learning to write 
well, which are, first, good position; sec- 
ond, a clear conception of forms and a 
proper knowledge of tbe movements to 
reproduce them; third, good material; 
fourth, intelligent practice. Without 
these we cannot hope to obtain satisfactory 


I believe there is only one true or 
natural position (tbe front), and that no 
other should be taught or permitted in the 
schoolroom. Hccognizing Ibc importance 
of having every student understand defi- 
nitely the position of body, arms, hands 
and tablet or paper, I prepared drawings 
illustrating all these, anel had them en- 
graved and printed on rover of tablets, 
which proved to be of value to the teachers, 
as well as to myself, in teaching position. 

The end to be accomplished in form 
study is to prepare the student not to de- 
pend on copies placed on the board, but to 
store the mind with correct mental copies. 

Form is taught by classification, associa- 
tion and comparison ; construction by 
writing copy or exercise on board in the 
presence of the pupil, and giving a verbal 
explanation of the manner in which it is 
executed on paper. 

In the first and second grades spaced 
tablets and lead pencils are used and finger 
movement is taught, but during this 
period a series of exercises is taught to 
produce easy movement, which prepares 
the student well to enter upon tbe study 
of arm or muscular movement in the third 
grade. Beginning with this grade and 
continuing throughout tbe succeeding 
grades, arm or muscular movement, tbe 
combined action of srm and fingers, is 

In these grades irom one-fifth to one- 
third of the writing period (thirty minutes; 
is devoted to graded exercises for the de- 
velopment of Iree movement, praclicing 
as carefully as from ibeicgularcopy andas 
rapidly as possible to secure good results. 

In general I find the work done in Iliie 
department excellent. Specimens of dif- 
ferent grades were collected bimonthly, 
and upon comparing the work throughout 
tbe year it is observed that very satisfac- 
tory improvement, both in form ard in 
movement, has been obtained, and that 
each grade ha.s cone its required work. I 
discovered a few exception", and upon ex- 
amination found these among ihc siudents 
who had recently entered our cityfchool", 
and who bad not had systematic instn:c- 
tion in penmanship. 

During the first psrt of the jear meet* 
logs were held weekly, not only for the 
purpose o/ giving the teachers an outline 
of the course of work in ibis depaitmeot 
for the year, hut to give them a thorough 
drill in tbe principles and themithodof 
teaching peoman.'hip and biicg ibeir 
writing up to that standard which inspires 
in the pupils confidence in their ahillly to 
do good work. 


A report, filed in the superintendent's 
office, giving the attendance and grades of 
the teachers, with specimens of their 
writing at the beginninK and close of these 
meetings, shows that very satisfactory re- 
sults were accomplished. • « • • * 
G. W. Wabe, 
Supcrcisor of Penmamhip^ Fort Worth, 

LesBon s. (every subscriber should have a " Handy 

Review work of the week and present Binder") or clip out the course of study 

the following exercise. Ask them if it is and paste in a scrapbook, which can be 

like either of theothers. '* No." " Why ? " kept on the school desk. 



Teaching Children to Write. 

Stand before your class, pencil in hand, 
with which to illustrate the position. Ask 
the children to watch you without taking 
their pencils. Move your pencil back and 
forth, horizontally, counting one, two, 
threr; four, A'pe, sU, etc , — one for each 
stroke. After they have watched you a 
few moments they will be anxious to try 
it; then you can let them take their pen- 
cils (sharpened this time) and make the 
same motions "in the air," following the 
motions of your pencil while you count. 
See that they hold tbeir pencils correctly 
and at proper distance from the point. 

When they have practiced th( 
in the air a few moments, make the 
companying exercise on the board, and i 
them to see if they cannot make n 

" It is crooked in the middle, 
thtm follow you in motions in the air, 
then drop the arm and continue on paper; 
ccunt our, tiro, three, quickly, for each 
stroke. The two for the breaks Give 
more attention to position than anything 
else, and do not be discouraged. Results 
will comeby acdby. 

.tttalystg anfl St/nthfa'ti. 

I believe the best results in teaching 
penmanship can be secured by comhininfj 
the analytical &dA si/nthct tfol, foi the reason 
that it necessitates a training of the man- 
ual as well as mental powers. Mentally, 
we first grasp a thing as a whole, manually 
or mechanically we must make the /^r^j* 
/imt. In accordance with this reasoning 
I would have the child act)uire a mental 
concept of the letter as a whole, but 
resolve it into its 

Have For the lesson on the i the teachei 

J air should, if possible, procure a live grass 

hopper. If that is not possible, make at 

enlarged copy of the accompanyinf. 

modern appliances, with the cheapness of 
paper and pens and ink, there is no reason 
to he given why the slate should be longer 
retained. It is a clumsy, awkward, noisy, 
unclean utensil, and has no merits to offer 
for claims on the consideration of teachers. 
The most c-ureless, useless and pernicious 
work is done by pupils on their slates. Its 
use fosters habits of carelessness, iuditler- 
ence, inaccuracy and slovenliness. The 
slate must flo. — Common School Education 
ami Teachers Worh) 

for manual execution. When he can make 
the principle upon which a letter ia based, 
he can very easily be taught to add the 
necessary strokes to complete the letter. 
In this way he masters one difficulty at a 
time and progresses by degrees from the 

curves on their paper. By this time they 
have acquired some familiarity with the 
pencil and considerable command of the 
hand, and you will be surprised to find 
how well they will do it. Have them make 
the strokes about as long as those above, 
but do not be too exacting yet in this 

Allow them to swing the forearm freely, 
but it must rest on the desk— that is, a 
sliding motion of the forearm. 

Do not expect them to make accurate 
strokes. That is not the object of the ex- 
ercise. It is a continuation of the work 
of aiding the child to acquire command 
of the hand and pencil, and correct posi- 

Review former 
the board the following 

then place on 
( When 

'■ known to the unknown," from the 
simple and easy to the complex and diffi- 
cult, acquiring a knowledge of the form 
and construction of the letters while he is 
acquiring the manual skill necessary for 
their execution. It seems to me that it 
would be just as reasonable to place a fin- 
ished buggy wheel before a boy fifteen 
years of age, who knows nothing of the 
use of tools, and requtst him to duplicate 
it before he has learned how to make m.e 
spoke, as to expect a lahy to make a letter 
which to it is just as complicated and for- 
midable, although he may have a general 
idea of the form, just as the boy would 
know that the wheel is roiutd. We would 
first have the boy learn how to use the tools 
necessary in the construction of the wheel, 
by shaving and planing and sawing pieces 
of timber which are not expected to be 
used for anything but for him to practice 
upon, then learn how to make the most 
simple thing about the wheel — a spoke 
perhaps, then a more difficult part, and so 

making it, after motions in the air same as 
before, count one for each line, beginning 
at the left each time.) Ask the children 
if it is like the other exercise. " No. " 
"Why?" "It is straight." "How was 
the other one '. " They will not be able to 
tell at first, perhaps, unless they say " It 
was crooked." If so, make a zig zag 
line on the board and ask them if that is 
like the one we had last lesson. "No." 
Then make a curved line and ask if that is 
right. " Yes; Yes." " How many little 
boys and girls would like to know the 
name of this line ? I am glad there are so 
many who want to know. Listen, now, 
and I will tell you. We call this a rurced 
Hue. What kind of a line is it ? Look ! 
What is this ? " (bend the pointer, a piece 
of cardboard or something of the kind.) 
" A curved stick." " Can any one tell me 
of something else curved?" They will 
name a number of tbincs, and in this way 
we begin iraiuing and developing the per- 
ceptive and reasoning faculties, laying a 
solid foundation for future education, not 
simply in penmanship, but in the whole 
realm of knowledge. 

on, until he has made every separate part 
of the wheel many times before he even 
attempts to put the parts together in the 
construction of a complete wheel. Writing 

a training of the hand as well as the eye 
and mind, and I believe that our teaching 
should be based upon the same methods 
and principles which govern education or 
training in all other manual arts. 

Review work of last week. 

Hand drill every lesson (see December 
JoDRNAL). Be a little moreexacling with 
regard to position this week. 


LContribntlons for 

Princeton has '.' 

picture on the blackboard, and have a 
talk with the children about the insect. 
Call attention to his long legs and the 
peculiar bent position in which he always 
holds them. "Can any little boy or girl 
tell me why he always holds bis long legs 
in this position ? " "So he can crawl," 
perhaps some one will say. "No. there 
is anotbtr reason. What do you think he 
would do if he were out doors on the 
ground and you should try to catch him ?" 
" He would jump." "There, that is the 
reason. He holds his legs that way be- 
cause he wants to be always ready to jump. 
[The children are now tborougbly inter- 

Mr. Geoi-Re Vandevbilt has given the hand- 
some sum of |.:»i),U(IO towaid the new buildiufi 
of the New York College for the Trainioi£ of 

Tbe library at Harvard College contains 
:jtJ5.000 bound volumf s : Yale has 20(1.000 ; 
Cornell, 1.50,000; Columbia. 90,000; Syracuse, 
';r),00O, and Dorlmouth, (S8,00(l. 

The University of Oxford has the rpputntiou 
of having been founded l*y King Alfred in 872. 
It numbere at present about \'i,Wii membei's. 


children. I 


going to make something else: ^y' 
(On the board about three inches in height.) 
Is this a grasshopper?" "No." " Who 
can find something about the grasshopper 
which this looks like?" "His legs." 
"Yes. How many children would like 
to know the name of this little thing 
which looks so much like a grasshopper's 
leg?" It is very probable that there are 
those in the class v^ho know the names of 
the letters, but it is better to assume that 
none knows in order to enhat the attention 
and impress it upon the memory of the 
whole class. If the name is called for 
and given, a few will hear and remember, 
but it will make no impression upon the 
majority of the class. 

" I am glad there are so many who want 
to know. Now, watch me. Where is 
my finger ? " "On your eye." "Touch 
your right eye with the forefinger of 
your right hand, now your left eye with 
the forefinger of your left band. (Practice 
this until they can do it correctly. In 
practising the hand drill, as per former 
article, have them use the right and 
left hands alternately, then both, so that 
they become thoroughly familiar with 
these terms)." "What do you think is 
right here in this gnasshopper's head." 
" His eye." " Now we call this the letter 
i. What is it?" " The letter i." 

Of course this will consume much time, 
but when they have learned a letter (or 
anything else) in this way, they kno-w it, 
and they knos it so thoroughly that the 
knowledge is worth more to them than the 
whole alphabet drawled over in a listless, 
half-hearted way. Besides, they have 
learned a great deal more than relates to 
the letter i. They have had a lesson in 
natural history, the first step toward a 
love for nature, and a desire to know 
more of the world about them. They 
have had a lesson in observation, which 
will invite them to see and learn for them- 
selves. Their imaginative faculties have 
been cultivated, and they have had a 
language lesson, since they have been 
learning to express themselves i 

Now, that tbey have acquired 

f *14l)0 a year. Missforrey ii 

f him that one teacher is well paid. 
The Pall Mall Oazette records a freak in the 

words backward, as they are reflected in r n 

that she writes fluently in this fantastic style, 

3 South can read. He says that the pub- 

" What I'd like to know," said a school boy. 
" is how the mouths of rivers can be much 
larger than their heads." 

Ethel (to paterfamilias, who bad just soid 
papa ; is it gram'ical to 

say an 

H^'—Amfrtcan Gn 
: " Miss Flypp learns, every catch- 
" Yes : she's a master of tfio English 

Mamm a : " Sallie, if you had n little spunk 
vou'd stand better in your class. Do you know 
what spunk i; 

, folio 


1 correct 

We give the letter i for the first 
^^/^^ lesson in definite forms, because it 
ia the easiest name to teacb, com- 
posed of the first strokes the child learns 
to execute, consequently the easiest for 
him to learn to make. 

I will give the method of teaching this 
letter in full, which will serve as an illus- 
tration of the method for teaching all of 
the letters, and I will refer to it without 
repeating, in order to save space. Those 
teachers who intend carrying out this 
course of study in their classes should 
either keep The Jouknal 'in regular file 

of the letter as a whole, we will have them 
learn to convey that image through the 
medium of tbe hand and pencil to the 
slate or paper, and as this requires manual 
skill beyond anything tbey have jet at- 
*empted, we must resolve it into its most 
simple elements or parts. 

" The State Must Go! " 
The time draws near when the slate will 
be abolished from the school room. It has 
remained there too long. It is a relic of 
days when quill pens and ink horns held 
their sway. But with the introduction of 

1 baby and a roos 
'■ Why did Lot's wife 
Sunday school teacher. 

Jassed her with a ne' 
ohuny Cuniso.— HumoriM. 
Teacher : " Can you tell me what led Col- 
lunbus to set out for this continent i " 

New Pupil : " Yes'm. He'd heard that a 
foreigner stood the best chance to get ap- 
pointed on the New York police force."— 
LnweU Vitizen. 

A teacher in one of the E schools was 

drillinp the children in music. " What does it 
the letter /'over a bar or 
" Fort*." answered oneof 
' And what does the chai-acrter ff 
_ There was a sbort period of deep 

thoughtfulness on the part of tbe childreu, and 
theo one of them shouted triumphantly, 
" Eighty."— CAria'idii Ueghttr. 

Emma : " Oh, Clara, Tom's been expelled 
from Yale ! " 

"You don't tell me sol What was 

mean when you s 
stave 1 " si 
tbe pupils. 


r ?" 

i found studying politital economy 

jbould ' ' '' — ''■'"' — *"" 

ni\i8cles for the c 

t returned with u note scrawled on the 

margin. He studied itdiligenlly, but was un- 
able to decipher the note, and so be brought 
bis paper back to the professor. 

"I can't quite make out what this is, tf you 
plea*e." said the student. 

"That s'ir." said tbe professor, " why. that 


''J/enman^ Qyttt (lycuinalO 

,Vo adrvTiia^ynmt» 

affmU uKo are nibacribrrB, 
taking tubaeriptiona. 

Foreign wubMeriptionM {to countrieM in /W- 
tal Vnion] |l.2&prrv««r. 

Condmaed t*rrmium List on PiMge 28. Full 
liat of rfoular and tprrial premivmM, atao 
Annual Indej-, in iJecembtr Joi'BXAL, for 
trAt'cA wTu/ 10 e^^tM. 

New York, Fcbrnarjr, 1S9S. 


TiiK JoniSAL hftspixableil ,ne to mm about 
♦500 in the past three years, ivorkitig evenings 
at engrosaing resolutions, etc., the gifater part 
being copied from the paper. I ivoutd not be 
tvithout it for many times the pHce.—Geo. T. 
Arms.Potlstown, Pa. 

Businefts Education at the World's Fair. 

We ore iafonned by Mr. Packard, who has 
just returned from Chicago, whi>rv be met the 
Executive Coniiuitteo of the Busiitess Educa- 
tor's Assoctalion and also the coiumittee ap- 
poiuted to arraut;e for the exhibit of business 
M'ucBtiou St the World's Fair, that the pros- 
jwu arv bright for a creditable exhibit in 
mta. The main thing has l>cen to secure 
enough of the ■J00,000 square feet of surface 
approprialMl to educational purpostw to make 
a fair showing, and it seems possible to do so. 
At all events, tbo commissioners are very 
kindly disposed and louk with grcot favor 
uiiou that part of our system of education 
which embraces the practical, and it has been 
in their minds from Ibo first to give the busi- 
UUB8 oullegeR Q &how. 

Tbe present fdan of the committee is to pre- 
sent a well-equipped buslui«s office, including 
th« financial operations of a bank and various 
mercantile bouses, wherein are shown the lull- 
Mt records of transactions, and to employ a 
oonstaut fcrc« of twenty or thirty accuunt- 
ants, clerks correspondents and olBcvrs, to be 
aelect«d from tbe different bu«ine^ colleges 
of Ibe country upon a fair trowing of their 
proflcieocy. The business they will do wiU be 
as nearly r«al business as can b« imagined, 
and will come from tbe expert worki't^ of the 
businms coUegew of the country, all of whom 
will have received a certificate «if proficiency 
from a competent committee. Tbe books and 
documeuts produotd in these offices will be 
open to iusiieclion. as well as the svstew of do- 
ing business. In the matter of 'correspond- 
ence, an excellent opmrtunitr will tv afforded 
for the display of skill in sbortbaod and tvpt- 
writing, only experts being acwpttd for' the 

PENMAN'S Art Fournal 

AdveriiMtng ratn, 90 c*nlJ orr nonfiareil 
line, ti.SO per inch, eark inMrriton. thmotinta 
for t^rm and wpac*. Spedtil ealimalta fur 

niMKed on apptiration '- -' '■ ' 

taken for lens than *2. 

Ifuharrrption : (fne year |1 ; 

geonixie effort 
MM education by 

, ,. thoae who have n___ 

special adrertlsiag of any school will be 

W« have not the roace to enter more 
minutely into tbe plan, bat are quite wtisfled 
from the prc«entalion made to us that it is em- 
inently feasible, and we do not doubt that it 


• responsible 

Infiuene^ of Quackery tn Publie Hatlma- 

HoH of Commercial Sehools. 
Editor of the Jocrnai,: 

I notice with regret that there still exists in 
tbo minds of some good people an unjust, in- 
discriminate prejudice against commercial 
schools. By investigation I learn that this 
prejudice results largely from what they know 
of some low grade commercial school, whoeo 
principal has mistaken his vocation ; who, in 
some cases, regardless of the dignity of his 
profession or the ethics of business, not only 
magnifies bis abilities and advantages by the 
most powerful adjectives, but who aho makes 
false promises and guarantees impossibilities. 
Therefore, in the interest of all schools and in 
behalf of truth and justice, I invit« attention 
to the subject. 

All observing minds admit that commercial 
schools have done and are still doing a great 
and humane work, by preparing annually 
30,000 of America's sous and daughters to en- 
ter the vorious fields of commercial industry 
and business life, where they can earn an hon- 
orable support and honorably contest with 
their fellow citizens for fortune and fame. 

The few business men who now hold a preju- 
dice against commercial schools as a class, are 
mostly gentlemen who are educationally non- 
observing; who do not investigate the merits 
of different institutions, and who measure the 
worth and utility of the high-grade and failh- 
fully managed schools by what they know 
from experience with tbe low-grade and short- 
course schools which they have patronized 
with a view to save money. 

This class of business men do not take the 
time to investigate critically the measure of 
merit and worth of the various commercial 
schools, and, as a rule, they hear and see and 
know more of tbe low grade, the pretentious, 
the guaroutee situation and the two-month 
graduation schools than they do of the more 
modest and high-grade schools that are man- 
aged on ethical and dignified principles. Hence 
another reason for the limited prejudice that 
still exists against coinini-rriul stboi^js. 

The low t;r!..|. - [■.....I- ;,,■, ,.|,t -111, I, i,t, ,it 
figures that ^\ i< ■ ..i . k- ,s . ..rnj.. i>'iit 

no truthful t 
Really worlli 

^ "■)'.■• 

t, iiudtbede- 
1 an inferior 

; here made regarding 

ul manat- 
grade 8(5hools, the following 

a tbe davs of Job, 
he eartft " and are 
' walsiDg up and down in it," dec«ving the 
unwary and the unsophisticated. 

With such dinvputable claims and promises 
set forth by teachers of tbe rising generation 
of busaneBi men. by teachers wbow characters, 
habits and manners should be shining exam- 
ples to tbe rising youoe, is it strange that 
many men of business should look with dis- 
favor if not with dia-espect upon - ■ . 

merit and to institutions that are doing untold 
good to mankind, they must teach the young 
men and young women who wish to qualify 
for busines, the business public and tbe par- 

and in teaching talent, quitity and quantity 

in courses of study, ana also important dif- 

pilnior* fere»cesin svhoot and college apjioiMments, 

<>nu of facittties and »i'fif. They must frown upon 

ifwuM* charlatanism and everv form of taim prefer " 

They must stand by the Goddeas of Truth and 
with that honor and dignity which l»ecome the 
educator, strive to elevate the standdrd of 
business qualifications and of moral character. 
This high, practical and ethical knowledge 
is demanded by the commercial and business 
interests of the country and by tbe groat 
social questions of tbe age, which are agitating 


(Questlona by Jocbhai. readcn pertalnlDK to 


A. A. P. A. A. H. P. S. C. 

In the January Jottbnal we made some 
inquiries relating to the ''American As- 
sociation of Pen Artists and Automatic 
Shading Pen Supply Co.," Geo. Farnbam, 
pres. Id response thereto, we have re- 
ceived letters from Fred. S. Fields, 
Flushing, N. Y. ; Q. S. Wacker. Charles 
City, la., and F. F. Higgs, Elmira, N. Y., 
each stating that he had had some deal- 
ings with the company, and that such 
dealings had been satisfactory. We state 
this in justice to all concerned. As ex- 
pressly stated in connection with our first 
announcement, we had no intention of 
misrepresenting the company or bringing 
it into odium. Tbe character of its adver- 
tising literature that we have seen was 
not exactly to our taste, and as we had 
received several letters asking about the 
concern, though best to make a public in- 
quiry. One statement in a circular sent 
out by the association is to the effect that 
it makes a change of location which 
brings "all our offices, laboratory, pen 
work, correcting, shipping and college de- 
partments under one roof, occupying over 
forty rooms in the finest five-story build- 
ing in the city, employing over fifty offi 
cers, instructors, artists, clerks and em- 
ployes, making it the largtst corps of col- 
lege employers in the world under one 
single management." "Tbe American As- 
sociation of Pen Artists " may be all right, 
but a little less extravagance in its adver- 
tising announcements would perhaps not 
operate to its disadvantage. 

of the state- 

tion and uufaithfuT management of the low 
-"> «<*hools, the following extracts which 
were copied from the circulars and newspaper 
advertisements of the low grade and false- 
promising schools are given : 

1- " Business College is the best and 

cheapest in the world. Cost of full Business 
Couree, including tuition, stationery and 
boara, $ — . Graduates guaranteed success 
Time, 90 days." 

2. ■' Wanted— Telegraph Office and Business 
College, 3 young ladies and 5 gentlemen imme- 
diately on our lines to l»am telegraphing; sit- 
uations guaranteed, tIS, tas, $ioo <i|i5 
monthly." ' 

3. " Wanted, Telegraph School and 

Business College, young men for railway serv 
ice; limited number to learn telegraphing and 
qualify as operators and agents; passes fur- 
nish^.— Railroad and Telegraph Office. 

College, " The most practi- 
■orld. Terms for full 

students ttuui anyotfaer.'' 

Shorthand Schotd. " The - 

i learned in less 

lend a good preparation 
for removing ink ataiD.s 'i What is meant 
by "waterproof ink," and where can it 
be obtained ?— G. S. S., W'ltfrburi/, Coun. 

The Monroe Eraser Mfg. Company, La 
Crosse, Wisconsin, makes a patent chemi- 
cal ink-erasing pencil. If your stationer 
can't supply it write to the company. 
These things cost go little that it is perhaps 
cheaper to buy them "ready for business," 
but if you prefer to make your own, we 
will give you a receipt that we got from an 
eminent French authority. 

The Journal de ffiarrniicU recommends 
pyrophosphate of soda for the removal of 
ink stains. This salt does not injure vege- 
table fiber, and yields colorless compounds 
with the feme oxide of the ink. It is 
best to firtt apply tallow to the ink spot, 
then wash with a solution of pyrophos- 
phates until both tallow and ink have dis- 
appeared. Stains of red aniline ink may 

be removed by moistening th* spot with 
strong alcohol acidulated with oitric add. 
Unless the stain is produced by cosine it 
duiap[>ears without difficulty. 

A Logaosport, Ind., correspoDdent of 
oar ndgfabor. Busines*, writes that a level 
leaspoonful of oxalic acid dissolved in half 
a cup of water will remove dried ink from 
rubber penholders. A word of caution 
should go with this recipe — oxalic acid is 

"Waterproof ink" means simply ink 
that when applied to paper will, after get- 
ting dry, be insoluble in water, therefore 
uninjured by the application of water. 

A small quantity of bichromate of soda 
mixed in with India ink will make the 
writing from such ink practically water- 
proof, provided it has been exposed to the 
sunlight for about an hour. The princl- 
lt\e involved in this is that the soda rea- 
ders the animal glue which India ink con- 
tains insoluble in water. Tbe same 
principle is the basis of tbo making of 
some styles of relief plates for printing. 

Correetlng h'aultt of Hani. 

What course would you recommend for 
correcting in pupils pronounced habits of 
too much or too little slant f—^. B. W., 

Try practice from copies representing 
just the opposite extreme. If the pupil's 
hand inclines too much, set him a straight 
copy. If his handwriting be too straight, 
make him practice from copies very much 
inclined until he shakes off the old habit. 

B. F. A of A. Convention of 1892. 


No man can cultivate an optimistic mtnd on 
a pessimistic stomach.— IVaahington Star. 

"Clara JobDt<on say^ vou and I are en- 
gaged, Ethel," said Chappie. 

" Clara Johnson always did say every spite- 
ful thing about me she could think of." 

Jack (the facetious) : " 1 wonder what state 
they run the lottery of love in t" 

I'auline (the cynical): "In every state, I 
guess, except the mari-iage state."— Jvew York 

Samson found honey in the carcass of a lion 
The grocer of todaygot« molasses from a hogs 

Tbe editor's waste basket is proof that be 
is always prepared for the worst.— Boston 

Old Lady : " I'd like to buy some plasters, 
young fellow." 

Drug Clerk: "Yes, r"'" 

— 'Judge. 

Fogy : " I hoard a pretty compliment for 
you the other day." 

Mrg. tassay : " Indeed ! May I ask what 
it was f" 

Fogg: " 1 heard some one say bow pretty 

c song is entitled " Soap." It 
1. — Singhaniton Republican, 
i very popular with tbe soap- 
-CUvtIand Sun. Let us soap the above 
contains no lye. 

Horse SESSE—Jfrs. Eattern : " My goodneas 
me, Hiram, I see by the papers that a man ba» 
juhtdied aged I lb years, '^ 

Mr. Ea*tem : "Wall, wasn't it 'bout time, 
Maria I "-Life. 

Xo MEED TO — Charles: " I have just Come 
back from a sail." 
Hobert : " Did you hug the shore f " 
Charles: " No ; I hud Mlaa MUdred with 
me." — Epoch. 

Backwoodt Farmer (with gun. who has just 
put up a sign, "To TrcMMUsen, prepare for 
eternity!"):"! kinder like the idee some- 

How Ladlea Cma niako noDer. 

'iliere are bo very few ways u lady can make 
ley and so few chuiiw* open lo us tbut I 
■w all your lady r«ailor» will l»e foteresled 

in bearinfT of my success In platlnjr watches, 
table-ware and Jewelry. I make from 910 to 
1^ per week, and my custoraere are delUthted at 
my work. It is aurprlslDfr bow easy a lady can 
take a plating macfalnc and plate old knives, 
forks and spoons. This ntacblne plates witb 
either nickel, silver or irold. and will generally 

flatc any of tbeac articles to a few mInuteM 
hope my experience will be as proOultle to 
your lady readenias Mrs. Wilson's was to me. 
Anybody can itct a plailns machine by «<!<•'«- 
ing H. F. Delno ft Co.. Columbus. Ohio. Tbe 
plater sells for f.^ c 

atldresslDii this firm. 

Ubs. C. Wtmkji. 


''** (oue^efirreno 

4.: a. 


aollvHio «?cattoiutl <,nink. 

_/^/; frrar/ir' 


/90 CoiitciCii^e 

/^ ^ ^. 



^^^— 3!ut(l^#^ciHiiTutlIl?auk.^ ^ 


B /^^ C^/i^e- C:^rfCficy 


(Confmu^-d /roiii ijays 31.) 
keep, Dot merely as a souveoir, but to 
practice after. 

Those who have gone ahead and are pre- 
sumed to be waitiof? for ua oa the other 
side may not be moved by the small things 
that anooy us, and yet if they etill retain 
the qualities which made us love them, I 
do not thiuk they can be indifferent to our 
coDtioued efforts to benefit the world, nor 
to our kindly endeavor to keep them fresh 
in our memories. They cannot but rejoice 
with us that the partition wall between 
competitive teachers has been broken 
down, and that what in former times took 
on the aspect of jealousy or envy is now 
but the inspiration of generous rivalry and 
a working together for the greatest attain- 
able good. 

There arc many things that have con- 
spired to bring about this happy change. 
In the first place, people are wiser than 
they were before the days of electric lights 
and telephones, and again, the business of 
teaching is not confined to a handful of 
pedagogues, scattered about here and 
there. The better methods of teaching 
have filled the world with good writers, 
and knowledge has increased. The skill of 
the pen-artist and the engraver has made 
everybody more or lees a critic, and those 
who adn 
gether and talk about itr 

I writing like to get to- 

Model Commercial Paper Fm-ms for Commerdta Schools, made in The JodrnaL Office. {May be readily adapted for uHe in any p 
School by AMorUsing or by Be-enyraving with necessary AHerationa.) These Degigns are Protected by Copyright und , 

But nothing has done so much to bring 
teachers together and make such a con- 
vention as this possible as the invention of 
photo- engraving. Under the old system 
of steel plate and lithographic copy lines 
there did not exist the necessity which now 
exists of correct forms produced by the pen 
in the ordinary writing movement. Most, if 
if not all, the copies were carefully penciled 
and mathematically measured. The result 
of this method was an exactnesF and rigid- 
nes9 of form which discouraged the learner 
and did not particularly gratify the expert. 
The reproduction of writing through the 
photoengraving process has changed all 
this, and our teachers and authors of writ- 
ing who would come to the top find it ne- 
cessary to absolutely do the work which 
they require at the hands of their pupils. 
So that it is now the rule rather than the 
exception that teachers of penmanship in 
this country are practical penmen them- 
selves, who never write poorly, but gener- 
ally with great precision and grace, and 
whose work could be reproduced exactly 
as done by them without eliciting adverse 
criticism. One thing that has helped in 
this matter, as we are all aware, has been 
the penmen's papers, which come to us 
like leaves from autumn trees, and which 
are not only bright and suggestive as to 
methods of teaching, glorious and ornate 
in the genuflexions of pen-art, but are, in 
sober earnest, exponents of that art, in the 
best form. 

I have always desired to meet in conven- 
tion the representative teachers of writing 
throughout the country ; for I have uni- 
formly noticed that in the meetings of the 
Business Educators' Association wherever 
else there was a drag or dullness in the 
proceedings, the moment a writing crank 
got upon his feet, with chalk in liand, 
there came silence and attentiou and a 
general evidence of intense interest. The 
penmen of today are, in almost all re 
spects, ahead of those of forty years ago, 
— as they should be. And the most in- 
teresting fact about them is that they are 
able to meet in a convention like this, and, 
throwing aside all sentiment of antagon- 
ism or rivalry, gladly sit at each others' 
feet, taking and giving, in the only way 
that makes the world better. 

Tribute to He..ry C. Spencer. 

Giiith-men of the Coiiefntkm: I cannot 
withhold from myself nor from you that 
from the time I began this essay until I 
finished it there has been in my vision one 
face and in my ears one voice that we shall 
never see nor hear again on this earth; 
and while I have been with you here, 
mingling in this delightful conference, 
trying to get a measure of myself and of 
you, there has been the consciousness of a 
presence that has filled my heait with joy, 
and, at the same time, with sadness. 
Never before have I been at a convention 
of our teachers — and I have attended them 
regularly for twenty seven years— without 
the presence and co-operation of Henry C. 
Spencer, who, a little less than four 
months ago, passed to the other life. He 
was my friend for more than thirty years, 
and I bad learned to love him more and 
more with each recurring year. A con- 
one who always made it possible to think 
the beat things of men. He may be here 
to-night. I do not know ; hut I do know 
that here are his friends and that the 
blessed iolluencc of bis life will never pass 
out from among us. 

"^Cycnma/vd QytzCoJciUriCiLP 


KifKlmlp wbo Br* m«jd«T« '»! 
■ mnr» drlicali- awl onMte 
tlylf. of M-ri[iC ijninuuublp 
than H H. Fahn««t>Kb, Ui« 
w<>llkn'jKD iirniDBn of M(^ 
n«TK.i., K.n. 

- Tl>r pupil* of Ihp l^w- 

i.n<» K.n. lio"""'-" C"'- 

cl|«l A. 

lluJ.r.llrU,, h,,jrf „„„..„ .-.---•-- 
of tbo thirty tklnl •■•■■""T"''J ?"''•';'';' . 
wb(rb r«xorT«l r«»Dllj Mr. Ixx.nnjd l> i 

OVPrul IIDfl |-»l'»l"f '■ "' '"T 
- J. A V>. 1 

m™t MTiir-^nUn.i™! or o l>rK.- Ii.Ji«u 
— J. T. I'rr«b«".l« |iriii<i|inl of the pet«w«, 


, Ti<>picraf>h Ini^ <»''»1 

. Coll. Mi™ 

KJin,. ii'ir^rBitii »o«^ ».." -•™- .- 
Amr W.rliiK li«» tbr JiortbmKl 

-« M H«ert.UU'l)rooDiicrt«iwllblboNor- 
foil Vn Bu« (;..ll. unci on ciCTllont [icnrain. 
bo. Jo,n™l Ibo forultT of lb., liuffolo Bu>. 
Unl ^ , J 

— I, II Hnlllvon.tlH' Ijonninnnnd Mhorthonjl 
mnn. liot. from l)r.Uithon'. B. C. nt Arkodcl- 
•ihln, lo bin olh.r xhnol ol ToJorknnn. Inn*. 

— Dll.Iomnitwi-n'rwi'nllynwflrdwlUjWKrad- 

wlll bavo Cull 
k. Prin. Ayde- 
II in the selection 

of bi< t 

W. T. Sanfonl, Wolorbury, Conn., 1» 
un accomplUbwl iK-'nmnn and an admirer of 
every phaio of the art 

-I,. A. llrev ,v ■< ,.,.,,„,..l...>..l the 

Portland. Sle.. !■. ' ii 'I'- "I' ' '' '" 

tbolr former • , . i . un . , 

weli-liKhted r.".t ; ,i , ' '^ 

live pumlH. 'llii I I' ' I ■ |.M ^.1. ij.i 



jtredualM for emplojinent in commercio) cn- 

— Hlww'i B. C, Portland. M*.. h«(l ite an- 
nual reunion on Jan. i. A pkiuant literary 
and mtuictt) proKrarouie wa* wuu-ted and the 
Mudenu pre^nled to Mr. Shaw a beaulilul 
Ptruch clock. ThU institution has had a won- 
^rful itrowih, with a prewnt vnrollmeot or 

^\n soil. Four oddittonal 
iMieu recenUy.engagwl. 

— (i C Chritlopbereon of Sioux Falls, So. 
Uak., It. C, write* a HmU". grawlul, wide- 
Kput-iM liand, something aft«r tbe style of that 
KlFrof . Hoff of Dm Moinwi. A p«ic of saich 
fTiitine always hm* un airy appearance that 

chnrgo of A. R. Merrill, a flofiihed. Rrtoeful 
writfi- mid Rood twicbpr. 

— Ouoof Thk JouHNAi.'soliU-stconlinuouR 
ndvcrlli*™ it> A. E. DowhiuHt, Iho pen artUt, 
of Utica, N.Y. Mr. Dcwhuret inamodwstnion 
who dw-an'l thnwt hfini*lf forward, but row 
QlonR (pifellv turufnj; out Rood work and 
Bi%-luK witiufnption to a good and nmnero'.is 
clowTof nntnmi.. Wo liuvi. recently received 
from bho a woU llhifctratpd circular. No 
doubt you would b<* al>l« to get one by In- 
cloMHR a stamp. 

— An viccptionally ueal advertising bro- 
chure, printed in two colom iind daintily illu*- 
trated, ii from the Spcncerian B. C. Clov»- 

lemof "shorl^Dcd loD^hand." We learn from 
ibe Loui^villv Commrrctai that in an addrosK 
Iwfore the students K<t the colleKe Mr. Spencer 
recently told thorn all about *' how to oniuire 

— The .VpiD DrUn, Xew Orleatim tells about 
an elaborate and handsome pietr of eafrTYXKlDg 
executeil by O. W. Harman, pennkaii of Soul«^ 
Colkge. for the ladie« of that citT who have 
espouwd the anti lottery eauw. Vhv (routis- 
piece of tbe design reKtii u)>on a tbree-tiuarter 
shaded background and within an oblong 
space. At the upper edge is the honored em- 
•' II pelican feeding its young. 

- A neat oolleg* journal printed in two floating defiantly io the breexa. The border 
,_. " 1 ti iii.V.trlt«i r.,.m« til IIS from tinted with careful taste varied from a light 

training In penniouslilp. 

— The National Normal Uni.. Lebanon. 
O , has a larger oUcndance than at any pre- 
vious time witbin it« hitrtory. Tho commer- 
cial department is fortunate m having two 
fuch teachem as J. F. Barnhart and L. H. 

— The li4»umi, the society journal of Lin- 
coln Neb,, ha* warm praise for a memorial 
album recently engr»»«l by F. B. Courtney, ...-. 

the brilliant young penman of that city, whoso feel -. -j. 

work ha« been in THE JoCBKAL, and from will have all t 

: ponmnu hast turned each ( 

that enri bi I •- m 
wilU W. T, I'fliks 
and artist, and thi' 
manship and Art. 


S BL.^KE, Ke«u*. N. 
H.. M>iuU tho Scrap- 
iKRik some specimens 
that recKU tbe old 
dayK. They or* acrlpt 
and " flouri»hw " exe- 
cutnl wiib a quill pen 
sixiy-lwo year* ago— 
in ISaO-by Mr. BlakeNi 
grandfather, who is 
still living at the age 

of nin 


copy i« ktill bhiek and 
sharp as though tbe work 
had been recently done. 
The detkiguii are from 

By I', ir. CosMlo. DewnN wpU-kno«n nork, 

which our pvURtaui!>tic grandfathers treasured 

an the apple of their eye. 

— Our srrapbook has some brilliant oflfcriiig* 

this month, including 

i( he can. uol luituUiut Io iucIom.- u few 
atampsto pay for it. an such derijins are ex- 
iwDsive to produce C. C. Zaner. Columbu». 
O.. sontb proof of a large engraved fljurfshed 
design of Bu eagle, showing elaborate and 
brilliant work in the ntyle peculiar to him. 

— Oneof thomoRtBBtiafyiug pen flourl»h« 
rwi'lvi-ilisfromJohnP, SipU-.aptipilofthespe- 

wt; know of. 

— The bwt ' 
the month are 

Is P, A Wc^tropp. Ked "nk, la . H. <'.. 

— K. 
K)eOrieans.~Vleb.,Cor" The work show* a 
fine, easy movement, 

-From H. M. Mti" '^ ■ l.-..-., M.. we 
have an elaborate II''' ' ' ' ' '' '■' blind- 
ing pen and some t; ' i 

in iM'giunlng to reucu out for a DSttonol ( 

. President Wcslrrn Pt> 

big hoad on hlx nhouldeis. n. ou^ uv^a.-uaua. 
remark nt the Inte II. E A. that nothing better 
than his pujH'r wnn luanl there. 
— We have nvelved holiday wuvenirs from 

Kichmoud. iiid., B. C. 


whom we have a haudspme flourished design 
in our '• Oalaxy of Flourihbers" series, next 

■b.. and ibi' S,KiK.Tiiiu ii. (-• . ^\ u>Luii;t._.u. 
-The B. and S. B. T., ButTnlo, have added 
ht'ir trachliti! (»ice S. K. Buidin. whns« 

"stvlRof past'connccted OS a teacher with tho Gro\ 
siyiB Ol J- f-nll»<7.. Hp, wns nlMiut twentV-fl« 

penman of the( Ui 

— Th« editor .i 
honored by ele<:tii> 
Education of the «' 
m resides 

- Tht Pitdmont is the n 

,evv Chiulotte. N. C. 

N. C, 

iimdo bv vi.ri<iiiN >t>i<l. ntsv. aN' by Krin, Cur- 
nick and Fonmao Wil»ou oi \hv faculty. That 
Mr. Wilson is very popular with the pupils is 
alteKled by the presentation to him by them 
on this occasion of a handsome gold watch. 

— D. I>. Darby of Northboro, la., has been 
cngagi-d to teach peomuan«hip at tho Tarkio 
College, Tarkio. Mo. 

— Here i* another member of our " Good 
Writers' Club"— C. M. Holt of Anu Arbor. 
Mich. Vou could hardly spare a stroke from 
a page ol his writing nor would you wish to 

— Santa R»a. Cal., B. C. publishee a neat 
cidlrge journal, in the current issue we find 
signatures of Prin. J. 8. Sweet and Sec'y 
C S. Nease. which attei>t the fact that this in- 
stitution has two very capable penmen. 

— A busineiw-like catalogue comes to us 
from tho Commercial Depariment of the 

' ago Harmimn & 
laTBr " ' -"- 

vutly been o mpelird 
nu-rc rvmmWxlioUK nuartent. gi%-ing ihem one 
of tbe UrgxM balls lu the Stmth. lighteil from 
four i-idrs. Tbey re|iort a Mcaily demand for 

&, M. College, l^xineton. Ky. This de- 
parlDieot i« in cbanci* of C. C. Calhoun. 

— H. A. Spencer i« conducting a large 
"writing club" at the B. & S. College. Louis- 
vtlle. Ky. Mr. Siiencer has been making a 
specialtv of tbwv cluhsi and has secured excel- 
lent result*. He alao teaches his pat<^t sys- 


— A note from C. A. Vf 
forms us that Mr. .A I 
Framingbam, Mn-- ' 

earlv part of hi< Mf^ «ii- vj-rtf m tbt- larger 
towns «r deities of Ma-*, teaching tbeurt that 
wasso dear to him. For the pa*.t seven years he 
has done good work in the evening high 
w:hool of Boston As a teacher he whs popu- 
lar, end as a man was loved by all who knew 
him. He took great intoreatiu The joi-usai-. 

— Fred. Zilliox of th.; Oermail-Englwh 
Coll., Chfirles City. la,. seti<lh H|K-cimenn hhow- 
ing improvements by his pupiN after about 
three mouths' practice. Uood progresa is 
shown, and we are glad to give iudiv rlual 
credit for sucb improvement to Frank U. 
Walte, Almon Hillier. A. ii. Brenner and 
Estella Klaus, Mr, Zilllox also favors us 
with a neat flouriahwl specimen of hi* own 

— W« have been much intcreoted In ex- 
amining a large number, some scores perhaps, 
of sheets of fluuroA made in one of the writing 
classes of Huntslnger's B. V.. Hartford. Couu. 
They represent the wurk of thi- clriH-. nfU-r 

about four months ij n.^ I !■ i" ■ iinens 

are not selected fior.i -i. i ■ t n tliry 
conrtnedtotbel)e*l ""' ' ' ''■" '■^"•"'J 

Safeness of Railway Travel. 

Only one person in 4."i..-i00.000 railway 
passcDcers was killed by railway accitUnt 
in 1890, so the railway compaoiis will 
again hold their carriage? fafer tban our 
beds. It is true the proportion of injured 
is much greater, but still io 1890 only one 
passenger in 1,648,677 was burl in a rail- 
way accident. K^ilwaj travtlcrs can af- 
ford to take that rifk. It id a risk gtcatly 
reduced in recent years. In 1874 the in- 
jured were one in 300,000, and it was not 
till 1883 that the chsDcts of the injury 
wfre 9o far diminished that only one in 
1,000,100 pusenRers was hurt. — Ez. 

Your prosp*-ctus for 1M« is indeed a bill of 
f orr calcul -ted to gratify the palate of the pen- 
manship hungry. I have wit at your Ubie for 
»ev.Ttil years and you have catePdd lo my taste 
and appealed my hunger every time I partook 
of Tour meal. WiU show the blU of fare t^. my 
friends and invito them to th s bountiful feast. 
Wfalru tt. Snyiicr, Lanctuter. I\m. 

I could not »>^ without Tnr Joib.vai.. I 
like everything about the paper and read tt 
through from end to »od.~/'Ai/ H. Ion Uorm, 
farmer I'ttlaf/e, \. Y. 

^^yen/tia/i^ Q:7llCo^wuiaS 

•The JournaPs" Writing Club. 

IN THE beginning of jour practice on 
capital letters, we wish to impress 
upoD your mind the importance of thor- 
ough drill in the movement 
Form is a very essential facto 

combinations. Begin the practice of this 
lesson with the oval exercise given in the 
fiist line of the copy, using a rapid muscu- 
lar movement; making a dozen or more 
circuits without lilting the pen. A few 
pages of this practice is none too much for 
a start, and you should continue to do this 
every day. 

The principle following this oval exer- 
cise should receive a large share of atten- 
tion, on account of its use in so many letters. 
Practice each letter, word and movement 

and foot pieces, etc., that Mr. Zaner is 
giving. As Daniel Webster said of the 
State of Massachusetts, " There she stands; 
look at her." These may not be the pre- 
cise words, but they serve the purpose. 
The idea was clearly outlined in the first 
paper of the series, published in Novem- 
ber, and you should get that installment if 
you haven't it. These lessons also embody 
a new idea whose purpose is to develop the 
originality of the student while training 
his manual dexterity. Originality in art 
is everything. No mere copyist is worthy 
of the name of artist. Much good prac- 
tice and many valuable ideas are to be 
had from copying good designs; but this 
must not be done to the exclusion of 
creative efforts. Practice at grouping 
objects, otherwise called pictorial " com- 
position." Even if the separate objects 
are not wholly your own designing, yon 

O^OrO 9^'9^^^^:^jL^ 

4^ ^^ ^^i^-^-Z^-^^-t^-^^^ ^^ 



handwriting, but it is very necessary for 
a pupil to have something more in order 
to produce writing that will be acceptable 
to the business man. The writer is the 
recipient of scores of letters from young 
persons in different sections of the coun- 
try, who are trying to improve their writ- 
ing by home practice. Many of these have 
a good knowledge of form, but have failed 
to educate their muscles. 

We present herewith what are termed 
the reversed oval letters, singly and in 

Wiih Mr. Patrick's Lfuson. 

the order given in your lesson, 
Z, Fand Jarethe only five-space letters 
in the capital alphabet, all others are three 

skill at drawing before he. can expect to 

do such things well, so don't be dis- 
couraged if your first efforts are not as 
natural looking as Zeuxis's grapes, which 
the birds tried to eat from the canvas. 

But 1 didn't mean to anticipate Bro. 
Zaner, and I had almost got off the track 
of what it was in my mind to say. That 
is, that the plan embodied in his lessons of 
describing the object to be drawn, in the 
one instance by words, in the other by 
skeleton drawings, is one that ought to 
bear good fruits, and I hope that everv 
.louRNAi, subscriber who has a leaning to- 
ward ornate penmanship, and is not now 
as proficient in that line as he would like 
to be. will try his hand on these lessons 
and send the author of them specimens 

executed i 

in th! 

: miinner prescribed. 



and End Pieces. 



No. I. 


^, ERHAPS no de|)art- 

^f ment of illustration 

admits of as great 



g7 'H'lety of subjects 

} n 

s initial ^ 
Besides including : 

IS styles of letter- 
ing, both plain and or- 
nate, ancient and mod- 
ern, simple and complex, 
it embodies objects of 
every description froma 
pen to a portrait, from a 
flower to a mountain, 
from a bee to an ele- 

fcj-" So you will readily 

^"' see that no small amount 

of free-hand sketching is necessary, and 
of a kind which is not infrequently tech- 
nical and minute in imitation and detail. 
Photography, pantographs and tracing 
papers are of but little value here. It is a 
well-trained eye and hand- and a fertile 
brain that find the work pleasant and 

Inatfucttoiia for Aprit, 

__ what crowded, 

thought it liest to (.-oustruct bis 
subjpct so that he migbt not ex- 

{To he continued.) 

5hort Chats with Learners. 

I \\.\y,T to say a word about the 
course of instruction in ornamental pen- 
work — the making of ornate initials, head 

acquire some property in the design if 
the arrangement of the details is yours. 
Maybe after a while you will be able to 
sketch the separate objects also. Prac- 
tice drawing from life. I don't mean by 
this to draw exclusively from living 
models, which are by far the most difticult 
subjects, but from objects themselves 
rather than from pictures of them; from 
actual chairs, tree?, houses, drapery, fruit, 
etc., what artists call "still life." Of _ 

course one must acquire some technical Henru Jifkinn, Scr 

crowded on tue iaside. 
[The foot-piece on preceding page 

the December 

J, H. H-, Stevens St.. Bostou, asks how he 
can improve bis handwriting. Just now we 
are recouiueuding this prescnptiou to all such 
iiiquirei-s— and tliey ai-e not fpw : Try Prof, 
Patrick's Lessons. 


^k^f^ fL/en/tuuiA Qytit QyotttnojL? 

Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of them, make books which they try to palm off as superior to 
the oripinnN. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

Mecause it is the best ttxl-l)o()k on the subject ever jiublishcd. as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all plionographic 
books preceding it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from il. 

What evidence is there that it is a standard work ? 

It has been published 33 years wllhoui change because none 
has been lound necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
the country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of At,l, .Xiioiir I'lioNoe.RArHv. the 
largest and hand'-imu^t slmnliniiil tirciiKir tvcr published. 


Author and Publisher, 

744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting, 

744 Broadway, New York. 


,1 half D 

nail I 


ll Iv payment*. Any _ 

'-<l C^alalo^ea Vtvc, 

In Rroo<Iwny. New Yorlt. 
1, ja« Wabash A»o., Chic jj;o. 


s H o i^ T ia:-A.:isr ID. 

Ni;' 1 I I II I I KMN SHOUTHAND,, .t, I \i> ■.. 1, :.,.,(.- likejiriiil. T.-xt bwik 
ii.m,.uf. i-.-i. 1,111 \.m ,ciil.«. Lewons by 
MAIL unit INMIIUTK. Tml lesson FUEK. 
Book flcnt to cnllOKcs for exmulniitloii. Write. 

H. M. PERNIN. H-tf 

Oetrolt, - - liAloln. 

>ACH NtJ.-nBGRS of TsB JotiHNAi.coi 
9 ttihiln^ Mr*. pHckHrd'B romplele Lmmoi 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 

The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 years' experience, author of "Aid to Graham," 
'• Shorthand Copy-Book," &c.. President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not jiretend to be a new system. It presents Grahams 
System in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are une<|uale(i in thi- history 
of shorthand teachers. 1 lie publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will be sent 
bv mail pcisi.p,il,| to anv addro" on receipt of the price. $r 50 



THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO.. Publishers. ,.^ 
23 to 27 EucuD Avenue, - Cleveland, Ohio. 

and liMUr-arittag for rfMnmrrelal pcbools and 

academi**. Altbouxh publtobrd trccwtly. tbo ISib 

ibuuMod of this tiook ba* Ju«t Uvn printed. A 

<'' - .j^2 ^f^ t-aluablo work for shorlband vhiKil* an<l dotjart- 

,^/J'y,^,f monuwlll b«aTTM»<<liai ikoirariar and n*aM- 

C/^ €^f-/ rapbfr ■ Haad-l^k.oow In pr-w, Koady January 

^ ^ liNh. It irivtta wrU-A of trradcl le»*oM^ fac-aimUr 

^"^ l-airm. 

I be bmt boitk 

. rwritioa 

•>c*nk. post patd. 

noveland. O. . AND TVPEWRITIHQ. 

Typewriting by Touch 

'^ ^r//J/^//{l 




»' r»r Tr„ 


V Ihr .Vt,Htp»lt 


r Kr 


0. r,,,r„ 

.rltl,„.l Ihr n 




'• "• '"" 


Ikr Kr,,. 







IJIU Rjtitnn 


D.liof T)rp*wr1l«r 



>N Hchool* 

• r» dopll 


hi* .netbod. 1 

l> i:ul«r 




UM • conilu 


upvrallitn of Ihp k 

c>« riiKUn 

o com pl teat Ml flniR>rlni (.-mpkijvd. II \» vmay, lUfnplr anil upcwdr 
bf> Kptit to any ailiimv on tvcvlpl of Rnall Price. II.C 

E. E. CHILDS, Childs' Business College, Springneld. Mass. 



Better made, 

Runs easier, does 

Better Work, and 

More of it, than any other. 

Constantly improved. 


Wyckoff, Scamans & Benedict, 

327 Broadw.iy. New V'ork. 


learn Shorthand? 

I liiivf iipiiluati.ins cciiilinually fur 
vcmrig men which I cnnnot fill. I could 
hiive located two or three tiuiPM as miiny 
yoiing mpii the hwt yen? if I had the 

in«rt yoiiiiK 
Lft it be 

; liik'her. 

ni'l pereon- 
h-li. Bus- 
r.Tjt .Sten- 




icr: t4'(u:hts» " Ileuuriwr*' Kulf of Position' 
rom licpinnlDiT. anil dl-cards all tliat wblct 
rill not br nf aciuil uiw> tu the atenoirraphci 

Retail Price, - - - »i.80. 
Sample Copy to Teachers, - I.OO. 

Ihe Bryant aod StrattoD Poblisbiog Co.. 

l-l:! 461 VAIN ST.. BUFFALO. N. T. 


Ixiilj. Uor» 'luiiorni iiiirl ncc-iirau-. Ka*y, u< - 
otiniK- Mod rtl.iibh-. Si-iiil -tnraii r..r a 3i.rmKC 
(•■rculur. M.uh1ili-»r(-iit»?<lf)n Iriitl. 


/Vl-r R„lM(*A f»M.1. til 1?) »*,. l.ouU. Ma. 

American System of SboribaDd. 

To supply the increasinR demand for 
stenographers, schools nf shorthand and 
type- writing hav been csLihlished in var- 
ious [lartsof the country, and, with few 
exceptions, all businc»> coIIckcs now hav 
a " department q( shorthand." A number 
of sy^te^ls -tr taiitrhl, (>ui that of BfltR 

Pi man is n.ore gpn« rairy ti.ei than anv other 
in^hisroun'ry and m;iy b • rnU rlthe 'Amer- 

For catalog of shorthand pablicaiions 
by Bcnn Pitman and Jerome B. Howard, 





dTCiC oJdtcz/Lal9 

* OiiL' Huinlred Suggtsti 

"Graded Lessons for Typewriters." Tfi I.e 

•• One Hnndre<i Manuscript* with Keys " (Mun- 

9on Syatem.) 
" l,etter Dook." containinft 10() OESorted letters, 
with key. (Miinson System.) 
For prices nnd full mforroatlon address 


Ztinesville Commerctal CoIIchtc. Zanesville, Ohio. 

Ra ■ F(ir nrie of Wilson's Beau- 
■ liltul Speclmeni of Flourlsh-^^ 

.,3'""""" ntAUTl 

Do You Wear a Hat? 

Prosperity in Sight. 








Adapted for use Tvith or without Text-Book, 

and tbc only set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Counting- House-Bookkeeping." 




arrangomcDta made with Business 
Colleges and Public and Private Schools for intro- 
duction and use. Descriptive List now ready. 
Correspondence invited, 

Tue best Pen In the U.S., and best penmen use them. 


Tt,.« P„„ 1, ,.. v^ythe abovetitle. ismanufac- 
I.andcurefullysele-'ted. They 

irly . 

coniatning 36 Pens. 

• Pul»lic and Private 
«je. Put np in Boxes. 
Post-paid, on receipt of 


119 i 121 William St.. N. Y. 

,t\frfu\. If 



Send me your name written Id fuU, and 3S o«Dt& 
and 1 will send you one dozen or more ways of 
writing It, with lustmctions ; or uend me a S-oent 
stamp, and I will send vou addressed In my own 
hand, price list desorlptive of Lessons by Mai 1, "- 
tendea Movements, Traolng "- ■ 



Eieculet all Kinds of OrnBmental Pen-Work 

To Order. 

Our Engroesing, Pen-Praivine. Lettering and 

Flourishing have received the highest commeada- 


is the designing of Ornamental Pen-work, Resolu- 
tions, Testimonials, &c,, executed in a first-class 
manner. Laree pieces of Flourishing, Lettering 
and Pen-Drawings done in the best possible manner, 
Correspondence solicited and satisfaction guaran- 


: tl.) For Professional 

hers of Drawing udU 

Public Schools, An advanced 

- >;r'i'' Wf'tiogand Diuwinir and in 

jiossible branch of pen work. Rooms 

)mply eijuipjj ■ ■ ■ 

i methods used,: 

iomply equipped, tmiy nit 

t thorough 

for Catalogue a 



.T, a DILLE, Principal. 

W. WALLACE, Instructor. l-tf 



Addroa,, c. V. CARHART, 

425 Clinton Ave., _ Albany, N.Y. 




eand oma- 

>ra. ISS. 

Expressly adapted for profesah 

mental penmanship. 





All of Standard and Superior Qnality. 





ACOLLK<"riON OF 100 vaoiahie recipes 
for the manufactnro of vaiious kinds of bihfi 
for tbe lue of penmen, artists and a)l business, 
^cbooi and family purposes, will he mailed on re 
oeipt of 50 cents (stamps or postal note) by WELLS 
W.SWIFT, Apulia, N. Y. 12-11* 

WANTED.-Purchasers for: 

Fancy Capitals fO! 


Ink EnisiDK t'eocll. The iiulcke6i_ 
test selling novelty ever produc 
thoroughly in twoseconds. No 

■" -■ likemaaic. SOU to SWIperccnt. 

amounted to $(i2ii iu 

wo hours, Previoui 

-iiry. Kor terms and full 

THE M« — -- 

Eelling novelty ever produced. Erases 
oughly in t> "*- "" ' " 

paper. Workslike 

six days Another $32 in two hours, Previou' 

— rv. Kor terms and full 


, Wis, X215 



I A thousand years as a day. No arith- 
metic teaches it. A short, simple, practical 
method by E, C. ATKINSON, Principal of 
Sacramento Business College. Sacramento. 
Cal. By mail, 50 cents. Address as above. 

Price List of 
Penmen's and Artists' Supplies 


mental I 

AiLds' Book 01 AiphaDets 

Ames' Ouide to Prai^Uoal and Artletlo Pea- 

maiiablp, In nipcr 500.; Id olotli 

Amefc" Uopv Sllns for ^elf-Teachera 

3i»yidard Praotloal penmananlp, Dy tne Bpea- * 

New Speiicerian Compen^nm. complete la 8 

Boi_ , 

Kiblte's Alpii 

. five allps, 2So.; complete 

Urant Memorial. 
Family Record. 

t Alphalie 

UarrlageCertlfioate. 18x23 

" " ilxH 

Oarfleld Memorial 10x34 

Lord's Prayer 19x24 

Bounding Stag 24x3S 

Flourished Eagle S4x32 

Cenlenniul Picture of ProKress... 22x25 

Eulogy of Lincoln andOrant, 




y nothinq f» iheae Xint% 

100 by mall 

500 " 

1000 " M.50; by express 

Bristol Board, S-sheet thick, 23x28. per sheet. 
" £2x28 per sheet, by express . . . 

Frenoh B.B.. 24x34, || *' 

Fine Grey Hoard. 2ix28, per sheet, by ex.. 
H0II DrawiQE Paper, m inclies in width and 
-ed length (the very thing for 

_.., ._. . j,Qpy (of 

jartl. 22x'JS. for whlta 11 ' 


ne penman9btp3pecm)>?ns and copy for 

Black Card-board. 23xa?. for white ll^.. 

per lUOO, by express 30 

~Br sheet, qu"" 
17 mall, by I 

5»i ao 

- 200 

White _Ink, 
Gold Ink. I 

£1X30.. .85 8 7 
26x40.. ,06 7 
&IXS2.. \.lf, SO 

Sup'^rSup India Ink Stick I 

Slabs, w^th cover, m^4H, ■■" 


r bottle,. . 

Pen. i4 gross b 
" gross box 

EngrosBing'Pens for lettering. 1 

"-* rord__ __„. 

lettering— Double 

y fine, for drawing, doz.. 


Oblique Penholder, each 10c. ; per dozen 1 00 

"Double" Penholder (mav be used either 

straight or nbliquel, eacn U>c.: per dozen. 

Oblique Aletal Tips ^adjustable to any holder), 

Double" Penholder (mav be used either 
straight or nbliquel, eacn U>c.: per dozen, 1 00 
ique Met"' "" j...---li_ . ._.j__. 

WritUig and I&easuring Ruler, metal edged.. 

New Improved Pantoi 
diminisbiui - ' 
Ready Binder, 


ph, for enlarging or 
1 device for h'-ldlng 


No. 2. " ^^xSWfeet... 

No. 3, '• 8 i4 " 

jtone Cloth, one yard wide, any length, per 
yard, elated < '^- 

Scientific American 
Agency for 

f dctttifw Juttcriau 

LiBBSBs, 861 Broadwar, 1 



Inches wide, per yard, slated both sides. 9 25 
Uquld Slating, the best In use, for walls or 

wooden boards, per gallon 00 

on good bank note paper Is kept fn stook. and 
orders will be filled by return of mall or expreea. 
The fractional denominations are: I's. 5's. 10'b, 2S'b 
and GO'S, in convenient proporilons; llie bills are 
in tbe denominations or I's, 2'b, 6"s, lO's, SO's. SO's, 
lOO'a, 500's and 1,000's, which are printed on eheeta 
of fliteen bills each. They are propnrtloned so as 
make 3 (me*, 8 twos, 2 fivti, 2 Une, and one each of 
the20.M, 100, BOOandl.OOO dollar notes. 

The proportion in which the different denomloa- 



ifgea and 

.ni,'rii*fu..u.- ....IN ,.. .. ...„l 


Of most of the th.iusands of outs that have ap- 
peare<l In Tub Journal and our publioatlons, 
duplicates will be furnished for low prices. 

We will supply, aipubliihers' rales, any standard 
work on penmanahlti In print; also any bookkeep- 
ing, oomroerolal arithmetic or other educational 

Send the money vAx\ d r I 11 ises Unless 
this requirement i « be sent by 

^-j^ tJenyficuvd Qyiit oJ^itzna^ 

IH ONE of WILLIAHK k. KOOKIt8' nuu>r p«pal«r ronnnerclal PubllCNtloDn Altbough but 
tbrfr month* from lb«-pr<-M It ban brfo Milopted hy many of (he lea^Ifnv buntn^M v%\V 
lernari'l c'lmrocnrUi'lfiHirtmenK or ib« rourliT' )ui'l tt^rben ftod studentia of pen - 
BMfvblpiirc dihithl'^ with It. II ii oiliiInBl. unlqupaod bcauMful. and iU pt rullHr|||<Hieom- 
lornd 11 iiwi«nllr <o "ll who examiM- II Amunir It^Bimn^ qu«|l»lr«iio': 

Fiiu«T-Tb<- lln« arc «jract rcpn-duct'ono of tbe bcIubI prn-wilttDfr of ooe ol ibr bpcl 
piartk«l Krlinv In th« countrr. innt'-Bd of ■crunte roiravtmrv from ptiictl 'Irewlnss 

Fkovd The ''oplr* arc priolcd on ruled |iappr. which contrlbutmao much to tbeir natural- 
nfw that ihr> ■vcrmi*' piip'l dues not aiMpfCt that tbe Hon arc rOKrarloin. 

T n I R D- Thi- art pont«lo«fto larffc a numljor of ccpfcc. Sfi In all, thit the pupil flo'^a ample 

wblch « 


{ would fflre btm. 

rUil prUv of IbU eel, whU-b U ralred tbe CoMPLBTB Kditioh, la 11.00. and ono 
> any a^dma on receipt of that umtunt in po«lal nnt» or poat«Re stAopa. A i 
I In any t'-acber, witb a vlvw to lotroduetlon, lor SOo. 

AN ABRIDGED EDITION of Pen-Wrinen Copies (Reproduced), 

CoiitiiiDiii;: iiliaul lOU co|)i(s and ii Book of Inhlructioiis, adapted tu public mid 
private ^cboola, has jiut been usucd. The retail price is dOc. and a set will be 
mailed to nnj t<acbor, with a view to iDtroduclion, on receipt of 25c. in postal 

not. ..r |..>v|;iKr stMinp-. Atltntioii is als.i called to the following: 

NEW COMPLETE BOOKKEEPING. 275 Pages. Retail Price, $2.50. 

NEW BOOKKEEPING. 250 Pages. Retail Price, $2.00. 

NEW INTRODUCTIVE BOOKKEEPING. 125 Pages. Retail Price, $1.25. 

COMMERCIAL LAW. 310 Pages Retail Price, $2.00, 

.4n<>(Aer Utm^^mm* Book, 

75 Pages. Retail Price, 75c. 

M>|]> .1 unit Hmuly. 

BUSINESS LAW (*?rff7««"). 200 Pages. Retail Price. $1.25. 

Ki)r r..ininrr<-ial Schtwlsnnd CoiiumTCial OepartntPniK. An Errffiiint/lu l'r,ietir,il Ii"-*. 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 275 Pages. Retail Price. $2.00. 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC (*.T."ffsV;«). 225 Pages. 
Retail Price, $1,25, 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 235 Pages. Retail Price, $1.50. 

Retail Price, 75c. 

SEVENTY LESSONS IN SPELLING. 130 Pages, Retail Price, 30c 

THREE WEEKS IN BUSINESS PRACTICE. Method ^*' Outfit. $35.00 


ITk ">i'l/ 'nii*''''^'"' '■■'^""^ f If r )mh'i*lfil (or fituttraHiifj Bu^ntim. TF aff'intM itut tbt ilrUl that Ij> 
ucff.vnru III l\t the iiu}iil in (/if hf»( tintvlMr K"(IH for office worA. 

ntaitetl (o (A" arfttrf't of atif/ tearhfr for rramiMattoH. trith a view to itttrottuftion, 
at onr-hntf thr rrtail nrlf : att't sample earda of ftMa(«ir«« Praetltio ««lfl Ae trtafferf 

We also carry a line of Diplomas for both Commercial and Shorthand Departments, which may be 

adapted to any school; also Blank Books and Business Forms for Bookkeeping, Stationery, 

College Currency, &c , Ac. Correspondence Solicited. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Educational Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 


pnslvo »cric-9 of rfriMnfJi/ u-ritUn r*ij»(M. frrah from tho iicn, on heavy, i 

Cpaclal Anni 

, Fulton Ave.. Baltimore. Md. 

We are now prepared to rule and bind Blank 
Books in any style and size that may be desired, 
Goodyear ^jjjj ^j, without printed headings. 

PublUhlna Coxpany. \\r^. ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ .^ superior grade of school cur- 
C(mmcf(i<i^rubli*hTi rency, and every variety of Business Stationery 
MMufKturing Stoiiongri, "scd in Busincss College Work, 
Cedar Ripidi, Ion. We can fumish currency and stationery with the 

imprint and address of any college; or we can print, 
on short notice, any special blank forms that may be desired. Write 
us for ';aiiipUs ;iik1 prit.cs, 

iukke«p1tiB Single 


■iTcly. A irta 

i>, 1(11.00. niKiiy leadlti 

Incorporated Jan. 21, 1890. Paid up Capital Stock, SI 00,000. 
o^wisrs — 

lid Ave. Business Colle«e, 90 Euclid Ave.. Cleveland. O. 

jn Business ColleBe, Cor. B'way and Wlllson Ave.. Clevetai _ 

Cat-^n's Nat. Business Coll^ffe, Cor. Pearl and Church Sts., BuffaU 

And The Deti 


College of Coi 

iiixti our RuslncSA Men's Kiuployment Hiiremi 
■r» poiploywl , a inujoritv of whom hiivo formei 
ho Caton 8orii« of text-hooks, of which we nn 
iDff and binding In ournwD publlohlnK houst^ 
ml Catalogue nod SO-patic Co lege Journul (free 

Tribune Bidg , Detroit, 

Wl. OverllOOBtuduatii plii<H><l 

re uiithors HPd |iiil)llshcrp. nm 

M. J. CATON, Cleveland, Ohio. 


teachen of Pbnhamuhip. orCoHHER> 
bmni.h(n and of Drawing and Prk- 
MAN8niP. THK NATIONAL LRAGUP. ha« a Uiir«au In 
encti 8latc In the TTnlon wlilcb concentrate their whole 
inHuence and skill upon the ONB POINT of Mloctlo^and 
n-c'ommendlnfr tcarhera. 


Lrndinc: excluMTc rotle<;c of Penmanship anil .\rt ill .VuicriciL The place to become a Penman. Artist and Teacher. ClaRS drill ami individual instruction. Three 
tiiiteiior penrarn Riving entire attention to the school and work . Six hours io^truction daily. Tuition reasonable. Oood board and furniihed room in private families 
only #3.:iO |>rr week. More applicalioos Tor graduates than we can 611. .\ll-round course of instruction embracing nice styles of Penmanship, PlourUhing, engrossing, 
nr»wing, Portmiturc and Theory. Finest Penman's supplies obtainable. LeMoo^ by mail. Job work of every description done in a superior manner, on short notice. 
Oiplomas designed and cuts furnished. Magnificently illustrated catalogue, showing work of graduates, with portrait of faculty, signatures, etc., etc., sent on receipt of 
five red i^tiunjuii or a dime. 11- 

, Associate Editor. 


Vol. 16. No. 3. 

at the base of 

Penmanship as a Science. 

BxtrRCU from Mr. Callahan'^ Paper 
nt W. P. A. Convention. 

PeomaDship may be coDsidered an art 
or a science. lu general use it may be 
termed an art, but when it becomes 
founded on certain principles or certain 
fuodamental laws, it then ceases to be an 
art and becomes a science as much as 
psychology when based upon the laws and 
phenomena of mind action ; or as much 
8 as education 
becomes a science 
when based upon 
the laws of the 
mind as obtained 
by careful study 
and classification 
of its action. It 

show in this brief 

talk that there 

the study of penmanship, aud that by 

noticing these laws and principles wc 

can learn much that will make us more 

proficient as teachers of the 

art and that will cause the 

student to have abcttter io- 

telliftence of the things that 

are necessary in order that 

be may become a business 


MorewetU « ta Nature. 

The laws that govern the 
poeition and movement in 
penmanship are found as 
natural laws in other lines 
of work, and as an illustra- 
tion of this fact one will 
observe that the position in 
penmanship should be that 
which is most natural in the 
every -day actions, and hence 
one that fcill be best suited 
for giving the body a 
healthy tone, and keeping 
the muscles and nerves in 
the most healthy condition. 
The feet should be firmly 
upon the floor, for the reason 
that while in that position the body 
will rest easier by the support fonned 
by the firm position of the feet. The 
feet are not pressed against the floor, 
as that would be an unnatural position. 
The body is slightly bent forward so that 
the eyes will be in a position in which they 
can best observe the work that the pen is 
doing, but the back should not be bent or 
humped at the shoulder, as that would, by 
constantly contracting the muscles of the 
shoulders, create a feeling of fatigue and 
uneasiness which by the sympathy existing 
between different parts of the human body 
would have an effect upou other muscles 
and might even cause weakness and 
disease of the nervous system. The body 

should be near the desk so it might be 
close to the work, but it should not lean 
upon the desk, as the action of the muscles 
would thereby be retarded. 

I hardly know whether a front position 
is really better than a side position, but I 
see prominent physiologists say that by 
the side position the spinal column is 
laterally curved and that by an upright 
front position the bilateral symmetry is 
best retained. 

There is a scientific reason for using the 
"muscular" and forearm movement in 

steady, smooth, rapid hand. It is true 
that in whole- arm movement that freedom 
of stroke may be obtained which will 
give firmness and beauty to the writing, 
but for the greater part of bu«iness writ- 
ing a smaller size of letter is required 
than can be made with perfect ease by the 
whole- arm movement for a great length 
of time. We cannot write so smoothly 
with the fingers, for the reason that our 
fulcrum is constantly changing. It may 
be at first by a slow, labored effort we can 
make better forms, but it seems to me 

The JournaPs Autograph Album. 

Rxamphs b\i E. L. MUU-r, Indianola, In , and E. L. Wifey, VhuUanmga, Tei 

preference to finger movement, for the 
movement of the fingers requires a greater 
contraction than is re<juired in the grace- 
ful movement of the arm upon the large 
muscles below the elbow, which together 
with the finger nails should act as movable 
rest for the mm. The rest in front should 
be the finger nails, because they are 
smoother and in moving over the ])aper 
will not retard the movement of the fore- 

[The speaker proceeded to describe 
correct position of fingers, etc., offering 
the same scieatific reasons.] 

that the only logical and philosophical 
method of making correct forms is to get 
at the correct movement which gives the 
basis for the correct form. 

In the "muscular" movement the ful- 
crum is movable and at the same time is 
placed far enough back from the weight 
of the penholder that a very small amount 
of contraction of muscular tissue will pro- 
duce considerable motion without great 
fatigue, so that writing by this movement 
becomes an easy and pleasant pastime. 
We noticed the same principle of lever 

the driver of the locomotive. We see the 
same thing on a smaller scale in the crank 
connected with the grindstone, or the 

windlass at the well. Realizing that 
" muscular " is the one best adapted to all 
kinds of writing, let us establish a few 
points to show that there is really a science 
and philosophy at the basis of the move- 
ment which will determine the correctness 
and beauty of the form which is made, 
and that by practicing to secure the correct 
movement in its genera! character and in 
its form, we can secure the correct form of 
the letter, aud at the same time make it 
with a beauty of stroke which far sur- 
passes the most beautiful engraved copy. 

1. In order to get the correct form of 
our movement we must locate the form 
and see ahead of what we are doing. In 
our mind's eye we can see the form upon 
the paper before it is really made, and 
in making the movement we may not ex- 
actly adjust our movement to the precon- 
ceived form, we may not strike exactly 
where we had aimed at, but by practice we 
will approach that form. Before makinga 
stroke in penmanship, as before taking a 
jump, we look ahead, and 
we may make a movement 
without touching the paper 
which will help us to locate 
the form that we are about 
to make, just as the boy 
who stands swinging his 
arms ready to put forth his 
best effort in performing a 
jump, and just as he locates 
by looking ahead to the 
place at which he expects 
to land, so we in penman- 
ship start with a swinging 
movement aud see the place 
where we expect to touch. 

2. Our movement begins 
before the visible form on 
the paper; in other words, 
there is a movement preced- 
ing the mention of the let- 
ter or word. We do not 
place our pen upon the 
paper to start, but our mo- 
mentum, before we touch 
the papei. is sufficient to carry the pen for- 
ward foreome considerable distance against 
the friction between the pen and paper. By 
starting in this way the beginning of each 
letter is a very light line, and amoothnesB 
of stroke is secured by the ease with which 
it is performed. 

•i. The energy producing a movement is 
applied so that shading is done automati- 
cally. We do not need to bear down upon 
the pen in order to shade. We do not 
need to grasp the penholder, but all that 
is necessary is to have the fingers above 
the pen firmly in position and not let the 
reflected force, from the pen striking the 
paper, cause the fingers to be bent back. 
4. The movement continues after the 


^3L^^r. f^Cn/ZlOAd 


viiible form od Uu pftpcr U finuhad; Id 
othCT word", the whole rooTemenl n»ed in 
mikfiifc % letter \% luger tbio tbit which 
)• iodicaUd by ifmply the foim of Ihe 
letter on the p«pcr. Tbe movement should 
oot Htop when the letter it tintBhed, for tbe 
■amc reatoD that the movemeDt should not 
befrlo where tbe letter begioit As it b oe- 
ccMftry to hftve soioe morocttum before tbe 
pen toiichei) the p«per, so it ifl oeceHuy to 
bsve atllTicitnt cncfffj of tnotioo to carrr 
Ibe peo l>cjoD(l tbe cloning of tbe letter. 

Tbeie poiotc. I believe, are self evident 
and we kcc the priociple which is in- 
volved in tbem in many of tbe naturHl 
tblDfiH around \\%. The three principleii, 
which I have rpckro of to cooncction 
with tbe bc>riiioiD); of tbe letter, the shad- 
IDK of a letter and the clngin;; uf a letter, 
may be well illuatrattd liy obeerviDg the 
maooer in wbirh the fanner uses the old- 
fashioned cradle in cutting wheat. He 
did not put tbe ncyihe agafost tbe wheat 
fo order to start, uor did be end bis stroke 
juKt when the line of utaoding wheat was 
reached, but all well know that tbe cradle 
would be drawn back a sufficient distance 
«o that be might have hiit movemcDt well 
Ntartcd with considerable energy and mo- 
mentum by the time that the scythe had 
reached the wheat, no that it would pass 
through by means of the application of a 
much lenH force, and so that after Ihe 
scythe had passed through the wheat the 
owing which bad been given it would 
rnrry tt on around to Ihe left side in such 
manner that tbe wheat could he taken out 
with the hand. 

As tbe ttcythc may be given auch a 
motion that it will pass through the gians, 
cutting deeper nearer the center of the 
Hwnth than at the beginning or ending, so 
wc in shading our IcttcrK start with such 
n xtroke that (be shade will naturally be 
made in the proper place without special 
prcasure upon the {jcn at that place; in 
other wordtt, we stiirt with aullicicnt force 
and in kucb a direction that if the black- 
Imard or table did not touch the pen it 
would take a path soinctbiug like the 
^cytho of the farmer, but 03 the table is in 
the way our luovement \* generally stopped 
and the energy of motion is lessened by 
the friction which produces tbe shade. 
From this it will appear that we do not 
Hbnde by bearing down, but that we tibade 
rather by the upward pressure of tbe sur- 
face upon which we are writing. This 
may seem curious, but all will understand 
what I raeon when you observe a boy 
throw a stone on the surface of a pond of 
water, and notice thol it skips along the 
Hurfacc. By throwing the stone at the 
proper angle this can be easily done. It 
will be observed that the stone is in motion 
before it touches tbe water, and that Ihe 
dent or gash that it makes on the surface 
of the water when it touches is smaller, 
but that it becomes wider and deeper aa it 
progrcves. and finally, aa its force of ac- 
celerated motion is diminishcil. it begins 
to touch the water at lets depth until it 
Hnally leaves the tturfacc by a light touch 
and movM ou through tbe air again. If 
the water had not been in tbe way, the 
stone would have gone on in a straight 
line, or rather in a Hue curved upward by 
the force of gravitation, but tbe water be 
ing in tbe way caused the tine of direc- 
tion to be changed. Sometimes the stone 
may skip along and touch the witer in 
several places; so sometimes with ua in 
writing, owing to an irregularity in tbe 
movement ol the muscles of the fore-arm, 
the pfn may. when making a light line, 
fail to touch Ihe pa|>er at some points. 

\\\ we have said is concerning the 
movement of (be muscles alone, without 
rcfcreoce to tbe cause of that movement or 
the force which lie* back of it. But there 
i-* an energT of mind as well as energy of 
matter. The muscle moves only as it is 
incited by the nervous sumul:. and the 
Dcnous stimuli muitonginatein tbe nerre 

ocater of tbe brain or spinal cord. It will 
thos be seeo that in order for a pupil to 
make a good letter be mutt put forth tbe 
proper stimulus from tbe nervous center, 
lie must think, plan and prepare in ad- 
vance of tbe movement. Tbe importance 
of forethought and preparatory motion 
khould never be lost sight of. Both men- 
tal and physical preparation are necessary. 
Menial prepatation consisls of a careful 

tion and size of tbe motion, amount of 
force, rate of speed, slant, and other things 
are taken into consideration as being nec- 
essary to produce (he rc<)uired result. The 
muscles arc then set in motion, their ac- 
tion agreeing as far an possible with those 
wed In the introductory stiokcs of the 
copy. To write an accurate letter tbe 
pupil must think an accurate letter, plan 
an accurate letter, and use precision in bis 
preparatory motion. No form nor change 
of form can be made without thought. A 
well-planned letter is completed in tbe 
mind's eye before the pen touches the 

I Mr. Callahan gave a number of illustra- 
tions with bis talk. Me held the close at- 
tention of all present. | 

Short Chats with Learners. 

ACCORDlN(} TO announcement in 
liiHt month's JorBNAU, we l»egin the 
publication of a stories of lessons on free- 
hund drawing by Mr. H. A. Hull, known 
the country «iver as nnexinrt in that line. 
This very nicely itmnda out The 
JouRSAi/sclfwseaof instniction for young 
pen workers. With Mr. Patrick's udmir- 
able lessons in writing and Mr. Zaner's 
no lojtt) excellent lessons in a s|MH-itic 
branch of drawing just in the penman '» 
line. Mr. Hull's le»»on» complete a bill 
of fare more complete, wo think, than 
has ever before been offered to the borne 
learner. Go in and help yourself. 





W()r>4> even than Latin or Ureek, 

Is the penmanship at "ChiMa' College, 

Which comes Ave days in tbe week. 

No CLASS of commnnications among 
bundre<ls received by the Editor every 
week are more gratifying than letter.-* 
from young people who have bnilt uj) » 


For It's " Scholars, now take your position, 

Uuih feet flat down on the floor ; 
r.«-t your elbow bo olT from the table 

.-tn i»cA, not a single bit more. 
Keep your copy close to your writing, 

Ami u blotter under your band. 
Slide smoothly along on your flnger-nalU, 

Watch m<! and you'll understand. 
First., let us take the ' Fore-arm movement,' 

Now don't use your Angers so ; 
Make the ovals JH6t as I tell you 

And, of rourw, your arm will go. 
Ju<it make about one hundred ovaK 

I think ibat will do very well ; 
And do try to write rery slowly, 

Dt.o't go nt it so pcU mell. 
Now you've got the foro-arm «o nicely. 

Take tbe gliding movv for awhile : 
Write * mun ' for utxiut twcuiy pagcfs, 

Ah ! tbut makes tbe ;/iV/s nil smile. 
But if you'd hiive your writing perfect, 

(let the nnifurm f»r\Biivd slnnt. 
And you'll see It will ite »> lovely. 

That its prnisw ever you'll chant, 
liet (bo downward stroki>s all pAntlle), 

I>o not make them look like this. 
And nben onoe you can do it nicely 

You'll be ever in |>erfect bliat 
But tf the fates are all agmnst > on. 

And tbe * slant ' you rannnt gel. 
PmcUce it oUdau, rrrry minute, 

Atul perhapd you'U get it yet." 
Now. mv friends, do you longer wonder. 

Why this writing IdeteMt f 
Whv of allth««e "improving" moTemeutts, 

I like the " fore-arm " tbe beiit t 
Why the "uniform slant" is ahormr. 

That bauntK me all day and night f 

Can make that old' " slaot " look right. 
If Tou do, trt me sitow you mv copie>. 

And tben no doubt you wiif ^ee 
Tbat tt>» price for the Hm-At writing. 
Will never tie taken by me. 

(Missi UrtwiK EnwARDii. 
CAi;d'« Bunmesa ColUffe, Springfield, Conn 

good handwriting largely throagh the 
instrumentality of Thk Journal's in- 
structions. If we could compile a com- 
plete list of all such since the first issue 
of the paper, over fifteen years ago, it 
would fill a large space and yon would 
instantly recognize the names of some 
of the brightest and most snccessful pen- 
manflhij) teachers and professional pen 
artists in the country. But besides those 
who have thus turned their knowledge 
and skill to professional account are hun- 
dreds and thousands in various walks of 
business life who look back with the 
moat pleasurable satisfaction upon the 
original small snl>scription investment 
which has aided tbem so mnch in their 
business career. The engraved letter 
from F. G. Johnson. presente<l herewith, 
is one of a kind we receive by almost 
every mail. Here are sentences from two 
others just at hand : 

Tub JofBNAL caused me t« take an inlervit 
in nenmansbip and I owe nearly everything to 
it.— Geo. B. Hans. Mcucout<ih, HI. 

I would not be without Thi Jockxal for 
any roosideration. My nrning wan very pwtr 
wlieo 1 ttegan to take it, and I can now rw a 
wonderful change for tbe lietter. rw«ul(ing 

simply from practice fmm your paper. 

Sharon M. Beach, Sff/mour. Conn. 

Both of these letterw are written in 
hands that, while not being wholly ma- 
ture, are excellent ip quality and move- 
ment fmm the standpoint of what is 
usually known as practical writing, and 
we hazard nothing in saying tbat each of 
the writers, with continued practice, will 
excel in this art to a consjiicnotis degree- 

Free-Hand Drawini^. 

No. I. 

Dr. Rotmer says : " The art of drawing 
ideal into vision, or of exhibiting the con- 
cejition of the mind by legible characters, 
may justly be deemed the noblest and 
most beneficial invention of which bnman 
ingenuity can boast, an invention which 
has contributed more than all otheivto 
the improvement of mankind." 

In the following series of lessons we 
shall aim to indicate the steps and illus- 
trate the methods whereby the inventive 
faculty spoken of above may be trained 
and a knowledge of free-hand drawing 
acquired. The old adage mnat not be 
forgotten, however, that " We learn by 







doing ." No one can acquire a knowledge 
of drawing who does not uctnatly take 
pencil or chalk in hand and follow the in- 
structions indicated. Goethesays, " Every 
art must be preceded by a certain amount 
of mechanical expt-rtuess." To no art is 
this leaving so directly applicable tut draw- 
ing. It must be remembered that the 
prime end and aim of drawing is to rein-o- 
dnce mental pictures. The mind teems 
with images. Tlie sensed from childhood 
furnish countless conce^itions which mem- 
ory ston* away, awaiting tbe tim*- whi-n 
imagination and fancy shall croii-^truri 
appropriate designs. Nature is the miurcv 
from which the greater |>art of onr 
mental pictures is derived. To imitate 

"^ f^cn/nanA QS^ttt oJ^wi/uUO 

natare shonld be the aim of the drafte- "The Journal's ** Writing Club. 

Althongh not necessary, it will not be 
incorrect to begin the subject of drawing * '^"nearHned 'foVpHToi© Lea^n" "•'!''" ' 
with straight tines, ami geometrical 
figures of combinations of these are im- 
mediately made to produce pictnre-s of 
iiHtural objects. Horizontal lines should 
always* be drawn from left to right, per- 
pendicular and oblique lines always down- 
ward. A combination of parallel lines 
forms a la^lder, a rake. A combination of 
three lines ox triangle may represent an 
arrow, the roof of a house, as in first 
figure. A combination of four lines or 
quadrilateral may represent many natural 
objects. In fii'st figure, a chimney, main 
part of house, brick or stone foundation. 
In second figure windows are illustrated. 
The student, to be a successful draftsman, 
must continually .-xfii isp rhf faculty of 
invention. If ,i ti.irhir. 1ip must en- 
rleavor to rnltivntr \\u> Janilty in his 
pupils by ii^kui;.' lli<iii, ;t^ in last case 
above, to think uf all tlK- objects possible 

Initials and End Pieces. 

No. 5. 


IT IS WELL to bear in mind that prac- 
tice does not always make perfect. It 
depends very largely on how you 
practice. We have known pupils in 
penmanship to do real hard work for a 
month or two and yet not show any per- 
ceptible improvement in their writing' 
Many pupils are not willing to do more 
than three or four lines of a letter or 
movement exercise before they change to 
something else. 

The writer has noticed, after more than 
fifteen years' experience aa a teacher, 
during which time he has given in- 
struction to upward of 10,000 yoTiug men 

IKE any depart- 
ment of creative 
art, initial making 
should be treated 
so as to produce 
the best effect. 

The young pen 
worker ib ofttime« 
apt to neglect de- 
tail by stnvmg to 
produce a great 
1. al with few 
thi«; IS the 

ment known to human skill and 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

means, or. in other worda, they do not stop 
to consider that while the outgrowth is of 
a certain character the means to that end 
may t)e almost radically different, and 
that proficiency is the product of famil- 
iarly, and that familiarity is usually the 
result of repetition. 

Therefore, when you see a piece of 
work that was dashed off in a few strokes 
by a master hand, do not attempt it in the 
same manner until you are familiar with 
its every peculiarity, as was its origina- 

Be content with basic principles and 
detail treatment until you understand 
them fairly well and can draw with pre- 
cision, then try your hand at speed work. 
The results \\\\\ doubtless be all you de- 
sired. Learn to do well, then rapiilly. 
CrlHtii»tn», Suffffeatibnii. 

NICHOLS, Momcnce, III., submits 
end-pieco which is too flat for repro- 
duction, the ink is pale and tinting 
too similar. The initial herewith 
is well designed and would bo &tiH 
better in the reproduction if it had 
been drawn In heavier lines, 

S. D. Holt's initial is 

aot up to his usual high 

standard and will notbe 

enled. Seetheooes 

' herewith and profit 


E. H. Barrows. Butle, 

Mont., submits drawings whii-h reveal con- 

fiiderable taste and care; however, the birds 

are too dark and resemble crows as 

much as snow birds. The initial is 

twisted too much. 

Note.— r/u's initial is too large 

' below), has too much 

reach. It makes a bad joining 

with the type-m a tier and would 

make a worai" one but for th is 

interlopinff note.— Ed. Jocr- 

ITTLE can be 
said which 
would add to 
the cffective- 
s of the in- 
tial and the 
of the scenery 
ID the foot- 
piece by Miss 
A. a. Bro\vne ■ 
Dayton, 0. The snow birds, 
however, are far below the other 
work in conception and treatment. 
They aio not round and effective from the fact 
that the high lights aro not there. (Cut al bot- 
tom of page.l 

(See skeleton outline at foot of page 3. Jan- 
uarj JoiTRNAL. Also see design foot of front 
page of this issue.) 

R. L. Dickensheets, Boulder, Col., comes 
in second best ou end-pieces this mouth ; 
work is advancing but the border is overdone. 
The same fault that all young worksrs must 
combat. Foliage too mechanical in outline. 

Exercisen with Mr. Patnck\'< Writing Lef 

whitli ;in' fmiiu'd from fourstraightlines. 

S(i(iii till b.iiisF' will 111- furnished outside 
witb linnrs, jiiiinl^, windows, shutters, 
rbiijiiit^\^. aii.l inside with pictures, 

frHnu■^. iWsks. t;.l.I.-s, rurtdins. The dif- 
fereut cla.-'si's i.f 'jiiiiiiitrir;il titriirt'w may 
be ilhislralr.l hv n:iiiiKil m1,i,i|s, Tims 
bricks in fir^t u-w-k ilin-ii.ii.' irrtuji'le, 

top of table and drawer in third figure. 
Main part of house in first figure illustrates 
square, while in figures fourth and fifth 
the trapezoid is the prevailing figure. 
(To he contimud.) 

and women, that those pupils who give 
strict attention to the rules laid down by 
the teacher invariably succeed in acquir- 
ing a good handwriting. 

We present for your practice this month 
what are termed the stem letters. Prac- 
tice each letter and exercise in the order 
given in your letter, devoting a large 
share of your time to the combinations in 
the last few lines of your copy. Let your 
motto be: " To do one thing at a time 
and that u'eM." 

iTo fie continued.) 

worthy of commendation, yet it comes 
after and not before detail treatment. 

Therefore. I would say, do your work 
well and cai-efully, and after learning to 
do it thus, you will he in a position to 
take up the work of minimizing time and 

I would have you realize that there is a 
vast difference between learning and 
doing, acquiring and performing. 

Too many mistake the end for the 

crowds the 

letter to the right, thereby reducing it more 
than should be for fine printing. 

^ ^mman^ (2yLtt ( 

Credit to Whom It is Due. 

A HrkPMr fmr ArliHot*|ptf«lMa >bc Wark af 
ProirrMl'P Tv^cbpr* «■« fiadrnl* 

Wf have In-en trrinR for nome time to 
(levifw- a whcme which wooM incite a 
Hjiirit of <»innUt inn on the part of teachcni 
of chiMren and thiir pupiln. anil have de- 
ciilf'l to make the folliiwinte offen> : 

1. To the two teachem in each fcrade 
from the Brat year totheHiKh Schottl 
who itenil ns the firet and set-oml best 
fttiecimenH of their own penmanship by 
SepKmber I. 1«W. we will (five hand- 

*-^rttiUatfa of VrofirlimfV 
HiKned by the Editor of THE Journal, the 
comlnctor of thJH department and » third 
IKTwin wlio will helj) make the decihion. 

i. Ill order to Kivo those who are not 
fine writeri*. but good temrhentof penman- 
hhip. a chance, wo will give certifirattafor 
the fin*l and second be«t Btatements of 
method of teaching this subject (two cer- 
tificates for each grade) went ne by Sep- 
tember 1. It*y2. Such stiitements xhould 
be pointed and condenwd in style, aa 
Hpace ih a great c<»n^iderati^n with iiB. 

Thc»e offem are only for nynlnr leach- 
rrs. not (*i»cciHl teachers or BUper\'i»ors of 

The certificates will be mich an yon will 
r»e pn»ud to frame and preeerve. Selec- 
tiuHB from thelient ajwcimenB will Iw en- 
KTHved and pnbtiKhed in The Jol'KNal, 
also the ettsayR, with the iKTmiission of the 

:{. To the two pupils in each grade (pub- 
lie or graded mchoola, not business col- 
legCH) from the first year to the High 
Kehool, who send us by June 90. 1S93. the 
firt<t and second best specimens of i>en- 
iDiinship for that grade, we will give a 
difFrrent, but very pretty 

AlHrf*nr'« CrrttflraU 
signed by the same persons. Of course, 
in the lower graded at least, the speci- 
mens will be sent by the teacher, and in 
order that the work may Hppear to the 
beet advantage and be in projter ehape 
and condition for engraving for publics- 
tiou in The Joirnal, as we wish to do 
with Bome of the best ones from each 
grade, we auk that the specimens be pre- 
pared in form a^ shown in the center of 
thiii page. 

Use good white paper, foolscap size. 
g«K>d pens and bUick ink. At* the bwly of 
the siieeinieii, write nut less than two nor 
more than four lines on a slip of jmper 
not mon- than ten lines in width. Use 
the olHuvform. not necewsrily the same 
quotation, but the lines should be uni- 
form length to api>enr at best. Teachers 
sending their own specimens may omit 
age :nid ins«*rt " Tiacber" instead. Speci- 
mens or articles may be addressed to the 
conductor of this department. 

We believe that these elaborate certifi- 
cates will be much more debtrable and 
highly prized than any cash or other 
"prire" and hope that many teachens 
will tnke |»art and inspire their pupils to 
enter the competition. 

A» the time is near at hand for the 
spring examinations we will call attention 
lo this subject. We U-lieve that in the 
first place penmanship should be taught 
in such a way as to reqnire the pupil to 
think: There is too much haphazard 
pnutioe. the hand going through a series 
of esrvless. thoughlh"»is. heedless -pyro- 
lerhniral* (as Bro. L. D. Smith says) mo- 
tiniis, while the mindro.Has at will" Then 
there is rarvly sufficient attention jnven to 
secnriug neatness and accnracyin the rou- 
tine sch.iol work. As long as pnpils are 

given twice as much writing asthey can do 
well in agiven length of time, and allowed 
to hand in |>ai>ers ficrawled. scribbled, 
blotted and blurred in such a disgraceful 
manner that it is almodt impossible to de- 
cipher them, there will l>e little or no im- 
provement, no matter how con)]>etent and 
faithful the supervisor or siH*cial teacher, 
or how much attention the regnlar 
teacher givt>« to iienmanship during the 
writing lesson. 

Since Dur teachers have firmly required 
that all written work be neat and up to 
the pupils' highest standard in accnracy. 
and alt grades required to puss an exami- 
nation each term similar to the one below. 
there has lieeii a remarkable improvement 
in the apjiearance of all school papers. 

Let lus hear from others on this ques- 
tion. I hoi>e some one can give us a bet- 
ter method. 

2*«nmaniiAfj)— Graifi 

JX. inctu- 


1. Dcwribe the eorre<:t iK>sition for writing. 
[a) Pixiitiou of the body. 
{b) Position of arm und hand. 
(cl Position of l>ouk. 
'i. Write al[ of the iirineiples you have had 
in regulnr order, and give the 

benefit of writing teachers. I herewith, 
according to request, submit a brief our- 
Une of the plan adopted for the Saginaw 
exhibition last year. 

This comprised exhibits in the three 
special studies. \iz.: Music, drawing and 

In citiesi where specialutts are employed 
in these thre** branches, the exhibit can 
he made much more intermitting than 
when one or even two branches are 
taught ; for instance, the "music" will 
help to carry off the exercioes in a very 
satisfactory manner. However. I must 
confine myself to the ]M>nmanship part of 
i>. as it is of more vital importance to 
writing teachers. 

In the fir>it place, we procure<l large 
blue cards Ti x 'iS inches, and on these 
were mounted four, six or nine speci- 
mens, according to the sire of sheet, 
which corresi>ondcd. in primary grades, 
to leaves in copybooks. The ruling on 
these sheets from second and third grades 
correeiwnded to the ruling in copybooks. 
The copy, taken from books, was written 
four or six times in the middle of the 
sheet, with the name und age at the top 
and school and grade at the Irottom. The 
work from the remaining grades up to 
and including the eighth wasu]K)n ^^heets 
of ordinary ruled paper somewhat larger 
than copybook leaves. The copies scdected 
were appropriate stanzas, quotations and 
business letters. 

All specimens were ui>on the best qual- 
ity of paper that could be secured. 

The cardboard was cut diagonally and 
the corners of specimens inserted. 

Each and every room in the entire 
schools was represented by one cord. 



each— that i^, name the elements and tell how 
they are modifled or changed. 

:}, Write the Short letter group in regular 
order, and nive the construction of the last six 

4. Write the Third Principle group in regular 
order, and give the couxtruction of the first 
chroe and lost three lebtent. 

5. Write the Fourth Principle groupinregu- 
lar order, and give the eonstniction of each 

To TUK Trachkb.— Oive fifty per cent, on 
the answers to the above questions, and fifty 
per ewnL (tO each; ou the following points: 

1. Habitual poeitiuu while writing. 

2. Movenieut^ 

3. Quality of work in copylxx>k.s and prac- 

■4. Nentuoss of general written work. 
S. Effort in daily work. 

Time, two hours. 

Public School Penmanship Exhibit. 

The above heading announces that 
with which some of us are familiar, but 
not all the teachers of the "penmanship 
profession " 

As was mentioned through the columns 
of Thf Journal of two months ago that, 
if desirable. I would give a description of 
one of thwe exhibits for the special 

which contained the best writing, and 
the remaining specimens were put in 
book form, neatly tied together with 
bright colored ribbon, the outside cover 
being tastefully decorated. Every pupil 
throughout the "schools was represented 
by one or more specimens. 

I wish to say just here that all grades 
in our city echools, from first to eighth in- 
clusive, use pen and ink this year ; and 
the time is not far distant when we will 
do away with slates entirely for written 
work, and put the pen into the hands of 
pupils when they first enter school. 

The place of exhibit was a large hall, 
the use of which was donated by a (Jer- 
man society. One Aide of this hall was 
devoted to penmanship and the other to 
drawing exhibits. 

The cards, numbering over 100, were 
hung upon wires suspended to receive 
them, while the specimens in book form 
were placed upon tables immediately un- 

Besides these specimens, pupils were 
also requested to write short original let- 
ters on ordinary note paper. These also 
were fastened by one corner to cards. 

Neat every-day work of pupils was 
also collected and placed on exhibition. 

At regular interval were a nnmlter of 
pen drawings and sketches in India ink. 
onhristol boanl. done by pupils under the 
instruction of special teacher. 

The whole, when tastefully arrange<1. 
presented an attractive ap]tearauct>. and 
not lee» so was the drawing department. 
Teachers were stationed at various places 
to lot>k after the work, and to give Jtll de- 
sirable information to visitors. 

A very pleasing part of such an exhi- 
bition would be the distribution of souve- 
nirs, if you please to call them such. 
Select a few hundred blank canls. says 
4 X B inches, snjierior qnalitr, and on these 
have the Inwt writers write appropriate 
quotations very neatly : these can lie given 
away to visitors and will be much ap- 
preciated. A short piece of ribbon in- 
serted acn>8s one corner will add to the 
beauty of them. 

A word or two relative to the success 
of the enterprlw : 

This exhibit was held for two days and 
one evening, one day given for the iienefit 
of the pupils. 

A special pnigramme coniiKwed of music 
by pupils and sjweches by the su|)erin- 
tendent and members of the Iward was 
prepare<l for the afternoon and evening. 
and although we were not favored with 
very pleasant weather, yet the hall was 
crowded to its utmost. 

As this WHS our first undertaking on so 
large a plan, it proved to bo a great suc- 
cess, and piirentsand citizens, who showed 
much appreciation for the work, became 
better informed as to the quality of some 
of the work dune in the public schools. 

S. S. PfRDV, 

Snprrri-tor l^nmatiJiliip in Piihlir Schooh, 
Satjhiair. Mich. 

A Highly Successful Teacher. 

Few tcflchum have made n deeper study of 
the teaching of ptnmnniihip in tbo conditions 
tbot surround piil.H^- mIiu-.I «„rk .nlmveac- 


than I 


Dratcn for The JoCKfAX by D. H. Farley. 

'I Miiary generous 

from cities that 

!> till- economy, that 

■iiil remuneration. 

kind— 250.000,000 liabitually go naked, and 
7OO,0f»O,rO0 only cover part* of the body! 500,- 
000,000 live iu bouiu's, 700.000,000 in huts and 
cavea and ^iW.OOO.OOO vlrtUBlly have no shelter. 

Teaching Children to Write. 


'• What is this, children ? Uxik 
-f-^ carefully now and tell me what 
I do." Erase the two right curves 
and dot. leaving tbo first element f 
■' You rubbed out all of the i, i-xcept the 
middle." •* Now we are going to learn how 
to build an / like you build a house of 
blocks. How many would like to know 
the name of this little thing ? " (On board, 
in. long.) •• What is 
"A line." ■• What is 
(See below.) "A crooked 
-Is the first line I made 
that one ? " ••No." 
"It is straight." "There, 
ime. a ntraight line, but 
there is something else about it. 
An- the two lines ( Fi(/. 3) 
jnstalike?" "No, one is 
longer than the other." 
" Then we could call 
the little one a ahort / 
ntraight tint; couldn't we? 
Now. we have the name of 
this little line we are going 
to make. What is it?" "A 
straight line." " Now, I 
who can make me the bent 
straight lines wbiltf l( 
yon make one for each count. 

to leam 

two, three four. Look, 
begin at the top or bottom ? 
some who hold the pen- 
near the point and others 
ing the hand over on the 
Devote the remainder of 
son to correcting position, 

counting while passing among 

the pupils. 

"Attention, children. Are these 
two lines just alike?" "No. one 

"Looks like it would 
fall, doesn't it? We 
want to make ours like 
this one / and we say 
it is slanting." Make 
this a slant lesson, show- 
ing them how to place 
the slate so as to give 
proper slant. 

Review most essential 
features of two weeks' work, especially 

t~/cn//ian^ Qy^VcCOyotczAaJiP 

(sli;;)] :> ii-i. r'n.|u>-(: svcoiid. place 
slatf (sliLihtly ohlique) ; //iird. take pencil. 
Closing : First, pencil on desk ; second. 
slate squarely on desk; third, trady up- 
right, facing desk, bandit and arrnx at 
back. I believe that the common custom 
of having children sit when not at work 
with arms folded in front of the body is 
very injurious. While writing or doing 
other desk work the body must neces- 
sarily be bent forward more or less, and 
the stomach and vital orRans cramped. 
When the necessity for this too often un- 
healthy position censes, the body should 
at once resume an upright position and 
the lungs be inflated to their full capacity. 
Any weight or obstruction upon the chest 
will prevent a full inspiration. The hands 
and arms at the back conipal an erect at- 
titude, the shoulders are thrown back and 
every condition favorable to full and free 
respiration established. 

Use the blackboard freely in presenting 
the correct forms and calling attention to 
and illustrating the most prominent faults 
discovered from time to time. 


I Department mav t 
' - "hePe: 

IContHbtitlons I 

. Kellet, ofBce of The 

HAN'e AiiT JoDRKAL. Briof educational ft«m9 

New York State has forty-five log school 
bouses in use. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Gen. Francis A. Walker, president, has 1,011 

ti,iKO ; Berlin, 5,527. 
Americao colleges derive about two-fifths of 
ts, while English 
-tenth from the s 

e from students, while English i: 

> less than $IIUO per > 

The statistics of the various departments a 

Harvai-d have just been compiled, showing i 

gain of 3(U students over last year. The at 

tendance at present in all departments is 2,62.S 

Teacher : " Jimmy, what is the chief prod- 
uce of the Malay Peninsula f " 
Jimmy: "Malayria."— /far/i^r's Bazar. 

it, Miss Gniy^ion, but I can't define it,"— /.^a. 

Sumlau School Teacher : " Johnnie, did yo 
ever tell a Her' 

Johnnie (promptly) : " Yes. i 

' ?»■■ ■ ' ■ 


' ThiuikB. I 

daughter speak the lan- 

bleniau asks her t 

The roUowiug sloiy is characteristic of the 
pi^oc[ty of theage: A little girl in a child's 


nf Fhniaoh's daugh'ler." 

til.' ri'Moher; " Pharaoh's 
'ii-i 'Wivd Moses in the 
iiirii, uijswered the child. 



The best article we have seen on American 
}in plat« was custard yiii.—DansviHe Bretze. 
' How inappropriate many of our 

/. //r/. 

yt:^c^yi:i'fzt^ yA 










The above is one of a numbei' of plates made in The Joubnai. oj^ec (phote-zinc-efched) for " Gaf/'s .B«.si)ie.« Bookheepinff,' 
published by Oinn S Co. It U pre.iented as a good example of script and of process plate making as applied to such purposes. 

drills for po.-iition and all terms taught 
thus far. 

Much time is often wasted by having 
an elaborate set of signals, but a limited 
number are necessary to quick, accurate, 
methodical movements, and conduce to 
attention and obedience, provided the 
signals are not too noisy. Personally, I 
prefer a bell to counting, as I think chil- 
dren are disposed to act more promptly 
upon the quick stroke of a bell. 

When pencils are used, I give three 
signals at the beginning of the lesson 
and three at the close, as follows : Fii-st, 
place l)ody and feet in proper position 

Although good writing with a pen on 
the part of the teacher is not absolutely 
necessary to a fair degree of success, yet 
it is a great advantage, and good black- 
board writing is indispensable. Never 
write anything on the board carelessly. 
The character of the general work placed 
upon the board by the teacher has an 
educational or detrimental influence upon 
the pupils ; then let it always be your 
very best effort. 

Try to inspire a desire on the part of 
the pupils to improve from day to day by 
maKng them dissatisfied with poor work 
and selecting the best from time to time 
for special mention. 

{To be continued.) 

Father: "Another bad report from your 

Son; "That's right, papa; don't lose your 
coumge." — Ftiegende Blaetter. 

Trarber (trving to find out what the pupils 
know about the Diet of Worms) : 'Tommy, 
what was the principal Diet of the Germans m 
1.521 r 

Tommti (proudly): "Beer and saurkraut!" 

the dav time."— A'e til Ytirk tiui\ 
Two ladies meet who have been pupils at the 
hoardiut; school The one (proudly) : 

nothing ; I'm ah'eady 


pockets."— /Hditriopohs Jouiiidl. 

" I was bound to marry a nobleman or 
nothing," remarked an American girl return- 
ing with a foreign hu-band. 

" I guess you got both," said her father, 
and went on making out a check — New York 

Begiiar : " Ah, sir, I was' like you. It 
x)o fond of giving oway large sums of money 
« the poor. — Epoch. 

"Is this a fast train?" asked the traveling 
nan of the conductor. 

" Of course it is," was the reply. 

" I thought so. Would you mind my getting 

you do not believe the Bible i " 

tfi Co's. Monthly. 

An old maxim advises us to deliberate with 
cautiou and act with celerity. Ordinarily that 
is good enough advire, but when a bee gets be- 
tween you and ynur ti-oiisei-s it isn't a bad idea 
to deliberate with celerity and act with 

to the country for my health." 

Mr. Gotham (busily) : " All right, my dear. 
Which would you rather visit, your aunt in 
Brooklyn, or my aunt in Jersey City ?" 

An Irishman who was sbingliug a barn got 
too near the edge and rolled off, and fell to the 
ground. " Oi wuz comin' down, anyway," he 
reflected, '* Oi wuz jus 

Blushing brlde-elvi 
ceremony about to u\ 
pect you to give uu n 



' " 1 

sing the 


■ s..i(l. 
.I>, Caro- 
■• I toM 
a (lisposl- 


i Chicago 

Egbert ^^^u! 1. u. n Li. knee like a true 
knight, but, as lit^ liuil liwt his eyeglass, his 
vision was a Uttle uncertain. 

" Is this your foot, darling," he inquued. 

" Aw, pawdon — I— thought it was the 

Egbert is now disengaged. — Texas Siftmgs. 

Doctor : " From the condition of your band 
mdarm. Is" " ~ . - 

vriter's crai 
of muscles," 

Young Husini'ss Man : " But I never write. 
I employ a tyuBwiter." 

Doctor : " Um— engaged to her ? " 

y'ouno Business Man: " V-e-s," 

Doctor : " Doyour—er— dictating with your 
other arm."— iVrii) York Weekly. 

Etiquette of Visiting Cards. 

Ladies' cards are goverued by the following 
rules: A married woman io society, especially 
with daughter*, should always use the prefix 
" Mrs." Wido\vs and maiden ladk:s often pre- 
fer to use the simple name without prefix ; 
fashion dictates otherwise. A young lady in 
society having passed her first season should, 
if the oldest daughter, use simply, for instance. 
" Miss Bothwell." If a younger daughter she 
should tii^e her christian name in full. In bor 
drst season, a debutante should engrave her 
name below that of her mother, her individual 
card not appearing till the second season. On 
visiting with her mother, the name of a 
daughter may bo engraved below that of her 
mother ; If separate, her cai-d should always 
be left with her mother's card. The same ap- 
plies to a pluralitv of daughters, the names be- 
ing grouped. — From " Etiquette of Cards 
and Heraldry," in Inland Printer for Janu- 

jltiSi^' tycn/ficm^ Oyttl oJvuuuu^ 

'ei5URe P^DIMG. 

At Odds With the Calendar. 

JOL'ItNAL reailcre may recall an article 
reprinted in the December L«fluc from 
an uoccrtaio »ource relatiDf; to certain 
hutorical event* purporting to have hap- 
pened OD Friday. The following commu- 
nication from an old subscriber. Mr. 
Wilmot II. Thompfton, Principal of Public 
School No. 2, Orange. N. J., effectually 
disproves moAt of the statemenis made, 
and l8 valuable besides in showing how 
careless we are in accepting statements 
by unknown writers and giving them cur- 
rency without Brat taking pains to verify 

Mr. Thompson i« well known as an 
authority on mathematics, and a calendar 
L-xpcrt in particular. Among other useful 
devices be bos invented is one which The 
JoiKNAi, will in future give a conspicuous 
place in its otTice to guard against such er- 
rors as we have referred to. This is an 
inexpensive perpetual calendar, or chart 
of days nnd dates, by reference to which one 
may tell at a glance the day of Ibc week 
of any given date, or the date of any given 
day of the week in any century as far back 
as Father Adam, in old style or new. 

Editor Pbnuak's Art Joubnal:— 

Dear 8ih: InTiiB Journal for Decem- 
ber appeared an orticle headed "Friday 
Luck, Oood nnd Dad," containing errors 
to which I wi»b to call your atte.tion. 
Mention is made of nineteen events, of 
greater or less importance, each of which 
is said to have occurred on Friday. This 
item, with slight variations, ban been go- 
ing the round of the papers for three 
years at least, and how much longer I can- 
not say. Three times before this I have 
taken occasion to correct it. You say you 
would bo glad to give the name of the 
"careful investigator" who compiled 
these facts (0 if ;ou had any means of 
linding it out ; but. probably, if he could 
be convinced of the errors he made, he 
would prefer to have his name withheld. 

01 the nineteen events said to have oc- 
curred on Friday only three did happen 
on that day of the week — America wa^ 
discovered on Friday, Oct. 12 (O. S.). 
1402; Washington was born on Friday, 
Feb. 11. O. S., 22; N. S., 1732; and the 
bombardment of Sumpter began on Fri- 
day, Apr. 12. 1861. The burning of 
Moscow took place on Wed., Thur., Fri. 
and Sat., Sept. 1(1-19, 1812, and though 
burning on Friday, if any one day is to be 
named as the time of the event, it should 
be Wed., the 16th, the day on which the 
coutlagrutiou began. 

The other fifteen events charged— or 
credited — to Friday's account occurred as 
follows: surrendered Sunday, Apr. 0, 1865. 

Hichmoud, evacuated Sunday, Apr. 2, 
or Monday, Apr. 8, 1865. 

Bastile, destroyed Wednesday, July 15, 

MavHower, landed Monday, Dec. U, 
O. S.;31. N. S., 1620. 

Victoria, married Monday, Feb. 10, 

Charles I, beheaded Tuesday, Jan. 30, 
O. S.. 1649. 

Rouapartc. born Tuesday, Aug. 15. 

Cesar, assassinated Wednefidaj. Alar. 15, 
44 B. C. 

Marengo, fought Saturday, Juue 14, 

Waterloo, fought Sunday, June 18, 

Bunker Bill, fought Saturday, June 
17. 1775. 

New Orleans, fought Sunday, Jan. 8, 

Joan of Arc, burned Wednesdav, May 
:tO. I4JH. 

Independence, declared Thursday, July 
4. 1776. 

Shakespeare, bom. The date not cer- 
tainly known, the time pi^en as the prob- 
able date is Apr. 2S. 1564. and that was 

Now if it is worth while to make men 

tion of the days of the week, and I cer- 
tainly think it is, in fact, I have a passion 
for associating days with dates — it is 
surely worth while to be accurate. That 
so many mistakes are made an<l allowed 
to pass so far unchallenged, may seem 
strange, but is not »o much to be wondereil 
at when we take into account the difhculty. 
with means ordinarily at hand, of verifying 
or refuting such statements. To team the 
exact dates of the events given above, 
reference to three encyclopedia? was neces- 
sary, no one of them supplying all the in- 
formation desired. Thee, for ascertaining 
days of the week, tables tor that purpose 
are necessary. There are many such tables 
published but few of them in form to be 
easily understood or conveniently uged. 

While on the subject of days and dates 
I should like to call attention to the fact 
that October 12 is not the true aoniversary 
of the discovery of America. True, it was 
Friday, October 12. by the Julian calendar 
then in use, that Columbus landed, but, as 
was afterward shown, the Julian calendar 
was too slow. Just ninety years later. 

the correction been made 100 years earlier, 
before the year 1500 had passed with its 
intercalated day, the difference would 
have been nine days. This would have 
made October 12 bv the old style October 
21 by the new style. The year 1600 is re- 
garded as leap year in both calendars, so 
the difference was not increased but re- 
mained ten days until 1700 passed, as a 
year of 366 days by the Julian reckoning. 
while by the CJregorian scheme it had but 
365. This made the difference between 
the two 11 days, and when in 1752 Eng- 
land, who up to this time had adhered to 
the old style, decided to bring her tinw 
reckonings into agreement with other 
nations, the had to strike out 1 1 days, 
which was done by calling what would have 
been September 3, September 14. Wash- 
ington was then in bis twenty first year, his 
birthday had always been February 11, 
but this change brought the true anniver- 
sary thereafter on the 22d The year 1800 
added one more dav to the ditTercncc be- 
tween the old and' the new style, so that 
in Russia, where the old style or Julian 
calendar still prevails, they are 12 days 
behind u^ in their dates, and to-day, Tues- 
day December 29 with us, is to them Tues- 
day, December 17. 

October 12, 1492, O. 8., should be ren- 
dered in the new style, Oct. 21. By ob- 
serving Oct. 12, 1892 we celebrate the 


of the discovery of 

«;/ .1. VcMiuxii Haring of The Journal Art Department. {From an Knyrarinji.) 

ject of Cohtmbus'a Day appeared in the 
Tribuns two ynars ago. It did not attract 
the attention tt.en that it might, possibly, 
now. I shall seek to have the question 
further discussed, hoping that even yet 
Congress may amend the act relating to 
October 12. Wiusior H. Thompson. 

Oranfff^ X J., D^cfmher 29, lj«yi. 

Lincoln's School Days. 
Little Abe was first sent to school when 
he was about seven years of age. His 
father had never received any " book- 
leamin'," as education was termed among 
such people, and it was with difficulty 
that he could write his own name. One 
day, about four weeks after Abe had been 
sent to school, his father asked the teacher : 
"How's Abe getting along?" The 
teacher replied that he was doing well ; he 

1582, Pope Gregory XIII, or the scientific 
men of his time, demonstrated that they 
were ten days behind in their time reckon- 
ings. Now, by decree of the Pope, ten 
days were eliminated from the month of 
October in that year. This was accom- 
plished by reckoning what would have 
passed for Oct. 5 as Oct. 15, the dates 5 
to 14 being stricken out. 

The loss of ten days arose from making 
every fourth year a leap year and giving to 
it an additional day us provided for in the 
scheme of Julius Cfe^ar. 

It was shown that under this arrange- 
ment the average calendar year exceeded 
the true solar year in length by a little over 
eleven minutes, which difference, though 
slight, amounted toover three-quarters of a 
day in esch century, or more conveniently 
reckoned three days in every four cen- 
turies. To avoid a repetition of such 
errors, it was enacted that three days 
should be omitted from every four cen- 
turies bv making every centesimal year, as 
1700, I'SOO and 1900. common years in- 
stead of leap years as they are reckoned 
under the Julian calendar. Every fourth 
centesimal year (and for convecience every 
such year evenly divisible by 4> is to be 
reganlei as leap year still, as 1600, 2000, 

By this scheme the difference between 
the average calendar year and the solar 
year is so slight that it will take more than 
5000 yevB to amount to one day. Had 

America nine days ahead of time. We are 
not following either old or new style. Yet 
Congress has provided for the observance 
of that day by enacting that the exposi- 
tion buildings at Chicago shall then be 
dedicated. To be consistent we should 
observe Feb. U as Washington's Birth- 
day, and celebrate the landing of the Pil- 
grims on December 11. 

Should all dates be changed and ren- 
dered in the new style 'i Not necessarily. 
Slany dates, such as May 30, 1431, when 
Joan of .\rc was burned, and Jan. 30. 
1649, when Charles I was beheaded, may 
be understood to be old style dates, unless 
otherwise indicated, the one occurring be- 
fore there was any new style, and the 
other an event in English history before 
England bad adopted the Gregorian 
scheme. Where there can be any doubt 
concerning a date it should be indi- 
cated as O. S. or N. 8.. and it is not 
necessary to render a date in the new style 
except where the anniversary is to be ob- 
served. If we wished to celebrate the 
burning of Joan of Arc we should then 
consider that May 30, 1431, rendered into 
the new stvle would be June 8. Franklin 
was born January 6, O. S. 1706. So saye 
Parton in his "Life of Franklin," and 
this is sufficient, but if we should come to 
celebrate Franklin's birthday as we do 
Washington's we should observe January 

uldu't ask 

belter boy. He 

A communication from 

bad only one le$!)on book, an old si>etliug 
book. During the school hours he wa^ at* 
tentive to his task, and at night he would 
study over the lesson he had been engaged 
upon during the day ; the highest ambition 
of his life at this time was to learn to 
read. He believed if he could only read 
as well OS his mother, who read the Bible 
aloud to the family every day, the whole 
world of knowledge would be open to 
him, and in this conjecture he was about 
right. As the old Baptist minister told 
him one day, " When you can read, you've 
got something that nobody can get away 
from you." 

In the Kentucky home there were but 
three books in the family — the Bible, a 
catechism and the spelling book, which 
Abe Lincoln studied. He bad not been 
long in Indiana before he had read the 
Pilgrim'n ProgresM^ his father borrowing it 
from a friend who lived twenty miles 
away. He was very fond of reading 
^■Encp'x Fahl.e», a copy of which came in 
his way. A young inan taught him to 
write. As writing paper of any kind was 
very scarce and expensive, Abe used to 
practice his writing exercises with bits of 
chalk or a burnt stick on slabs and trunks 
of trees. Sometimes he would trace out 
his name with a sharp stick on the bare 
ground. When, finally, he was able to 
write letters, he was called to do the cor- 
respondence of many of his neighbors, for 
very few grown persons in that region 
could write even a single letter. 

As Abe Lincoln grew older he became 
a great reader, and read all the books he 
could borrow. Once he borrowed of his 
school teacher a Life of Washw'jton. Ilis 
mother happened to put it on a certain 
shelf, and, the rain coming through the 
roof, the book was badly damaged. Abe 
took it ba<'k to the schoolmaster and ar- 
ranged to purchase it of him, paying for it 
by three days" hard work in the cornfield, 
and be was entirely satisfied with the 
bargain at that. At the age of eighteen 
his library consisted of the L{fc of Frank- 
lin. PluUirch\ Linet, the Bible, the spell- 
ing book, j-Ksop^n FfibUM, Pihjrim't Pt'hj- 
rei*i> and the lives of Washington and 
Henry Clay. A boy might have a much 
larger private library than this, but he 
could scarcely find an equal number of 
books better calculated to impart whole- 
some lessons as to correct living and right 
thinking. — Ilarper'$ Young People. 

rifty Years Ago. 

Fifty years ago, says a statistical writer, 
the population of the L'nited States was 
only 17,697,420. The ceoius cost the 
GoK-rnment |;h:{3,427. There were slaves 
in all the States except Maine, Massachu- 
setts. Vermont and ^lichigao. Iowa bad 
sixteen slaves, Wisconsin eleven, Ohio 
three, Indiana nine, Illinois three hundred 
and thirty -one; total io all the States and 
Territories was 2,486,228. Fifty yean« 
ago the first rait road -spike machine was 
put into use, making fifty a minute, form- 
ing both point and head. Henry Burden 
of Tioy, N. Y., was the inventor. It 


oycit d^iLzna.^ 

ranked among the best-paying inventions 
of modern time«. Fifty years ago the 

Wbig party held its first coaventioo at 
Harrisbiirg, Pa., nominating General Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison of Ohio as President 
of the United States. Filty years ago 
Joseph A. Adams, for the first time, made 
use of the idea now embodied in the art 
of elcctrotyping by reproducing from 
wood cuts. Fift; years ago the first power 
loom for weaving carpets was set in mo- 
tion by K. B. Bigelow of Boston. Ten yards 
n day was its original rapacity. A little 
over fifty years ago (1839) the first wheat 
was shipped to Chit-ago, amounting to 
seventy- eight bushels. It was pent east- 
ward by the lakes to ButTalo. Fifty-three 
years ago the first steam tire engine ever 
made was tested in New York. It was in- 
vented by Capfain John Ericsson. Fifty 

acroEs Central America. Fifty years ago 
John Ericsson was allowed letters patent 
on a steam propeller boat. Fifty years 
ago beet sugar was first tnade by Pavid L. 
Child of Northampton, Mass. Fifty years 
ago the banks in the Cnited States resumed 
specie payment. Fifty years ago the 
Massachugetts Abolition parly was or- 
ganized. Fifty years ago wooden clocks 
had only been in use one year. Fifty 
years ago daguerreotype was invented in 

[We are not able to place the author of 
the above article, which seems to be ac- 
curate in its statements, except that it was 
apparently written about two years ago, 
as moat of the events recorded occurred in 
or about the year 1840.— Ed Jodrnal.] 

The steadily increa 
ioson's patent " V 
would indicato that t 

Dg sales of C. M. Rob- 
■iter's Haod-Traiuer." 
>re is a distinct demand 

and revolving once an hour, so that I had 
the pleasxire of looking through and 
watching the change upon the inside at 
the end of each sixty minutes. No changes 
were noticeable until after the end of the 
twelfth hour, when some of the lineaments 
of the head and body of the chick made 
their appearance. The heart appeared 
to beat at the end of the twenty- 
fourth hour, and in forty-eight hours two 
vessels of biood were distinguished, the 
pulsations being quite visible. At the 
fiftieth hour an auricle of the heart ap- 
peared, much resembling a lace or noose 
folded down upon itself. At the end of 
seventy hours we distinguisht'd wings and 
two bubbles for the brain, one for a bill 
and two others for the forepart and hind- 
part of the head. The liver appeared at 
the end of the fifth day. At the end of 

C / //r// f//y fr/ ////// ///J fY/rr//a^iJ 

'nade in The Journal ( 

Presente'l as a Specimen of nighctass Pen Work of to-day. 

years ago the Birius and Great Western, 
the first ocean steamships, entered New 
York Harbor on their return trip No. 
1. Fifty years ago one thousand re- 
formed drunkards marched in proces- 
sion at the first anniversary of the 
Washington Society. Fifty years ago a 
law was enacted against dueling in 
the District of Columbia. It grew out 
of the Cilley-Graves duel. Fifty years ago 
the Cherokee Indians were removed from 
Georgia and placed west of the Mississippi 
River. Fifty years ago was established 
the first commercial college in America. 
Fifty years ago the first patent was 
granted to Goodyear for vulcanized India- 
rubber goods. Fifty years ago a survey 
was made by John Baily for a canal 

I. vt HI the Toledo. 
stroni^Iy recommended by H. W, 

upportmiity of testmg its etHcacy. 

An Egg with Windows, 
A French scientist who removed the 
shell on eithtr side of an egg without in- 
juring the membrane, in patches about the 
size of the diameter of a pea, and snugly 
fitted the openings with bits of glass, gives 
the following report of the wonderful ex- 

I placed the egg with the glass bull's 
eye in an incubator run by clock work 

feathers had commenced to shoot out and 
the skuH to become gristly. At the 264th 
hour the eyes appeared and two hours 
later the ribs were perfect. At the 33lat 
hour the spleen drew up t9 the stomach 
and the lungs to the chest. When the in- 
cubator had turned the egg 335 times the 
bill was frequently opening and closing, 
as if the chick was gasping for breath. 
When 451 hours had elapsed we heard the 
first cry of the little imprisoned biped. 
From that time forward he grew rapidly 
and came out a full-fledged chick at the 
proper time, 

' ill HI. tlit> well-known busi- 
I ' ■ read his first paper 

II I - |.Ei)po8ed and given 

I 1 pr.iceedinti so much 

■ 111 .niiihd.i/.L'ii the deep 

. .11 |.,,.. r ,M.,.l,. Mr Coch- 

II - I- Hii eminent 

!; I . lii-im -- education 


praise for hia '* Rapid Addition Drills 


jial scbool proprietors. 

Power of Short Words. 

Dr. Addison Alexander, the author, 
being asked if one could write as forcibly 
in monosyllables as iu words of length, at 
once wrote the following lines: 
Think not that strength lies in tbe biic, round 

To wbom can this be true who once has heard 
Tbe cry of help — tbe words that; all men 

When want, or woe, or fear is in tbe throat, 
8o tbat each won) is gasped out like a sbnek 

Pressed from tbe heart, or as a strange, wild 

Sung by some fay or 
Which dies if stretched t 

There i 

Which has more height than breadth, more 
depth than length. 
Let but this force of thought and speech be 

And he that will may take the sleek, fat 
Which glows and burns not, though it gleam 
and shine. 
Light, but not heat, a tla^b without a blaze. 
Nor is it naught but strength the short word 
boasts ; 
It serves far more than wind or storm can 


Or I 

■ of 

tbat dash on rock-bouud 

wheu tbe wild winds 

For them that far off on their sick-beds lie ; 
Foi' tbem that weep, for them that mourn 
tbe dead. 
For tbem tbat dance, and laugh, and clap the 

To Joy's quick step, as well as Griers sad 

The sweet plain words we learn at first keep 

And though the theme he sad, 

With each, with all, these may hi 

In thought, or speech, or song, c 

1- gfty. 

131 hours the first voluntary motion wa-^ 
observed. At the end of 138 hours th< 
lungs and stomach had become visible aui 
four hours later the intestines, the loins 
and the upper mandible could be distin- 
guished. Tbe slimy matter of the brain 
began to take form and become more com- 
pact at the beginning of the seventh day. 
At the lOOlh hour the bill first opened and 
ilesh began to appear on tbe breast. At 
the 194 th the sternum appeared. At the 
210th hour the ribs had begun to put cut 
from the back; the bill was quite visible, 
as was also the gall bladder. At the be- 
ginning of the 23ljth hour the bill had be- 
come green, and it was evident that tho 
chick could have moved had it been taken 
from the shell. Four hours more and 

A Cirulcfiil Wo 

chUUren. A'i> 
succeed, as I Im 
needed. My h> 

obtain circulm 
Co., Columbus, 



Penmans Art Journal 

Et tu. TypewriUlrcI 

Adrm^Mitg rain, 30 emU per nanparrtl 
tin*. 9i.!iOp€rinrh, nteh inmrlton, IHanmmt* 
for trrm and n>ar*. Spetrial raiimateM fur- 
nimKed on afrpficalion. a\'o adr^rtiMemenU 

SubarriplU/n : <tru ytar *1 : onr nvmUr 10 
efntM. So fnf* anmpifM trjrcfrit to bona fidt 
agmlM who art wuinrriberM, lo aid Ihem in 
taking nbmrriplioHM. 

Foritiffn tuhacripliona (to eountrieg in Ow- 
tai f/nfon) $\.'Aprryrar. 

Condmtfd hrrmiutn Lift on Fag^ •*■*- Full 
liMl of rfoutar and tptrial prrmiumn, alno 
Annual Indfjr. in iMeemtt^ Joi'KlCAL, for 
lehirh tend 10 c^nts. 



narrb, 1893. 


utTTiRPHV*. Pwre. 


■ «rt4-DC^ 

IJ.H C«IU1)U<. W 

.ff <\rne bf MlM QumIc 


.... II.. 

MM -,U 


1 ihlblKS. ».rura7*: 




. ...I!!!.!!!!;'!!!!!'''3s-a» 



•ndarfWllinotH. Tlionip- 
nl bor Uv> : Fifty Tc«i« 


t«l Coi 



'fa« F......1. 4 

C'lii I I'll \ I viiiMtronK)! QiuckfiT 

Thi» "Kara Avis'^ i* rtdueed from a 
t)/pe-uiritrr deti^fn published by our con- 
temporary, " Butintt*.'" A bunnru educa- 
tor of many hoTMe-potPer in reported to hatg 
thed four teatt at the night of the fragile 
atranger, and to have ordered the inttant re- 
moval of all typewriUrt from hiatehoot. 

to make tlioir coarMi»-o( study more practical, 
in ordrr to kt<4>p their pupils from leaving tbeir 
" rlawtic ** halU, and '^ hieing a ?my " to some 
bu^inen college. 

An a rwult, many of the nforefaid schools 
baiten to open what are known a» '■ Com- 
mercial Derartaients." Thesedepartmentsare, 

and teacher of commercial branches 
ployed the clBftBps as a rule are so laiiie, and 
the lime for rvcitation no limited, that little or 
no Individual instruction oan l^u Kivon. 

The writer knowK, persounllv, of M-verai of 
thew " prominent "schoolB In the city of New 
\ork, and there ore uiuIoui(te<ny scores of 
others where they claim to "prepare youug 
men for busiuess," iind these schools are devot- 
'"S^-'!"''''' ""''"'''*^"'''^*'* "•*''' ^'w'tkeeping. 
' instances thirty or forty miuutes 

l^nirr ; uur OcmkI Wrltlos ITck-i Ipllon. 


uethlng like this naturally 

1 well prepared for business after de- 
voting from SIX to eight dours a day to hard 
work for six months or one year in a business 
college, uudpr the tuition of comi)etent and 
profcKsional teachers, how well would he be 
propared in one of these so-culled Commercial 
Department*!, where only forty to eighty miu- 
ut*a a week ore given I And, secondly, if 
any clasa of schools is really (Intentionally or 
uDiolentionally) hiinibuggingthepeopio, wiiich 
i« it— Ihf business colleger or these "promi- 


niid Plourlah by C. ( 

Joaraal I'onilcii: 


Uangpruiu Subject " ( From £ 

" Orr unPtitnl Footpleec " (W', B. Kobli 

•*K«bMOft«tlhoWoil"(J.P. l-yrreUi 

Omat* InltlnU, Pfiot-plccM, etc.. by D. H. Farlor. 
11. A. Howutk. W. n. Uanlj. J.V. BrUey.C. P. 

Till I'KKHAN'a Abt JounKAl.. alunynnucr- 
wHrll/jwlJTr-. <).(ri"»''0»f >-rttrr ri-rr|; tmmUl, awt 


icatioD wns printed in the December 
number of Tuk .IoriiN.\i, under the cnp- 
tioD "Prepared for Business" tells a 
•tory that wc do not remember to have 
been exploited before. The correspondent 
signs himself " An Old Teacher," and we 
pcrsouallj know bim lo be not only that, 
in the sense of long and conspicuous serv- 
ice in the harneNi, but know thai his ex- 
perience has been just in the line to entitle 
him to speak authentically on the points 
involved in the following extract from his 

for business pursuits 

To fit young 

mjuirrs a special kind of 

tug which clojvical colleger do not give, and 
ca>«« out of U'u can best be 
U-equipped ba-auess college. 

.-..., .-_— x^..„;..™.... 

.'lasucal ooUegew, preparatory schools and 
high scfaimls arp also waking up to the fact 
t change their curricuhuns so as 

that they v 

pupils for hiiMiiess." 

Now here is truly "a pretty state 
of things," as they say in the Mikado. 
Since lime immcmorift! the "higher class 
school.H " have been taunting the business 
schools (or some of them) for advcrtisiDg 
to turn out a business graduate in three 
months; yet we have the edifying spcc- 
Uicle of these same " higher class " institu- 
tions using business training as a bait and 
claiming to prepare students for business 
with from four to eight hours' study a 
week. And that study, for the most part, 
under teachers who are not specialists and 
don't pretend to understand the things 
they are compelled to teach [ Tns Joir- 
NAi. suggests as an appropriate slogan for 
the "higher class" as well as the com 
mercial schools- The htirs and hitmhugn 

The rROposiTiON to have a first class 
representative penmanship and business 
college exhibit at the World's Fair is a 
good one. If carried out in the proper 
spirit and the proper manner it can but 
reflect credit on the profession and prove 
a valuable factor in educating the general 
public as to the mission of the business 
college. It is a matter, though, that must 
behandUd with delicacy and with skill. 
The object should be rather to make an 
intelligent, concise, easily-understood ex- 
position than to multiply examples in a 
heterogeneous collection that would ap- 
peal to no one particularly unless he bap- 
pen to be already interested in this sort 
of thing. In a word, to get the most 
good from an exhibit it should be ar- 

ranged more especially to attract the at- 
tention of the public, who are now more 
or less ignorant of such matters, with a 
view to their patronage, than for profes- 
sional penmen and teachers, who are al- 
ready with tu and of us. 

This coues to us from far-off Russia, 
through the Photw/mpMe Timet: 

M- Burinskty, the expert cbirographcr 
of the Circuit Court of 3t. Petersburg, 
with the assistance of a physician and by 
the aid of chronophotographj. has made 
interesting studies on the handwriting of 
several persons. Chrono photography is a 
process by which inslaulaneous pictures 
are produced of objects in rapid motion. 
While a person wtittsone letter three or 
more picture* can be taken of his hand and 
pen. In this wise every motion of the 
hand of the writer is resolved, so to speak, 
into its elementary muscular impulses. A$ 
the latter are tuhjert to the nertoua condi- 
tions of the tenter, the writing, for it» np- 
pearanee ami eipressirrnena of eharatttr, 
depend* more on the temperament of the 
ttriter than on anything «/«•. The results 
of M. Burinskiy's studies show that the 
opinions of chiiographic experts on the 
identity of handwritings are in many in- 
stances erroneous: that under certain ner- 
vous conditions various persona may pro- 
duce writings that are perfectly similar in 
character, while one ptraon may at one 
time write in a quite different manner 
than at another. 

Possibly we fail to catch the exact theory 
sought to be enuncialid in the above item, 
but if we arc correct it is mostly fallacious. 
The writer says: "As the latter (muscular 
influences) are subject to the nervous con- 
ditions of the writer, the writing, for its 
appearance and expressiveness of character 
depends more on the temperament of the 
writer than on anything else." 

By the word " temj)erament " it is not 
clear to us whether the writer 1-efers to it 
as a controlling force in the formation of a 
handwriting or in its subsequent execu- 
tion, but we incline to the latter, since it is 
on the " nervous condition " that the writ- 
ing is made to depend chiefly. While it is 
an obviou.s fact, recognized by all well-in- 
formed persons, not to say experts, that 
handwriting varies largely in its quality 
and effect according to the mental and 
physical condition of the writer, yet that 
this condition is the chief element or 
nearly so that enters into its identity is far 
from being true. To be so would require 
a writer lo have an essentially new and 
different handwriting with every change 
of hie nervous condition. Nervousness or 
any abnormal condition of the writer may 
act as an impediment, and therefore cause 
the quality of writing to deteriorate, but in- 
asmuch as the general and detailed char- 
acteristics of writing come, first, from 
the school of writing in which it is learned, 
and secondly from its evolution, so to 
speak, in after practice from the imper- 
sonal copy hand of the learner to that of 
the more fixed personal and habitual hand- 
writing of the adult, it must be the gen- 
eral construction through the sheer force 
habit which chitfly de- 
the identity of the writing — the 
ondition of the writer being only 
an element like any other circumstance to 
be taken into consideration so far as it is 
manifest in the quality of writing. It 
is evident that a person in great excite- 
ment or in a state of intoxication will not 
write as well as when calm or sober, but 
it is the same hand that writes, the same 
acquired knowledge aad skill, in short, the 
same unconscious habit of writing that he 
seeks to exercise, and any abnormal con- 
dition operates simply as an impediment, 
more or leas impairing the quality of the 
writing, according to the extent of the 
impediment. It might as well be said 
that personal identity depends chiefly upon 
one's "nervous condition" rather than 
his general physiognomy and pergonal 

Pe^^^ring fmr tkr Smrmlfm r*Nt>*«l4*a. 

As ax)noiince«l in the last issae of Thb 
JoriLNAL. the B. E. A. convention will be 
held at Saratoga this year from July 7 to 
14. inclnaive. The convention will be 
held in conjunction with the meeti^ uf 
the National E4lucarional A!»i>ciation. 
Through this connection half rates on the 
railroads will be secure*! for all attend- 
ing, the only condition being the {tayment 
of 93 on the purchase of the ticket in 
payment for memltership in the N. K. A. 
Apart from the advantapea of the con- 
nection with the National Amociation. 
the welt-known summer resort at which 
the meeting will be held will doubtless 
attract many visitors. The co-opera- 
tion of all commercial teachers in mak- 
ing the approaching meeting the bi>st 
in the history of the Association is ear- 
nestly H8ked. 

f^onelMitremesa of Kjtperl Trnttmony. 

Many readers will rec»U the hist ry of 
the gigantic Davis will conspiracy, in- 
volving many millions of dollars, in Ihe 
November Journal. Some opinions as 
to the conclusiveness of the e.\pert hand- 
writmg evidence, upon which everything 
hinged in this case, have alri-ady been 
published. Here is some further volun- 
leered testimony on that i»oint from well- 
known lawyers : 
Prok.Ahbs: I»»Mo.nm.Iowa 

Dear Sir.—l have just read with much 
plea.'<ure your exposition in the Novemtwr 
I*ensian's Journal of the Davis will forgery. 
It seems to me that a careful a'adlng of It will 
convince anyone that the will Ix spurious. I 
have no doubt but Puch a demonstration by 
you to the jury would have given ux a unani- 
mous verdict. I am sallsfle.! that with the 
original wills and the large corrtwpoiidence of 
Eddy in your hands you could have demon- 
strated the forgery beyond a reasonable doubt. 
It seems to me that your article will bo read 
by busiuersmen generally with groat interest. 
Yours truly, 

Dillon H. Pavnic. 

Mt. I'i 

IT. I A 

I). T. Ames, I 

Dear A'ir.— A friend hos just hande<l me a 

eopy of the November Pbnuan'm Akt Jol'h- 

-NAL, containing your vigorous, Bucelnct, bold 

and convincing articleon the Davis Will Cane. 

Very truly your*, 

P. LkB. Coombs. 

We get these figures from our esteemed 
contemporary, the y. E. Journal of Edu- 
cation : 

What do you make of them ? Try 
them before a looking gia-is. * 

Writing with Ink. 

Teacher told me to write with ink. 

Isn't dat grand? 
But to iH-gin wif I really ciin't fink 

How to hold my hand. 

I'll get H new pen out of mamnia'» box. 

And jam it m. 
Gracious me ; it's harder'n rocks, 

And sharp as a pin. 

Dij) it in the ink *8 the next thing to do. 

My! ain't it black? 
There it goes on ttie detik, too. 

A regular track. 

She Kays first you mnat make straight 

Hello ; there's a blot ! 
Writin' wif ink, Jim says, is larka ; 

I tell yer it's not. 

The old pen sticks 's if it'n never goin' to 
It don't pay. 
One¥s I'll go for my dog Fndge 
And have a play. 

— Unidentified. 

An eighteen-foot telescope reveals about 
forty-three million stars of the thirteenth 
magnitude, whose light takes 2,700 years 
to reach us. Each of these stars is thought 
to be the center of a solar system like our 




'lect. Tlio i 

proper titles, 
this iimovulk 
ward strides i 


? If o 

Men of suuh audacious cheek and who are so 
much above auy industry for which they are 
qualified can never be made ashamed. 

There are over 7U00 biisineiss colleges and 
business departments of literary and normal 
schools iu tliis country. Each of over one-half 
of them claims to be " the best," "the largest,'' 
"the most practical," " the most progressive," 
etc., asis ever so natural with all frauds, as to 
be a due warning to such as are capable of re- 
Less than one-sixth of these institutions are 
owned or conducted by men who have either 
graduated iu such a course as they preteud to 
teach, or have had reahuuable ex|teiiency iu 
couuling room?; or huf-iness houses of any kind. 
Less than one-thirtieth of them have both 
graduated iu such course und had meritorious 
exi>ei-ieDce in coun.ting moms. 

Less than one per cent, of tbe entire number 
who are pretending to teach commercial law 
have ever studie<.l the leading authoi'S ou that 
science, which necessarily makes tbeir teaching 

If it be true thai shysters mislead tbeir 
clients, that quacks kill more of their patients 
than they benefit, and that one word of three 
letters changed the greatest waraiug into the 
baiiest falsehood, prudent people should know 
that one who is mistaught, like the animal that 
is balked, would be better for many reasons if 

Tbos. J. Bryant. 
H<-\,u„V»lUi». CnH., St.JoseiJi. Mo. 


If KJi Simd an I uud au O and an U, 
With an X at the eud spell Sii, 

Aud an E and an Y abd an E spell I, 
Prav, what is a speller to do I 

Then, if also an S and an I and a G 
AmlanH.E. D, spell cide. 


[ithing much left for a spellerto 
!0 and commit siotiaTj/esighed. 

, splendid locality, 

A Dangerous Subject. 

(From the Shorlhard 

Cotntng Titt**—A ftad trample. 

Editor Penman's Art Journai.: 

Grant me space in Thk Journal to enter 
my protest against tbe coining, of titles, as such, 
for school managers or special teochere. Dur- 
ing the itust few weeks I have received a num 
ber of letters from diffrrent bus^iness college 
proprietors, addressed to l^incipat A. P. Arm- 
strong, a title supported by no good authority. 
Prof, and Atr are both recognized, and one or 
the other should be used ; not that it makes 
any difference to other than an egotist, but 

LaudloTil : " 
inii all the modern improvi 

Flatnuntfr: '-Verv good; let me see. are 
here any children in the honsi> ; " 

LamHorft (irritably) : " I said, madam, that 
V© bad nothing but oiodem improvements."— 

Brother Slemigraphers Smith ami Jones 
meet with Joijovs yret-tinff. Frrsvntiy the 
ation (Mils on Ihr vo,nimralicf value 


D of Prinvipaf could but 
udtnt and Janitoy as 
Fmlhermo^e, an advocate of 
1 will have to take frequent for- 
1 bis title building to keep up 
with an industrious young man, in any occu- 
pation, where he is reasonably certain of pro- 
niotioo from time to time. Already many 
critics deprecate the use of such title-prefixes 
as Banker, Lawyr, Architect, etc., in tbe 
general press of the country. 

Tbe business cojieges of America come in 
yearly contact with 50,000 or more bright and 
pliant youthful miuds. Let it not be said that 
these schools are responsible for the deed, 
cither by precept or example, should it come 
to pass, a few years hence, that tbe intelligence 
of the nation will frown ou giving every indi- 
vidual member thereof a title, from president 
down to pilferer. 

A. P. Armstrono. 
Portland Business Collegr, For Hand, Oregon. 

Quacherv and Incompetenei/Soft} can it 
Beat be Rooted outV 

Editor Penman's Art Journal: 

Having read the article of Prof. Soul^ in 
your February issue and your request for 
similar matter, the question arises: What new 
feature of such hurabnggery can be exposed 
withdut beciiQiing the guiding star for many 
wlj..^,,,-,iiivt \\ntrl,i,,- inr -nmi.- new fake ? 
If'" ' III -11, 1 1 i\ -- 111- niiiiie to 1-eachaud 


Some Buatneaa Frobletna. 

An old subscriber sends tbe following, to 
which we invite replies, also the sending of 
other busine^ss problems ; 

1, A and B are equal partnei's. Their stock 
fixtures and arcouuts invoice at *4000. B^lls 
his interest in the entire business for J3000 to 
C. who cimtinues the business as the equal 


i. A, ■ 

also C, to whom he owes ?35 on account. B 
holds my note for i&i, which he gave me with 
$3 in cash for his note. I gave (J ¥3S iu mer- 
chandise for his account on A, whom I charge 
*10 for my services. What is my journal 
entry ? 

Vertteaf va. Stantinn Writtng-A 
Foreiffti Dtagnoala. 

G. W. Ware, Writing Supt. of Port Worth, 
Tex., writes to The Journal : •' I iucloEe a 
clipping from the Popular Educator, which, 
I think, may be of interest to many readers of 
The Journal. It seems to me tbe wise (;) 
doctors are trying to establish a remedy with- 
out knowing the cause of the trouble or the 
cause of the slant of tbe writing." 

This is the clipping : 

The Council of Hygiene of Austria has been 
engaged in discu.-siug ihe ndvautages of erect 

and the 
-iier. They 

i compared 
official report ■'' i > 
poiuts stroni;l\ i' 
point out tli:ii ! r 

characters ba-- u 

sitiou of the Injiiy, I 

of the body and neck 
able in tfiuse who 
common cuu-e of spiual curvature is thus ob- 
viated. The erect method is, therefore, ex- 
pressly recommended for use in schoolsin pref- 
erence to the ordinary sloping lines. 

Una'avlnga Suinc Stat- aa Copy or Larger. 

— li .\i H , >:,,,„, I i;„pi(ii,, Mich. 

lai'yt'i ili.'in ri]i' ..i iLiiiiit just as readily as 
siuaMi I II Mm . ..|>v < ixitain fine lines, as pro- 
f'-'ssioii/il Mil pi III '■ llmirished" work, it would 
not look so well if produced in the same size 
and any enlargement would still further de- 
preciate its appearance. If the copy be coarse, 
containing thick lines, etc., or, for instance, 
large Roman lettei-s, its appearance will uotbe 
impaired by engraving it the same size or even 
larger. The amount of enlargement it will 
stand depends on the cuai'seness. 

Our Goad Writing Frearrtptlon. 

What do you think of my writing and how 
can I improve it {— IV. V. Uallaoher, 107 Hop- 
kins flat;!', Baltimore. 

Your writing is fair for a boy, as we pre- 
sume you to be. It is faulty iu spacing and 
you still have somt: distance to go in acquiring 
a safe and reliable movement, though you 
seem to be ou the way to it. The Journal 
has never printed anything better in the line 
of instruction on this point than exercises by 
Professor Patrick of your city, now tunning in 
it. We commend them to you, and to others 
who have made inquiriL-s similar to your own. 

I. W. Pierson. 

{Portrait on nvjct page.) 

The portrait presented herewith is of 
one of the most active and snccessfal 
lienuianship teachers before the public — 
I. W. Pierson of Chicago. Mr. Pierson 
is an Ohioan hy birth and only thirty- 
three years of age. though he has heen so 
long known as a leading penman and 
teacher that those who do not know him 
personally might he excused for suppos- 
ing him to be considerably more advanced 
in years. 

One strong point in Mr. Pierson's favor 
is that when he made up his mind what 
he was going to do in life he determined 
to do it in a thorough and intelligent 
manner and fitted himself for it by a long 
and arduous course of training. We hear 
of him as a student at several points- 
New York City, Meadville, Pa. , Bus. Coll. ; 
Oberlin, O., Bus. Coll., and Rochester, 
N. Y., Bus. Uni. He made the most of 
his opportunities, and wh^n the serious 
business of life confronted him with its 
inexorable demands, he was quite pre- 
pared to meet them. 

Ten years or more ago Mr. Pierson had 
arrived at the position of associate pro- 
prietor and principal of the business col- 
leges at New Castle and Kingstown. Ind.. 
and his work in these schools was such as 
to attract to him several flattering offers. 
One of them, in 1883, tempted him to ally 
himself with Elliott's Bus. Coll., Burling- 
ton, la., where for five years he discharged 
the functions of secretary and penman- 
ship teacher io a way to win him fresh 
applause. In 1888 he accepted the posi- 
tion which he has continuefl to hold- 
penman of the big Bryant's Bus. Coll., 
Chicago. While the work of the pen- 
manship teacher in so large a school is 
necessarily heavy, Mr. Pierson has some- 
how found time to do considerable in the 
line of engrossing— at which work he is 
as much at home as with writing or 
flourishing. In short, he is best described 
as an " all-round penman," well qualified 
to hold up his end of the line with the 
best of them. While quite capable of 
teaching bookkeeping and other com- 
mercial branches, penmanship is his first 
and strongest love, and no doubt will be 
to the end of the chapter. He is a firm 
believer in the good influence of the pen- 
manship press, and has induced well to- 
wards a thousand young men and women 
to become Journal subscribers during 
the past five j'ears. 

As a man Mr. Pierson shows the same 
qualities that make him strong as a 
teacher— energy, alertness, comradeship, 
magnetism. Brightness shines from his 
face, as you may see if you look. 

"Secondary Education "—Topics for Dis- 
cussion at the N. E. A. Convention. 

Des Moines, Iowa, January 15, 1*^92. 
Tkac-hers anu Principals of Secondary 

Education, America. 
Fellow Workers : 

As President of the Depai'tment of Second- 
ary Instruction National Educational As- 
sociation, I aruitow making up the program 
for the July meeting, aud respectfully solicit 
your helpful suggestions. We want sugges- 
tions as to tbe most fruitfid subjects for pre- 
sentation, and desire nominations of promi- 
nent educators whom you would like to have 
appear on the programs. We want all to feel 
free to offer these suggestions, for then we can 
give you a program of subjects and speakers 
of your own selection. 


principals of high schools and academies 

Midwinter Clubs. 

The largest club we have received during 
the past month and the second largest this 
season is credited to tbe Iowa B. C, Des 
Moines. Iowa, forwarded to us by L. M. Thorn- 
burgh, the well-known iwnmau of that msli- 
tntion. It numbers 160 names. It is not neces- 
sary to dwell upon the prosperity of a school 
whose penmanship department will afford 
snch a loige number of subscriptions. This 
college has at least three excellent penmen in 
its faculty— A. C. Jennings, proprietor, L. M. 
Thoruburgh and D. H. Snoke-to all of whom 
we return thanks. Just a shade behind this in 
size is a fine club of 151 from C. A. & F H 
Burdetfs B. C, Boston, another institution 
which enjoys the s^-rvices of several excellent 
penmen, including both the proprietors and 
that accomplished young member of tbe craft, 
E. H. Fisher. A third fiue club, numbering 
eighty six. is sent by Prin. E. E. ChiMs, Cbilds' 
B. C, Springfield, Mass. Mr. Childs writes 
that he feels there U something wrong if he 
does not see The Journal around the school 
room once a month. This is the largest club 
ever sent from Springtield. The club next in 
size foots up flfty-nme names and comes from 
the Baj less B. C, Dubuque. Iowa. To F. E. 
Merriam. tbe energetic and capable penman 
of that institution, we owe acknowledgments 
for this club, also to our old Iriend, C. Bayless, 
Prin., who has been a good friend of 'Ihb 
Journal since its Brat number. J. M. Vin- 
cent, another of our "stand-bys," sends the 
next largest club, forty-eight, from Packard's 
College, New York, assisted by E. M. Barber 
and other friends of The Journal among tbe 
teachers of that college. The Pacific Slope, 
which has yielded us several fine clubs 
this season, falls into line with the next 
contingent, forty names, from Atkinson's 

B. C, Sacramento. A. E. Musselman and 

C. B. Hall, who chiefly look after the 
penmanship matters of that institution, ai-e 
the seudei*s of this club. Thirty-seven 
is the number we have credited to the Spen- 
cerian B. C, Cleveland, by the kindness of F. 
L. Dyke, Supt. of the Penmanship Dept. Our 
old friend P. R. Cleary forwai-ds the names of 
twenty-seven of his bright young men at the 
Cleary B. C, Ypsilanti, Mich., and they will 
all get The Journal for a year to come. 
From Scio College, Scio, O , we have a club of 
eighteen for which we owe thanks to J. M. 
Adams, also to H. C. Rowland, who looks out 
specifically (or tbe Penmanship Dept.— and he 
is turning out many fine writers. Both he and 
the pupib will find that The Journal assists 
them in their work. E. L. Miller, who looks 
after penmanship matt^-rs in the Simpson B. 
C., lodianola, la., sends us a club of six- 
teen. Clubs of fifteen each come from S. M. 
Sweet, Penman of the Buffalo, N, Y., Bus. 
Uni,. and W. A. Whitebouse, Boston. Clubs 
of fourteen each from N. L. Richmond, Supt, 
Com. Dept,, Grand Prairie Sem., Onarga, 111. 
(the second this season); also from tbe Mt. St. 
Louis Inst., Montreal, Can. Our list is swelled 
ten names each by N. S. Beardsley, Penman 
Metiopolitan B C bt Paul Muin.; J. F. 
Pish, Penman Ohio B C Cleveland O.; L. L. 
Gatewood Penman Corry Pa B. C, to 
whom we credited a larger tlub last month. 
We have ha 1 a generous number of small 

In i( 
club, u; 
all who „ ... 
larly the 1 1 

would 111 I 

program will be rich, varicdand helpful. Tbe 

i- and leave the time for free and full 

^ ifonual social gathering. 

Hoping for your suijrestiousnow and your 

presence at the meetings in July, both of 

which will contribute to the advancement of 

the cause of education, I am 

Yours respectfully. 

1 the clubs 

"ill follow The 

the best ivi ik ui tin. [ □inaosbip line This 
no idle boa&t and we invite you to verily 
Look over the li t above Look over la 
month's lift Watch tor next month s. 



L HrowD. wrll-kDown 
pPDmeo of Rockland, 
He., MtKniDce that the; 
have iD pTTpaimtioo a 
hank (iitJiM " Lmoa* 
in itapUl WrltinR," 
Kntm thi- prf»i>e«This we 
juclf(9 It to be a work 
of very conwdersble pre- 
temdimn and ktok for- 
ward to It* appearanct* 
II tbp profewian gen^rallj. 
R. C. keenr. ap it^ I'x- 

H. I>av« l« 

■ of tbis iD- 
of tb^ vaflici't, moKt Ki^c^ful 

Iilao'l B. C. belli a public receptioo in bli 
baodiwine nvw colleite uuilding on February A. 
Tbo oiH-njilon wn^ enjoyed by many prominent 

- Prlu. a. M. 8mlthd(!al, Richmond, Va.. bes 
\tnen treatloK tbo ntudont^ of bis builnest col- 
luKO to flnturtalninpntJi by well-known profes- 
nlonnl otocutliHilot-*. 

— U»bl. L. Wood, fur many yi>ania xub- 
iKTlber and activi- friend of Th« Jocbhal. 
bai been elected to the responnible office of 
Clerk of tbo C'baucery Court, Louisville, Mt«8. 
He 1« au exoellunt writer. 

- Tbo teaching force of tbe Higbiand Park 

— The Tole 
rwlloiit altondanne, and Prin. 
a very biwy 

Kolobniir in the IN! _ _ , , _ 

Kolcbner box dlnpnwd of his Interest in the 
Znnerlan CoIIoko to the otbor partner8 of that 

— "The arraim of the Onrdon City B. C. 
Han Jopo, Cnl., wera never In so proKporouM 
H condition a% at preaqnt." So writM C. E. 
Weblter, the well known |»enm«n, who has an 
Intemt In the colleKe. 

~ Kac KlmileH of whst ore &aid to he tbe 
larKetit and Kmallent cbeckti ever drawn, tbe 
nniounU beinn $)1.5A0.000 and one cent respeot- 
ivo'y. ornament a circular is-nied by R, W. 
JoQufnini to udvertfHe bU business coltcRe, 
Naiibvlllo, Tcnn. The matter is quite eater- 

— E. L. Klujt, an ozporienced teacher of 
Nliui'thand, hnti taken cbart^e of tbnt depart- 


3 W<)odlmry B. C, Los AnKelps,(;iil. 

riMc and literary euU'r- 
I l>y the studentA of thf 

M".. onJanuBryaS. 
1-. proprietors of the 
L'ni., an institution 
I bt' present year, inform 

"" already oxceedaS" 

bonnr, nud 

buHineK^ ^ . . 

durtion to the best liusiuesK bou 

Stale, Wh.i will win thew honore 

— A iiew!.i«(i»r olippiug that - 

' ^L/c/imojid OytiC oJvai 



IMttalby If. A. //oirarrf.] 

I pupils— a gain of 300 In two years. 

- The following extract from tbe Sacrameu- 

Oil . Kr^nin^ .\Vir». «hows plainly enough 

hiibil. «1... muk.-H the 1>.M r-'cnl ni tho hmi- 
neiM cnnnw, and a gold watch and chain to the 
young lady who completes the tume course 
and in <li>enieil muttt meritorious. The time Is 
limited to the renni IKue and 180.1. The course 
may Ix* complctoil in either year, or it may 
W oomnii'iiCHl in mi2 and completed in ISui 
Klthcr priK- will be to il« piisMisor a life long 

Kr.v«Mi<K cx.-tiitwi by P.A. wit?I)^of the 
Rt-I (Ink. In H. f,, for tbe punfls of the 
HarlHu. l« , High Sch.>..l. It fs m the form of 
'I *"il"« """"""' '^"" ^''■'"" Sitting to I'nif. 

A. H. \V«rn«'i . Supt of ScUoor*. 

— The nupils of (loldey's Wilmington Del 
Com. Coll imtrloticBlly engaged in Bag-raiv 
ing exrrebim ou WaihingtoD » birthday. 

— Tewohent and students of (he Ctica. N.Y,. 

B. C. held a litcrBFT and musical rtxvption 
on the -venlug of Feb. 9«. Penman T. J. 
R,Mng.r of ibiK inrtilution is not onlv on^ nf 

■xiirrt writers ■ 

- entt. ,„„...._„„ „„„„, 
Kucc«ssrul affair of tbi« 

— World's Com. Coll., Wa*hiueton. D C 
ha.* aliMrkivd Starins B. C.. rvlaining tbe 
teacherH of thai institution. The colh-ee is 
doing welL 

— A note from H. A. 8pencer rvque^t^ u« to 
say that the »tati>mrnt in a Washington pnper 
•■' •*'e effect that be conlemnlat«« leanng New 

to all connected with the imititution. Prin. P. 
R. Clmry In to be congratulated. 

— F. F. McEvoy toccw^U J. C. Steiner as 
principal of the Normal B. C, YoungHtown.O. 

— E. A. UcPbenion. a good writer and, we 
are told, a highly succcK^rul (eacber. has a 
l^eDmauKbip riam numbering about sixty, at 
Cornell Iiniventily. Ithaca, N. Y. 

— A neatly printed invitation announced a 
recvptlon by the students and friends of the 
Ht. Joaepfa, Ho.. Bus. Cnl. on Feb. %. 

— The Blstb semi-annual prewntatloo of 
diplomas to the graduates of the Merrill B. 
C., Stamford, Conn., occurred on the even- 
ing of Peb. S. The exercides were enjoyed by 


the bub known of Canadian commercial eda- 

Oreen Bay, Mich.. B. C. 
— A thoroaghly auuipped teacher of busi- 
ness branches, incluling xborthaud and pon- 
manship, is N. L. Richmond, who has charge 
of ibe commercial d«pt. of the prusptT 

Grand Prairie 8em., Onarga. III., for 

seven years one of the leiT'' — ' ' 

stitutionft of that section. 

a years one of the leading etlucationnl 

dent of the Spenccrian B. C. of thatcity. ' Mr*. 
Felton bad bMrn long ill. hut her death was not 
xpected. She wat about sixty years old. and 
social and charitable circles. 
Stite Pres. of the Order 

iwrenti), at Sarnia, Unt. 
— The twenty fifth ai 

arriagu with Miss E. 
idence oi the bride's 
ou Tuesday, Dec. 29. 
nual catalogue of the 

of the College of Commerce. Buffalo. 


Park and the fy- 

...... --i-'» ".•«r.i' 111 uRj iMiMuess, Dui u> inrve well ku( 

>i<e«uil girts on an ent^rUiner. and knovi-s Anna NeLwn'» In 

t tlOW to evt UD a SUCC WUrf ul alTmr nf thi^ afi..^ m hnt .^..i.^ 

celleiit iMiiiiifo. J. V. Burul 
Richard, to whom The Jot- 
for many favors. 
— Something unM|Uf in Die 

poratedln an interview with' Frank L.' Shaw, 
prin. of Shaw's B. C. of that city, for which 
institution the (llotu- has nothing but wordsof 

— The Wa.ihlugton, Pa., Journal gives 
credit to W. J. Musser for a very marked im- 
provement in the handwriting of both pupils 
and teachers in the public schools of that city. 
Mr. MuRter also conducts abusiueeM college. 

— In the Oalcsbiirg, III.. Daily Matt we 
find particulars of a novel contutt instituted by 
V. A. Faust, Prin. of the Galesburg B. C. 
Mr. Faust selected " two teams." each of 
twenty picked pupils, and each gallantly cap- 
tained by a Miss. Specimens of handwriting 
were taken, and after a giveo interval of 
practice new ^pjccimens were compared with 
' ' ith superiority of 

■ " -" being left 


af l«T a hot c 

iwl off the pain 

, Alo . lMi/i/.\>ui»printAi 
'• BufineNs Educalim 

— The 

Bus- Coll . Ypsilanti. Mich 
-■""- '-- of tbeSUtil 

■•flxanacci^unit'i n meeting of Ibe i.t.x'kboklerH, 
which mcludn leading cittaens. The showing 
for tbe poftt yaar ha» be«a highly gtmtifying 

thought ( 

W, P. Joiner, prin. of Joplin b'cT 

— We have a neot catalogue from tbe South- 
cm Ft-nmle Cni.. Florence. AK. This institu- 
tion has a fuU-tledgvd oomroerx-ial department 
in charge of M F. Knox, an energt tic and suc- 
cesslnl teacher and a gnt-d writir^ 

— The pupils of Becker's B. C. Worcester. 
Ma>«.. surprised and delighted their principal 
rwently by the presentation of a handsome 
wivrr cup to him in trust for an->tfaer Becker 
(very latelT arrived) with E. C. A. at the be- 
ginning of his name and .Tr at the end of it 
TBE JorR.NAL wishes to add its congratula- 

Note-— TAt> cut i 

" We take the liberty of wrirtng to you, 
thinking that vou probaolv have many appli- 
cants who would like to (alee advantage of tain 

'>ang penmen. This work may not be ax- 

tlv i[i their line, but any od« who can con- 

' ' I .. x-hI ornate initial letter could Mwa 

■•ir knack of ivMducing drawings i>f 

L ror. Applicants luay writ» to Mr. 

The initial which starts toe a(M 
is by W. M. Manly. Na>ihvill«, Ttiin . a pupil 
of Webb's, we think. Si>mo frc^-h dewgns liv 
P. W. Coetello are particularlv artistic, anil 
wo have other goo>l on«* trv>m R. \. Hownnl. 
E. L. Brown. C. M. Wiener and J. B. Peirt-e. 
The latter is from Wilmluglon, Del. The 
others have been so often mentioned in this 
department that their addruvtm are doubt- 
less well known. The pick of them dmlgus are 
rtserved each month to be ougmved and Ip- 
serted in Thk Jouhkal when a convenient 
opportunity may arise. Thow who tnlnnlt 
initials, end-pieoes, etc;, are requeKted to letter 
tlieir names lightly on the designs eo as to 
obviate tbe necessity of accompanying expla- 
nation In tjTpa This lettering should Ite un- 
obtrusive and put in in such a way as not to 
detract from or conflict with the pictorial 

~ In the line of pen flourishott our offerings 
hftve been rather limited. The bi>st received 
durljig the mouth come from S. M. Sweet, the 
well-eiiuipped_peninan of Buffalo, N. Y. Bus. 
Uni. M. V. Hester. Ridge Form. Ill , sendsu 
fair design, and others are fmm J. \v. Biu>r, 

" " ' t. St- Poter's School. Pbilmlclphin. 

a number of 

. RlanKomoyer and H. 

livings of the two Inst 
1 liend and bustbv Urncg, 

presenting the Thom- 
son- Hou.ston Electric 
Company, Lyuu, Mass., 
writes to The JotrR.VAi. 
- Inte date as fol- 

" We are prepared 
to give steady em- 
ployment to one or 
two young men of 
good character who 
will do free hand 
drawing and letter- 
ing In pen and ink. 

I Boston : also fn> 

wpy of a handsomely 

-,.■.!. ., \', ii , . ,., -,. ,1, r.,U., hns I.L-.-n 
■ ■ ■ . ■■..I ■■■■'■■ ! : H„r-.,rM.y l>, L. 

Wt^lia., I.. . ..■.>! (1,,,,. D. W. Hoir, De» 
Moini---;. In., i'Mpysliiis nf n standard script 
alphabet which baa hU the flnlsh and correct- 
ness or outline, spacing, etc., that would be ex- 
pected from such a master. The sllfw are en- 
graved on line plate paper. 

— A pet of large variety letters conies from 
J. F. Briley. whose work has been shown In 
Thk .Ioi.-iiNAL on several occosfons. Mr. 
Briley is now_penmnn of the Queen City B. C, 

iclose a few "igul 

Spring Held, Ak). 

— Here are the writers 
fine specimens of letter writing : 

few of many 
.. wv-lverl in tbe 
of busiDe*« : M. Deilu Har> 
Keokuk, la., whose hand is thoroughly 
infused with the Peircerlan vigor; P. L. Dyke, 
Spenccrian B. C, Cleveland, O. (no more 
graceful specimen of con^mpondenoe m 

W. W. Brown- 
■ ' Iiockanl, Ran 
I , Buar Brancii, 
l.'xington, Ky. ; 

public schools of Hi-t<-i 

ery handsomely, ^ ■\ 

I Mr- Hinl, 1. n 

J., submits u numlier of sliiM nhowing wl 
i pufiilSHre doing. He teachw a pla 
ooth style with no att«-mpt a Hpri-ad-csgli'i 

-Thia rut M rrpr.*iliicM fr.„„ a print 
f f/u itr Mitrhrll, ami Aoie* up rather 
ntl iitv(lfty. — ^D. JOCKXAL. 

. Ospr.ii.J 
amental terminations. The h 
a gorid deal lietter than the 

Here is a chanoe for : 

I of ■ 

ind loa nardrll deserve KM^.-ia I nn-nti'ii) 
We have other batch of^cr^litjible Mu- 
den* specimens from A. J. Dalrr in )>'<-. la-nman 
of tbe College of Commerce, Oc'tfit. nrul have 
pleasure ii giving well-earned crrdit to Ella 
Wilson. W. J. Taylor, Geo. ahil«r and Minnie 


m. -s^jA** 

The Penman's Leisure Hour— Continuing The Journal's "Galaxy of Flourishers** Series. 

Ej-autple.s by Fielding Schojieltl, HeaUVs Business CoUeQe, S-m Francisco, and V. P. Zanor, Xanfrittn Calteje. Culumhu^, Ohio. If any one should chanci 
Knight in Zan^r's Valen'ine, we ndeisp hint to emulate "Brer ftabbit " and "lay lou-:' 
Next month two fine denigns {uccupning full page) bu C. L. Stubba and G. W. Barman. 


TH«fr for Tii« JotnuTAL 

WtrU If Intractloa li PH»nhlp. 

rrartlral asd Ar 



thp«^Dldr wilt br h? 
Th*- rt-ffiilar iMX-mit] 

nindlns t» I 

[> HKLP8 iu lU-ii of a ri'irulMF pn'iDluai. If 

wo f.ii».«,ilpti..n. fjii we will twod any 
r th.*" work i-tIhI premiums For 

■•' 1. 1 I ■ ". «>il "-ii'I lh<- i-DtireKtu 

' ■ ' ' ■ I,. H<r> will bo r-nlltlMl 

lluw lo llcad < liHTi 







The prlofof IbfOxroRU Handv HKLM.wfaen 
sold Hiort frum pirmlums. Is S5 c '" 
Tbnv wIM Iw scut for 5Uci.'Ot»,v<ebl 

f St. orw #r #/^. 

Self Inalrurllon In Pmrtlral BumIdci 

This )9 itnolher kplrndltl work tor thr j-uun 
roan or wnmao woo ta louklnit forwani to 

bUMDOWR i-ATWr. IttrtaUof «lin»«t rxxrythir 

useful. II i» a larve volumr. S^ x 11 mohi 

(aH>a«un< (ht^ out on Tur Joi-hkal |mkc). coi 

tKininir i*:^ p*itT« Nn>1 bandftompu- bound i 

' lib. The uricf u $£ 50 a copy. 

i"Pr lack ihf s^iarv necessary for o\"en a brh 

Wr lack 

• book 


r toioe of the i 

."o"S T 


Ha» bad a liberal bic'i 

pE^n.%%-NBIP HPK<-|ALI»rT, graduate 
*■ uf u li-adiDjr in-dliiic, with sonie px[>eri- 

loot plain and oraarot'Otal writer. at*o pkilHul 
at fancy p> nmanfiblp. Could leach busiot'se 
oorrea- ondi-nce. npePiDir. et<r. Spccimpr a upon 
appltcatloo. "PBNMAN->H1P." inrr Pkxhak's 

wv are4rnablr<d t 

BcaldcB lhPM> ■ncrlal 
rrtsard the lakiroflhp 
lh«- nrw •ubacrlbrra wl 
■ Itird to rlioir* of our 

\^ Set xfrrmiMm f^ffrr^in 
Amf*' hook of Flourtahrg, oi 

L L.\rEWAKTKIIhy»|M>nmi 

Has liad the advautage or a lunt( v 

t*aohi'r Modemt** nalary to bPKiti 
ROL'ND PENMAN, "care Pkxha: 

FAUST. Giiaiburs. III. 



enahlcs you to rrad results in addition (long or short coUinins) 
and all of the cvcry-day c\^mputations of tht- counting lioust- as 
easily, rai)idly and accurately as one reads print from word pictures. 
The only fiill development of this wonderful method puhlishcd. 
Cloth, /xg. $1 per mail. Address C. C. Cociir.\n, Lock Uox 
573, Chicago, 111. 

Dpic ex- 

per month 

"I I 
vine A 

of recommendation 
1 Geo. F. Schoel, 17 years old. 

could Iiavo done tbo work In this offloe 
7,1 B ANlt LltKitT CO.. S pt. 8« 

I lilt! employ of above Arm as cushiei 
rked for Mui-ehiitl Field & Co. ?tx monlbr, on comiucui;iu 
al>o*e poeltioa is due principally t j your Rapid Addition 

jived, of which tht: t Uowing 

bookkeeper for Magnolia Iron Co.; salary $75 

t for your Hapld Drills." 

bookkeetier^aalury $12 1 


. lid I a „ _ „ 

I vrlt-b totay tbat I place unlimited value 

bookkeeper for R. B. Crouch, Oil Mi 

From E. M. Standisb. aged 

" It Is now »lx months since I secured my place and t 

pecta of an early ndv ... ...,._.. _.. _.,.. 

brlllsand Short Cuis. 
Mr. Standish 
difficult and responsible posit 

Ftom H. K. Hardy, bookkeeper for 
i: C- niLSON ACO . Srpt VH.IS91. 

'■Your Kapid Addli Ion Unlla and Short 
In my evcry>tluy work, enabling me to add loi 

" Kapl'i Addition Dnlla and Short (^'nta 

wish t 
K. J. MITCHNEK, ia)0> 


a old. 

Kctl inR tea per month, with ti 

with above Hrm." 

. 1H)WEH8. nookkeepe 

A Few Scraps From the February Journal. 


lis IS mrrtly to giet yuu an idra 0/ what you miss trhen you mias any ntmbrr of Thk 
JoDHItAL. SubacriptioHS may brgin icilh Jamuary or Decrmbtr issue, or furthrrhnrk 

for Tbb Jov&SAi. by J, y. Brilty. 


I OP conn RRn t L branches 

IncludlDK plain and ornamen' 

wo »uperinleodont of a lommenlal depart- 
ent, iIh} attrodancv of which ha<tlH^'n doubled 
ibc paat year by his effort*. " KXPBKI- 
N'CKD." ,^re PaxH.tK'a ART J-rnsAi- 

snxs and allroL_ 

I dealrcs lororroapond wttb a irood 

Tianre of conira^rcial departrnvoi 
ante Oitlrs 
I bookkMp- 

Umvdoslrvd Addr^-w "CtiMMfll- 

refeienct-a furni 
. (row d( 


ABP<-OKn.-The Ji 

It pinwd over 7S iH-r cei 
stercd. loalo and female, 
me date of reici'tratlun. 


:. of all teacb«n n 

with fauui rvli 

bom wit 
-oiroment ._. _ 
>mali nominal foe. 

icrviee, and la piyalile «rt«T 
ieeiiifd. No place no pay 

|{i-t(ls(rntlon lasti for six 

the busy 
t fall. Full 

WE HAVE a call for a IndT to leach Ora- 
hum SUndtrd Ptionoiiraphy and have 



LV lIuslnoM Colleie In u city of 
hubltanta. SSmllea from any siml- 

to any jiood commercial college 

"A CH!\Nc^'l"cH?e'pr 

FOR 9AE.E.-. 
competition li 



end for circular. 


u\Tf.n. Complcic'^ir- 

:,',-M()M-;\ ',„',''! '"','■ 

The Great 

Secret of Success. 

Id tbU day and age the secret of success 
and the key to prosperity is Spcciui Edu- 
cation. Wc will mail free to any address 
our pampblet entitled Hjtfial Edueiition. 

Always Profitable. 

It cootaJDt iuformatioo that will inter- 
est and inspire evcrj- ambitious young man 
and woman. Are you eager to achieve 
success i If go, send for it. Enclose two- 
cent stamp to pay postage. Address 

g-tf Sandusky, Ohio, 


ryenmarvd QTvt&dJvwina/O 


The ORIGINAL, and tor 64 yeara the STANDARD. 

t WHUr.BftHon, . 

BrlUln."-S((/-H^'"" ■■•■'u'on.y 

OVER 2.000,000 T>XT BOOKS SOLD. 

Send for bonh conluiniQtr alphHt>et.. and cats 
loBiie of works hj- Isaac ritman. the Invento 
of Phonogrrtjiliy. A diecount of 40* allowed t 


The PhonogriphlcDepol. 3 Eail l4lhSt., New York 

Good Writing is Capital! 


It is a book of lli.'i runres ami represents the 
work (photi>-eu«ravediof H'J American penmori 
and 8 CaiiAdiant:, amoiiK whieb are portrairs of 
115 penmen. 


' yuiimiw tbia ad. in the "JonFiNAL." an<] 
nake jou hajipy. Do not miB's this. Addrt 

Za. 3D. THITHIR., 
National Bus. College, Ottawa, Out., Ca 

f Wilton's Beau- 

Rl liKul Specimens of Flourlsh-^^ 


JX Xl vT a HandTraiiitr, adopted in the 
Toledo Public Schools. Students raaki ' 
«ith little Practice. Troii 
Book sent for PSc 

Rebecca at the Well. 



A thousand years as a day. No arith- 
metic teaches it, A short, simple, practical 
raethodby E.C.ATKINSON. Principal o( 

Cal. Bv mail, so cents. Addressasabove. 


and President of the Pbilad- Ipliia Stc- 

The Typeirrltinir Otpaitment is conducted by 

The Stenographer Pub. Co., 

140 So. Fourth St.. Phlladerphia. Pa 

Do You Wear a 

Hat? -' 


-"^^^^ **" l'r*»eh- 

^■^ifiLV'Jll i^l ?."-%^s";;'^Ts 

■B^^S^Jl», f ml —J •• T-"wi 

V^ — ^^^^''^Z 






i<. u..-ftil, ImenUM 

^'WNSON A^'o.'itox 169S, i'« 


rulZeamrsZlfiZtisl/rom ihr Sptcial\Penmanship DipartmenlZof \the_OI)erHn, O.'Bua 
oil., Willi the Inftirmalim that the original was floiiriahed in three uiimiles by one of 
s students, C. C. Lister, now teaching at the Toledo, O., Bus. Coll. 



GOLD MEDAL, paris exposition, 1889. 



dffYA/ifT tfi STRATTON 

Adapted for use with or without Text-Book, 

and tlie only set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 





Scientific American 


Favorable i 
ducttoD and use. Descrlpllvi 

with Bufllnesa 

Public and J'rlvate SchooTa forhuro 
aud use. Dpf— i—i — i:,. ... 
JDdence invited 
Tuebeat Pen in the U.S.. and best penmen use them, 


This Pen. known by the above title 


SehoolB and Bookkecp< 
containing 86 Pens. St 

Put I 

I. They 



119 4 121 William St.. N. Y. 

f (ictttific ^mctwan 




t the head nf the famoii. 



e written in full, i 

Send ma vonr 
Kidl wlU -• 
writing it. 

hand, price list descriptive of Lessons by Mafl, Ex. 
tended Movements. Tracing Eierolciea, Caplt-ala, 



Execute* all Kind, ol Ornamental Pen-Work 
To Order. 
Our Engrossine. Pen-Draiv 


is the designing of Ornamental Pen-work. Reeolu- 
r,n°„',;.T J^JSl""' *•-■ ■ ejeoiited in a Brst-claas 
T VS ,^ f^f,'"' !"<««» or Flourishing. Lettering 
and Pen-Drawings done In the best possible manner, 
t-orrespondence solicited and satisfaction guaran- 

12-12 A. E. DEWHURST. Utica, N. Y. 



distinct courses: a.) Pop Professional 

For Teachers of *^ ' 

! Public Schools. 

,... ...V uuui-ofs: U.J POP iTo re-SSI onal 

«.) For Teachers of Drawing nod 
..B -n the Public Schoole. An advanced 
ing school in Writing and Drawing and in 
■ possible branch or pen wurk. Rooms 



IHLLE. Priiicii.iil. 
'. WALLACE. lu>tnutor. l.ff 






No. 128. 

Expressly adapted for professional ose and omft. 

mental pcnmanahlp, 



All of Standard and Superior Qaality. 




y- ^-"^ tJcn//ian^ OTtLtd/oittAXuG^ 


■•l^HIS WOKK is not a book of bnsineee. It ig distinoti; a hook ifpUantn, 

for all penmen and alt others, whatever their vocation may be, who ad- 
mire beantv, grace and harmony of lino as embodied in the ornamental 
work of the beet known penmen of our generarion. 

The book has no serious competition. It is a class by itself. It shows the 

best work of seventy-two of America's best known penmen — nearly all who are 

distingnitihed in the line of ornamentjil penmanship. (See list on accompanying 

cnt.) It has one hundred and twenty-fi 'e specimens, most of tliom master pieces. 

All the mechanical details are of the finest — the engraving, plated paper, press- 

,r-u—^^ work, binding. It has full instructions for beginners as to executing work of 

tti^'oa i "^ this kind. In short, as the price of penmanship works goes, live dollars would not 

' Ml^io-o have been an excessive figure to put on this work. In selling it in best binding 

i.^.■^.- -^- at $1.50 we in effect give the retail buyer double the usual wholesale book 


For instance, before this work appeared, when we have thought of "flont^ 
•x..:^,.a ishce " our minds have turned instinctively to "Williams A- P.ickard's Gems" 
(now out of print i, t.. tlic - New Spcncoriaii Cinpriidiurn " :in.l to " Ames' Coui- 
pendinin." The combined price of these three works is $17. SO, yet they 
together contain only about one-fourth he numbir and variety of flourished specimens to be found In Ames' Book of Flourishes. 
The testimonials wc present herewith are boiled down from enthusiastic letters from pen-artists and teachers. The liulk of them 
were received within the period of a few weeks. They arc from connoisseurs — from artists — from experts. We could give scores of others 
from laymen and amateurs, also from professionals, init these .irc as good as a million. VV'c have published more different works relating 
to penmanship perhaps than anyone else has ever done U'c have never presented a work that met with so instant, enthusiastic, universal 
approval from lovers of pen art as AMES' BOOK OF FLOURISHES. The number sold is climbing well into the thousands now. We have 
not had a single word of disappointment or criticism relating' to it. 

What well-known Teachers and Penmen say of " AMES' BOOK OF FLOURISHES "-Boiled Down to Concentrated Extracts. 

i<, :u.Q*~ si., .•ss 

*->-;- — «,w .. Cv.x^i*N SU*v3**.< -J«»-jU.-W«-,» **.,<- X'».*« *.».n. 
•trrallu HtdurrJ fai^Simar of TOb Ridr. S<<« of Book it iH r ll^ inektt. 


CO. — It CTvcH nw in H Cdinimct and 

>ine of tlm latet^t un«l liiKticst iicliievi 

its line, anel represents tlie work of i 

tlinn any bonk .vet in tlie market. It is, i 

> jieii- 

inromiiiiTBblv cheap. 

P. F. Wlldlsli. Ponuinn Richmond. Ind., B. C— 
It far sliri>»«.se'l my exi)ectations. 

W. H. Iledlord, PciimnnOuelph. Ont., B. C— A 
IxMik of gems — a iimn'el of Krace snil heaiity. 

<>. .1. Penrose. Penmim Clmmtierlain Inst., Ran- 
c!r>lph. N. Y.— A work of inspiration to ohl and yolin^,'. 
I am ilelighled with it. 

A. t'. (;rlni<s. Penman Albion. Mich. Coll.— The 
vonnK penuinn, and the oKl one. too. for that matter, 
finds enonijh insiiinition on enrh \\nm- to {.nvehini a new 

«.k up t 

* for a ycnr. Thori- i 

M \\ 



Acrfpt the feliclttttions 
, Englcville. O.— To a lover 

ilfii. f. U. I.-U.-umrktilil. 

hoi Iw \\-ithont it for Hvt> 

.1. H. Kiicky. IViiini 

nn B. & S. B. C. Pruvi- 

i every imrticuliir. I would 

ie» its coBt. 

B. & S. Coll., LcmiMille. 

fiin astonished at the low 
prici* at wliich you offer it. 

L. W. Holloti, Penman School of Commerce. El- 

luirn. N. Y. — It i« ffrnnd heyond conception, beinR rc- 

spleiuli-nt with iH-iiutiful desifrns from our best mastera. 

I. \V. I*ii'rs<iii, Penman Bryant's Coll., ChicuKo.— 

Without iluiibt till- nioftt comi)lete work of ita kind ever 


.1. M. \ViHh\ l^ 
liuquvsliiniiilily suji 
before iiubliwht'd. 

I>. K. NIvIhoii, N. W. Coll. of Commerce, Grand 
Forks. North Dak.— It is a "dandy." I could not get 
nUniK without it. 

<\ K. BitrWow. Prin. Oskaloosa. la., B. C— It is 
just KTand— far ahead of niv expectations. 

S. M. Swoft. Penman Buffalo. N. Y.. Bus. Uni.— It 
mtrpa-'ist's tnn tliiiii; t-f tin- kind I have ever seen. 

A. A. WiKon. r, ,ii,,,n T;.\]..rV B. C, Rochester, 
N. Y.-*.'! ^^. ■ .f I toiililn-t net another. 

fr". S. Spii-t. *. I - "Mill;., Ont.— One of the 

(H'jmdt'st pmii, 1 |.,\..i„ I . Ai r I.Hikt-<l at. 

S. U. ISimhii, i;. .V ^. it.ll., Buffalo. N. Y.— It 
should be in tht- Imntb* uf iviry pt-nman in the countrv. 

r. n. Bluiiflni, Penman. Hulmeville, Pa.— It ctK^t 
me but %\. I have already bad $10 worth of inspira- 
tiuu fnim it. 

C. O. A. St. JnfqiiCH, Com. Coll. of St, Thomas. 
l>.- Pierreville. P. t^.. Can.- Worth ten times its price. 
Whoever admires the art of flourishing and wants to 
* master of it cannot do without your beantifnl 

•xeeHent BtioK OF Fi^H'KlSHEs, 
I. CraiHlall. Penman. Smith Centre. Kan.— It is 

us impossible that such a lK>ok 



can be had for S4i small n 

S. linilinin. Penman W. Va. B. C. Buckhannon 
W. Va— No lover of the iH'antifnl art who knows it 
iiii-ntti would lie without it. 

W. Mtic'duiiirnll, Clyde, Micb.— Five times bette: 
than 1 exiMH-le*! and worth five times what you ask. 

W. H. Beiicoiii, Penman, Oakland. Cal.— It is fine 
the best I have ever seen. 

S. D. Holt, Penman B. C. Rochester. Minn. - 
After careful con.tideration I pronounce it grand. 

.1. W. Wilful. P. 

Girardville. Pa.— Artistic 

iiman, Atlanta. Ga.— You 
1- the largest number and 
tlourishing I have ever seen. 
If highly appreciated by all 
great stimulus to aspiring 

professiulml peii.u. 
voung pen workers 

A. 1>. Wesloott, Penman, Gladbrook, In.— If 1 
I'onl.t imt MiA iiiintlier I would not exchange mine for 
Ilii 1 .1 > t I -niiii'Tiilium in existence. 

< , M .i.'iiii>on. Prin. and Penman of Public 
s< li I ■ ■ I -v ;it. N. J. — I must pronounce it a per- 

f,-.l i,,.,-nn m lUflf. 

S. r. Morris. Penman B. C. Corso, Mo.— It is a 
book 1 have long wished for, a x*rfect gem. 

A. C Piiff»*Iey, Penman, Owoaso, Mich.— You have 
done a great favor to all penmen by placing snch a 
work before them. Zaner's instructions in flonrishing 
alone are worth the price of the volume. 

.7, W. Jones, Penman, Osmans, Ohio.— To say that 
it is grand only partly conveys my idea. 

P. B. S. Peters, Penman St. Joseph, Bus. Uni.— 
I want to thank you for getting out such a fine book of 

A. MfDauiel, Penman, Chandler, Ok. Ty.— It is 
just the book for the amateur in this art. He needs it 
as an inspirer if for nothing else. 

N. Collins, Penman, Doyltown, O.— Far superior to 
anything of the kind I ever saw. 

Penman, Terrebonne, P. Q., Can. 

worth ten times its cost 
C. Spencer, Penman Scholfield's B. C, Provi- 
R. I. — I don't see how it could be improved. 

simplv - 

I II -l... i,-..t,. Prin. B. C. Charlotte. N. C— It 
111" ' I >' i-ream of flourishes and ia invalu- 

iiM' ■.. ,n, ■!■ .■ I pi'iifessional. 

U. !•:. \\.';i\.-r, Prin Mi. Morris. III.. Pen. Inst.-If 
the sale ft n i Ili-..! mi merit it will out-travel 
auvthing ■■n \" n il nn-lnui,' now l>efore the public. 

J. I.. Sniillt. I'l iiruiiu DnniHhon'sB. CTexarkana. 
Texas.— I haw in v. r .sn ii anything to match it. either 
ill quality or price. 

K. A. Cast, Penman, Ouarga, III.— I would not sell 
it for f(I and do witbunt it. 

J. T. Hiimplirie», Prin. Albion. la.. Seminar>-.— 
I know of no work so admirably adapted to the tastes 
of all who admire that branch of pen art. 

S. I*. Urecu, Penman. Cottondale, Texas.— Far anr- 
]iasses an>'thiDg I have ever seen in its line. 

W. tl. Kinsley, Minneapolis, Minn.— It is an inspi- 
ration to turn over its pages. 

¥•. !•:. Stronuh, Penman Zanes\-iUe.O.,C.C.—n. 
book th«t no lover of \teu art can afford to do without. 

H. M. Itowc. Penman Normal College. Covington, 
Ind.— In your BooR of FLomiSHES it seems that this 
beautiful art has reached the acme of perfection. 

Fred. s. Field, Flushing, N. Y.— It is the best 
iKXik in my ojllection. 

.1. !■;. Phillip'^. Pnii, Phillip^- B. C, Svracusfc. 
N. Y.-In 1 |. uM , iMitv it is wonderful. No single 
authorrnii!!! ,,i ,. i.l .such a book, and none but 
The .TtM i i i \ \ <■.-■ .ullected the material and 
publishf.i - 1 .,, _, lit volume for the price. 

W. K. W il>»i,. 1 . luuan Evansville, Ind.. B. C- 
It is. indeed, revelation uiHin revelation. 

Clas. Fletflier, 25 Victoria Terrace, Skirbeck. 
Boston, England.— It is a splendid book and reflects 
great credit on its compiler. 

"W. M. Manly. Penman, Nashville. Tenn.— Most 
beautiful work of the kind I have ever seen, and ought 
to sell like hot cakes. 

J. F. Garies, St. Mary's Coll., San Antonio, Tex. 
—It is a source of admiration to the young penman 
and a guide and model tn the professional. 

C, H. Tlirolkeld, Penman, Memphis.— I thank 
you, for it is the finest work of the kind I have seen. 

IJro. Andrew, ynebec, Can., College.— It is a work 
of inestimable value to all tnie lovers of the fine art. 

C. N. Crandle, N. I. Normal School. Dixon, 111.— 
My pupils received their Books of FbOURisnES and are 
delighted with them. Yon have certainly made a hit. 

D. D. Darby. Penman. Northlwro. la.— Far better 
than I expected. Would readily give f5 for such a 

P. W. Costello, Pen artist, Scranton, Pa.— I don't 
think the work or anv part of it could l>e surpassed. 

T. T. Wilson, Pnn. Bus. Uni., Princeton, Ind.— 
I am delighted with it and congratulate you. 

J. H. Elliott. Penman Baltimore City College.— 
Its grace and beauty will be a lasting joy to penmen, 
while its extreme cheapness places in in reach of all. 

C E. Chase, Penman State Normal Coll.. Indiana, 
Pa. — I thank von for this gold mine of pen art. 

*T. L. Hallstroni. Penman Gustavus Adolphus 
Coll,, St. Peter, Minn.— I feel it my duty to express my 
admiration of the handsome volume. 

O. M. Clark, Penman. Dunn's. W. Va.— I regard it 
the finest as well as the cheapest penmanship work. 

E. A. McPhorson, Penman. Hawkinsville, Texas. 
— I find at least %\ ■worth of inspiration on every page. 

H. B. Fletning. Penman Wesleyan Coll., Corso, 
Mo. — It is a jewel. 

C. S. Perry, Prin. Winfield. Kan.. B. C— Lovers 
of this art will find it a luxury. 

.J. (i. Harmison, Prin. flome, Ga.. B. C— It em- 
bodies a fine collection of talent and skill. 

WchIov B. 

both aniiit' <>< < 
Sj>encer, 1 

S. K. W. 

what I . \| 
emanatt <>i : 

W. K. Kaae. at. Lt 
Inland —The books rec^i 
mirers among my teachi 
I am quite proud of ha^nng h 

Lancaster, Pa. — Inspiring to 
' iiinl iMjnmen. Specimens by 
"held and Farley alone are 

r. New Ulm, Minn.— It is a 

- B. C. Atlanta, Ga.— Just 
in of gems such as could 

• Sm. Pittsburgh. Tenn.— The 

N ,(i '" H.-Ke of Commerce, 

' n:,' be cherished by 

■ 'I liip in America. 

i . i.iirub. Pa.-Itiscer- 

.iii;, .....I of the art. 

M\^ Coll., Honolnln. Hawaii 

te<\ and have won many ad- 

Bchool fellows and friends. 

valuable work. 

Price of the work (size ^ x Vi\) io tine cloth binding, red, dark blue or brown, with gold sid> »tamp, f l.-IO. Or w* will 
send the BQOK OF FLOllRISHES io thi> bindintr its a special premium for four new subscriptions (|4r, for three new subaciip- 
tiocs and m> cent^ ((.I.SO); for two new aubscriptmns and UO cen» ($*j.90); for one new subscription and 00 cents (tl.KO): or for 
a renewal and $1 extra (»vM. 

l*rieciD heavy uiaoilla covers. t\. Or we will send the book in this bioding for two Dewsubecriptions and 10 cents (|2.I0); 
for one new subscription and 40 cents (#1.401 or for a renewal and 65 cents ($1.65) In every instance where served as aspecial 
premium, as pfr above off. is. each new subsciiber is entithd to choice of our regular premiums. 

has been leceived by cooooii^senrs wjiTrants us in offtiing a special limited edition 
This is printed on lowe thotts of tine plated paper, ooe side printed only, so that the 
books or for framing. The sheets arc sent Hal carefully packed Nothing less than the entire work will be sold, nor will epec 
""-n pages be wnt under any consideration, as that would .^ipoil complete sets . This edition is very Iimiied . Priire *2 a set 


of this work, now ready for delivery. C, <?<1lf-fl"4 ,,^^ . - ,'7\1ifl^*5^ 
designs are ready for inserting in scrap- ^:r-^ !^Ct>rCrtlC^, ^^ ■ 

prices quoted alx>vc include postage. 


■ FarSimitr of Co 

Address D. T. AMES, Penman's Art Journal, 202 Broadway. New York, 

'tyefwiand <:i:Wt/> OjoictnojCP 

Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of them, make books which they try to palm off as superior to 
the originals. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

Because it is the best text-book on the subject ever published, as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books preceding it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from it. 

What evidence is there that it is a .st.kndard work ? 

H has been published 33 years without change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
the country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of All About Phonograi'HY, the 
largest and handsomest shorthand circular ever published. 


Author and Publisher, 

744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting, 

744 Broadway, New York. 


Largest like establish men t 
class SecoDd-hand Ins 
Unprejudiced advice 

Instruments at half n 

lily pnyinents. Any Instm- 


S H O PL T H-A-ISr D. 

«HAI)RD. P()^ 

and to READ your not^-s like print. Text br.ok 

H. M. PERNIN, »-tf 

Dotrolt, ... ^dlloli. 

t Compjete Lessons 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 

The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 years' experience, author of "Aid to Graham." 
" Shorthand Copy-Book," &c., President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
System in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unequaled in the history 
of shorthand teachers. The [jublishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will be sent 
by mail post-paid to any address on receipt of the price, $1.50. 



THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., Publishers, ,.„ 
23 to 27 Euclid Avenue, - Cleveland, Ohio. 


ei'n Hand-IJook-— Utc or MHchine. VA Ciradcd Ia'8soii». 
uittlon. Letter- WritlnjT, Porras of Address. Abbrevinlioi 
: for Frnctlcc, SI panes of fac-slmllu typowrltlDg. 
Pi-epaid toaoy adaress, $1. '•■--■" -■ '-■■-- ■•■ 

Frnctlcc, SI panes of fac- 

I any adaresx, $1. Spoili 
Spencer. Felton & Loo 

ing and Lettcr-Wnttnir. 2Ui 
1, Cleveland. Ohio. »-tf 

Typewriting by Touch, 

E. E. CHILDS, Childs' Business College, Springfield, Mass, 



Better made, 

Runs easier, does 

Better Work, and 

More of It, than any other. 

Constantly improved. 


Wyckoj^, Scamans &-' Benedict, 

327 Broadway, New York. 


learn Shorthand? 

Ii ive apjilicatious cimtinually for 

)U latn which I cannot fill. I could 

. 1 cated two or three lime.s as many 

w\\]^ men the last year if I bad the 

att n tl. 

Theie is no better field for smart young 
nun thdu Shorthand Writing. Let it be 
i -,tt pping stone for something higher. 

SPANISH taught by mail and person- 
ilh Spaniards taught English. Bus- 
inc".i men furnished competent Sten- 
ogr iphers without charge for my s 

OSWECO, N. Y. 1- 




Hule of POS.I 


Kk'irunt iiuppr, large type, supefior eiitfrav- 

I'litii'iimtion. Prautice lettcra for students. 

Retail Price, - - ■ »l.80. 

Sample Copy to Teachers, - 1.00. v tans FitiiE. 

Ihe Bryant atid Strattoa PoblisbiDg Co.. 

\A-: 461 MAIN ST.. BUFFALO. N. Y. 


TJi« Woiiderrul ftlavliino for 
WriliDK Mhorttaaiid. 

' learned: no strain of eyt-s, hand 1 
, orh tinilocra and iiccurat 
ind reliable. Send stamp I 

body. ■Worn tinilorra and accurate. Eapy, 

'^HndreliH" - - 



American System of Shorlliand. 

To supply the increasing demand for 
stenographers, schools of shorthand and 
type-writing hav been established in var- 

eptions, all business coll. 
department of shorthand 
of systems ar taught 

\ number 

that of Benn 
Phman is more generally used than anv other 
' this country, and may be oalkd the ''Amer- 
ican System. — Exlmct from the Report 0/ 
" 'Education {_iVashinglon, 




"^^ /enmand Qytit CiyctcinalP 

18 OKEor WILLIAMS* KOGKBS* manj- popnUr rommerclal PubUoitions. Although I'ul 
tbrv« moothx rrom ih# prrM It bu beeo Bdopted hy many of Ibr Icadiae buslnrn c»)- 
le«<«anilcnmn)erclalile|«rtincnt«ortbe couotry. aotl tcacber? and ntuflenU of pen- 
maniMpnif-'IpllBblcd with It. It isorfslnal. uolqueand beautiful. >od its pceultiirlliPscom- 
io*-nd II Instaotlr toalJ whoeiiniiiH^ tt. 

icb to th«lr naturul. 
■^ pupil flD4s ample 

S«coj«i>— The roples ire primed on ruled paper, which c 
ncM that the •TCrsx' pup'l does not 8U«pcct that the lines a>e ergri 

TuiBD-The mX contains 80 large * number of ccplcr, 2% In all. i 
rarletf, which Kcunv and hold* bis fntpreat. 

FoCBTB— The BOOK OF INSTKt'CTIOSS. which Bccompxntes every wt. affords the pupil 
Ju*t those hint*. RU|n((.-«t ions and dlrrct'onsas to hnw to practice to Insure Impiovemunt that 
the mnvt capable tz-ncher of writing would give htm. 

Th« retail price of this set. which is called the Complvtr Kdition, Is fl-OO. nnd one will be 
mailed to any address on receipt of that amount )□ postal note or postage iitam|«. A set will 
bo maflol (o any teacher, with a view to latroduotfoo, for SOc. 

AN ABRIDGED EDITION of Pen-Written Copies (^Reproduced), 

Coiiliiihin;; ahoiil IMO copifs and a Book of Instruct tons, adapted to public and 
]irivatc i^chools, ha« just been Usued. The retail price is oOc. and a set will bi- 
mailed to any t«acbor, with a view to iotroduction, on receipt of 25c. in postal 
not(^ or poplage stamps, Attention i« also called to the following: 

NEW CGMPIETE BOOKKEEPING. 275 Pages. Retail Price, $2.50 

NEW INTRODUCTIVE BOOKKEEPING. 125 Pages. Retail Price, $1.25. 

IT riftsaes. .4n»lhcr Hand;»ini< BOfili. 

FIRST LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING. 75 Pages Retail Price, 75c. 

For Vuv>a and l)i:.lrKt SrhtxtU, A Littlf Brnutif. 

COMMERCIAL LAW. 310 Pages Retail Price, $2.00. 
BUSINESS UW (*?rff7«««). 200 Pages. Retail Price $1.25. 

For (ijtuainvlal j^ihiiol* ami Ciininiercirtl Deparlmeots. An ETf€filitnjt)/ Cnirfici/ Iti-ifc. 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 275 Pages. Retail Price, $2,00. 

l-.rrtll ( '.mininial ria-ij.TS. Krvri/'-i^-lv Likfg It, 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC ( ' r'?."ff7««"\ 225 Pages. 
Retail Price, $1.25, 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 235 Pages, Retail Price, $1.50. 

Retail Price, 75c. 

SEVENTY LESSONS IN SPELLING, 130 Pages, Retail Price, 30c 

THREE WEEKS IN BUSINESS PRACTICE. Method ^.* Outfit, $35.00 



r t'lxutrattng ButintM. It chords Jiixt thr itrUt I 

ntxc-cviry to fit (he pupil in the be»l uwgibtt waii for uffl 

eeptiny the 
I of Hiittn' 

NEW BOOKKEEPING. 250 Pages. Retail Price, $2.00. 

We also carry a line of Diplomas for both Commercial and Shorthand Departments, which may be 

adapted to any school ; also Blank Books and Business Forms for Bookkeeping, Stationery, 

College Currency, &c , &c. Correspondence Solicited. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Educational Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 



Inoorporateil Jan. 21. 1890. Paid op Capital Stock, $100,000. 


The Euclid , 

r! and Church Sts., Buffalo, N. Y. 

il Catalogue aodso-page College .Tournii) ilr<'<'i. Aridn" iii. I'n -iiFint. 

M. J. CATON, Cleveland, Ohio. 


touchers of Pknuanhiiip, of Comhr 
. brnnkbes and of Urawino and I'e 
III thd I'lHun which concentrate their whi 
Dd skill upon the ONE POINT orftclcctlniru 
liofT tcachent. 



Le.'niiuj; oxt lusive Collejre of PoDmaD5bip and Art in Amerii 
superior in-nmen tjiving entire allention to the school aud work. 
odIt ♦.t.50 per weet. More applications for graduates ihi 
Unwiug. Portnuturc and Theory. T' 
Oiplomas designed and cuts furnished 
five red 8t&m(« or a dime. 

list and Teacher. Cla*s drill and individual 

reasonable. Good board aid furnished room ia private f 

f iastructioQ emhraciDg nice styles of PeamaD^hip, Flourishio^, Engr 

Penman's t^upplies obtainable. Lessons by mail. Job work of every description djnc iu a superior manner, on nhort 

Magnificently illustrated catalogue, showing work of j^raduatea, with portrait of faculty, signatures, etc., etc., sent on rcc 

The place to become 
All-round c 

SS^-TTV^*... ■^'^='CrBUSHED M0ISTHLYAT202 dkoadw/;y. ^ 



Vol. 16. No. 4. 

No Failures in Holland— The Reason Why. 

HOLLAND nevwr appears to havc' 
been specially attractive to Amer- 
icans. Only a very inconsiderable 
fraction of our traveling public make that 
country the objective point of their wan- 
derings. We had supposed this to be ac- 
cidental, or, at most, the result of unat- 
tractive scenery and a language rarely 
well understood by 
our people. Possibly 
a better reason may 
be found in the fol- 
lowing extract from 
an official report on 
the social and political 
condition of the 
Dutch, from the 
United States Minis- 
ter to The Hague, re- 
ceived at Washington 
some years ago. 

As an illustration 
of the carefulness 
and steadiness of the 
Dutch, the Minister 
says that "there has 
not been a bank fail- 
ure in Holland during 
the last forty 
and that the paper 
money of the banks 
during that time has 
been equal to gold. 
In regard to fire iu- 

rity of Holland would not injure this 
country at present. The state of society 
and business which i>roduces so many 
defaulters and embezzlers in our leading 
cities is decidedly too brilliant and inter- 
esting to be profitable. — Via Henldrs Bus. 

The Weight of a Dollar Bill. 

The Fad of Autographic Plaques. 

The girls have a new fad now. It is 
called the "autographic plaque." Like 
all fads, it has swept the homes of the 
young women like wildfire, and has occa- 
sioned no end of sharp comments by mem- 
bers of the sterner sex who have been 
mulcted of dimes. The "autographic 
placqne" is an ingenious device of a 


to a larger circle, like spokes in a wheel 
from the hub to the tire. The spaces be- 
tween these lines are for autographB. 
There are fifty such spaces, and it has 
been declared the proper thing for the 
girl to get the autographs of fifty of her 
male friends written within them. An un- 
written law in this fad decrees that each 
autograph writer must produce a dime 
with his signature. When all the spaces 
are full and each name 
paid for the girl has 
$5, and this $■'3, if sent 
to a certain place with 
the card and a photo- 
graph of the owner, 
will secure a china 
plaque with the pict- 
ure and autographs 
reproduced and fired. 
It is a great scheme 
for the girls who have 
little or nothing to do, 
and signatures are 
■\ 1, greatly in demand.— 

*■ Vhicago Tribune. 

there is no such thing 
as a failure on record, 
and while the rate of 
insurance does not 
average more than 
half of one per cent., 
the companies are in 
the most flourishing 
condition, realizing 
twelve to sixteen per 
cent, per annum. 
First-class railroad 
travel is only one 
cent per mile, and yet 
the roads pay good 
dividends. Pil f ering 
officials are scarcely 
ever heard of, and 
when they shock the 
nation by turning up, 
they are severely pun- 
ished and forever dis- 
graced. No free 
passes are granted, 
and managers and 
directors have no 
power to pass any- 
body over the 
roads free. All must 
pay the public rates. 
Dishonesty of any 
kind, or failure in 
business, means pub- 
lic dishonor, and 
ntterly bars the dis- 
honest from any 
future public consid- 
eration. Four mill- 
ions of people live within an area of 20.- 
000 square miles— a fact nnprecedeoted 
in any other country— and all appear to 
be happy, prosperous and contented. The 
secret of this prosperity lies in the fact 
that all live within their income, and 
that industrj- and honesty are principh^s 
so firmly established that their violation 
is looked npon as an outrage on the na- 
tional characteristics."' 

A little more of the_dullnes8 and iuteg- 

t ... .. .,r 



,/) r, „././, rV ,/:.. 

— (3^^flti5.'^rsnmiiinnl as 11 (llrrHfu^^tr JIl^^'l'^l'^^^l^tlIiI;g)J 

i fwf i& a ifducrd facsimile of a newlStock Diploma made in the Office of THE Jocrnal, and 
itt presented as a fine exampln of work of this kind. The cut shows the Diptovia when filled, 
the stock design having blanks whore the words, "Aubutn, New York ""Grace Leontine 
Rollinson" and " Commercial Dspartment^^ appear above. There is abundant sjntce 
bottom for additional signatui'es. 

of the regular Diploma is 18 a; 23. We have similar deMgna for "Urn 
Schoor' and '■ Graded School." 

How Novelist Howells 

Edward Bok says 
that Mr. Howells 
^ never composes a line 
for any of his stories 
until he has theentire 
plot, with every char- 
acter and every inci- 
dent, carefully 
thought out. Then 
he goes to his type- 
writing machine and 
composes directly 
upon it, never using 
pen or pencil except 
for interlineations 
after a chapter is fin- 
ished. The novelist 
is an expert at the 
typewriter, and ma- 
nipulates the keys in 
the most approved 
fashion. His search 
for facts is often long 
and tedious, and he 
visits the places in 
New York where he 
is most likely to find 
the character he is 
seeking. Mr. How- 
ells has become a fa- 
miliar figure about 
Madison square. He 
has taken for tem- 
porary residence a 
furnished house in 
Stuyvesant square, 
once an aristocratic 
portion of the city, — 
A*e«' York World. 

We have seen thfi 

above article in half 

'"*' a dozen papers. It is 

the all very nice if true 


it tr 

, School," "Public 

urary were brought i: 
irprising discovery n 
'Pighed exactly as mn 
he latter just oalnui i- 

china-firing concern, and its purimse is 
financial gain for this establishment. 
Pieces of cardboard, 10 x 10 inches in 
size, are distributed where they are likely 
to meet with a favorable reception. These 
pieces of card contain a circle in the 
center— a reserved space large enough 
for a reproduced photograph. From the 
circumference of this circle extend lines 

This writer has seen 
and read at least two 
manuscript stories 
by Mr. Howells. Both 
were pen written, 
the handwriting betraying the nervous- 
haste quality, with frequent slurring and 
omission of letters, making the reading 
rather difficult until you had " struck the 
pace." We remeuiber that on the back 
of some of the sheets were a few lines of 
tvpewTiting of no connected meaning, as 
if some one hiul Ireeu practicing. And 
the style of type suggested a machine 
that would not cost over $\5.—P. A. 

f^e/u/iOA^ Q^^Lkt^s/ctttnaO? 

Short Chats with Learners. Pen - Lettering and Engrossing. 

WE ilEOIN the month with lUiotbtT 
n<*w attnurtion for pen-workers — 
n «;onn«; in )M:n-li>tt<TiDK> fn^fravinK, etc.. 
\ry thnt jirince of |H-n-ftrlMtK, H. W. 
Kihlje. The Antt inHljillmL'nt 10 on this 
jwKP. Thonttanrlft of nnliNcrilHTK will re- 
caII a Bouiewhat similar coarse which ran 
throngh aboat eighteen iMues of The 
JoiTRNAL some time nince and were 
among the biwt article*! we ever pnb- 
liiihi'il. What with thtfte lefMonn by Mr. 
Kibtie, Mr. Zaner'8 lewoDB on umat4.* in- 
itialiD antt i-ndpteccs. Mr. UuII'h instruc 
tion in frtc-hand drawing. ;ind Mr. 
Patrick'^ writing leiwonii, we think the 
nmbitionx yonng penman ought to be 
eawily able to got hiw ten cent*' worth 
from cver>' nunilier. 

What Mr. Patrick utayK in this iiwue 
nlNint nndnc ImHtf- of li'amiTH t<> get their 
work criticJM'd Iiuk uiuch [Ktint, and has 
often «>iuc within »»ur olwervation. They 
will " practice " a few minuten at a time 
— jnut long cntmgh t<i accumulate a hand- 


A l>eginner wuald ontlinc the body of 
letters in pencil, while an espert would 
not need to. as accuracy is not demanded 
and in not even desirable. Leave the let- 
ters broken at places for bringing the 
foliage in front and proceed to make it. 
The examples here given are intended to 
show the stroke more plainly than ii can 
be seen in the finished letter. 

y0T ^c ^ 

strokes are all in one direction, and the 
pen is held in the jroaition indicated from 
fin«t to last. Dotted lines show the mo- 
tion of pen. and the finger or fore-arm 
movement may l>e used. 

Rothschild's Business Maxims. 
The .-Ider Ban.ii R-.tliscliild had the 
Willis of hi« bank plrfcaidt-d with the fol- 
lowing curious maxims : 

misfortune followed him faithfully. He 
did so poorly in one business that he sold 
ont all his right* after a years hard work 
for ^^, but with that $2.i he got together 
the capit&I which in after years enabled 
him to start a little lithographing shop. 
It was an illness that caused him to re- 
linqnish his trade of wikmI engraving and 
started him in the line that brought fame 

Qualifications of an Amanuensis. 
Charles M. Miller is a sncci^sfal pro- 
fessional stenographer of Ltrge eiiwri- 
ence, for several years past a teacher in 
the School of Shorthand of PackardsCul- 
lege. The question which all of us have 
heard hundreds of times— "Can I Be- 
come a Successful Auiannensis J- " — isthus 
an.'iwered by Mr. Miller in a recent num- 
lx?rof Frank Harritioti's Shorthand Maga- 

Mv friend, answer yonr own qnestion ; 
the facts are as follows : 

The qualifications for an amanuensis 
require that you have a good knowle<lge 
of a good system of shorthand, by which 
you can record the utterances of yonr em- 
ployer, and render a sensible and gram- 
matical transcript thereof : that you are 
able to use. with accuracy and facility, a 
first-class tyj>ewritcr on which to make 
your transcript- The typewriter to leani 
and to use is the one you are most likely 
to find in business houses. If more op- 
erators are produced for that style of ma- 
chine than can conveniently find [kwi- 
tions, the law of supply and demand will 
retain only those that are wanted. You 
must be one of those. They will be ladies 
and gentlemen who are intelligent and 
who understand the responsibilities of 
life generally ; in fact, they will be peo- 

»l/iny ttssoii h[i H. W. Kibhe). 

fnl of ■• ^pecinlt■ns," then bundle tlicni up 
and send 'heui for an opinion. What you 
want to do is to practice continuonsly and 
faithfully according to directions until 
the improvement in your writing is verj" 
apimrent to yourself, then select a few 
linea of your l»«jt work with a line or two 
honestly showing your best efforts when 
you iH-gan the lessons, and scud them on. 
Of course if you have carefully followed 
directions, and after say six weeks of 
steady effort are unable to show any bet- 
ter results, something must W wrong, 
and it is well to state the facts, send 
siK'cimens. old and new, and inquire 
where the fault lii«. But first be sure 
thnt yon have tried to help yourself. A 
self-discovered fault cannot Ik- forgotten. 
and is much wore easily remedied than 
one jwinted out by another, and when you 
write on this business, or any other ask- 
ing for information, never forget your 
friend the little red stamp. 

We akk fixing up some jiriie ii>mi>eti- 
tious to krep the Iwys busy during the 
litmimer. We juv speaking now more 
jtarticularly of those who have been fol- 
lowing Bn>. Zaner's excellent lessons. 

Cart-fully exnmfue every detail of your 

Be prompt tu everything. 
Take time to consider, and then decide 
Dare to go forward. 
Boar troubles patiently. 
Be brave iu the struggle of liff. 
Maintain your integrity as a sacred thing. 
Never tell busiuess lies. 
Moke no useless acquaiotanoes. 
Never try to appear something mor« than 

Pay your debts promptly. 

L^am how to risk your money at the right 

Shim strong liquor. 
Employ your lime welL 
Do not reckon upon chance. 
Be polite to everyl>ody. 
Never hv disconnged. 
Then work hard and you will be w 

pie whom the world wants because of 
their capabilities. 

The correspondence department of a 
concern— the department in which an 
amanuensis will be most likely to be era- 
ployed— is one of the most important and 
exacting within its walls. It is through 
the instrnmentality of this department 

that thf foTicprn To oW.. t.^ A^ l...„;.,„,.„ 

-biM. If voa wrr« vou wouM drr uu once i 

Pluck Took Him Through— it Will do as 
Much for You. 
An exchange says that Louis Prang, the 
famous BtkKt^m chromo-lithographer, was 
a Pmssian calico i>rinter at the age of 18 
and was traveling throngh Eumpe for a 
Bohemian uiauufaclnrer t4> pick up infor- 
mation when the revolution of 1H48 broke 
out. He was a sympathizer and was 
obliged to fli-e to Switierland. and then 
came to New York in I8.5t>. Immedi- 
ately afterward he settlctl in New Eng- 
land. He tried half a dozen ventures and 

that the concern is able to do b..=,...c«,. 
The occupant of a desk in that depiirt- 
ment will be employed, first, because he 
is a hard worker, discreet, tnithful, and 
and has a good memory ; second, because 
he is polished in his contact with others, 
well dressed and watchful of the interests 
of his house. 

The amanuensis, as he should be, isthe 
one with whom the princi))al can ex- 
change ideas freely and io whom he can 
confide. He is the wmnecting link be- 
tween the head of the house and the ma- 
chinery of the concern ; he must have the 
facts of past transactions at his fingers* 
ends and must lie a favorite with all em- 
ployees ; he must deserve commendation 
for his good work, and get it from his em- 
ployer when he is the busiest. Spontane- 
""" udation is heartfelt apprecia- 


a cannot meet all of these reqnire- 
e other field leas 

I'aris has fand Ibe patieun 
ilnT of words cmp]i>yeu by tbi 

Frec-Hand Drawing. 

BT O. A. enj,, Sl-PT. OF SCHOOLS. 


N*. «. 

Polygons of many sides may be utilized 
extensively iu designing and decorating. 
In all decorative work some fundamental 
figure should be reiieated instewl of ailopt- 
ing a multitude of different ones. Thus 
if the hexagon or pentagon is the prevail- 
ing figure, reiieat them. Complexity is 
not the foundation of liennty. By c«»n- 
necting the opposite angKi of a pentagon 
with straight Imcs a five-pointer! star is 
fonnwl. In the same manner a six- 
pointe<l star can bo formed from a hexa- 
gon. The most common, yet l)eautirul 
illustration of a many-sided jKtlygon in 
nature is the spider's web. The hexagon 
is perfectly illustrated in the n^ular 
geometric cells of the honeycomb. 
Microscopic examination of minute forms 
of animal and vegetable life reveals imni- 
l>erles8 examples of the polygon as util- 
ized by nature in her many curious and 
complex designs. Let the student of art 
examine through a jmwerful microscope 
the scale-like covering of common hairs 
and feathers from mammals .-md birds. 
What a lesson in practical designing at 
once preaeuts itself! Few artists can 
imitate the symmetrical jwrfection in 
arrangement of polygons presented Ut 
the eye. 

The^approa<-h from the i>olygon Ut the 

most celebrated 

neille do not coo 

words, and tbo^ of Holien 
peare, the mneit fertile and vi 
authors, wrote all his traeedi 

The works of Cor- 

than TiXMdilTerent 


f English 

*ay8 all tb«t it 

circle is so griuliml as to be scarcely 
[wrceptible. The number of sides con- 
stantly increaM; until they finally blend 
into a complete curve— the tyi»e of 
nature's infinity— no lieginning and no 
end, at least t^> human comin-ehension. 
To draw a circle stand sideways to 
the blackboard nearly arm's length dis- 
tant : turn the band nnder. c«immence at 
bottom, sweep upward and arotmd left. 

tl/m/nanA CLTt/zLoJ^iOUialP 

finish down and around right. Constant 
practice will enable one to draw all sizes 
with very fair approrimation to per- 

Develop idea of diameter (rfia scfosb, 
mctron, a measure), radins, arc. sector, 
Begment. The teucher will find that 
abihty to draw the circle will aid ver>- 
materially in teaching mathematical 
geography. The boundaries of the zones, 
meridians, parallels, eqnator, ecliptic. 
The revohition of the earth about the 
sun and the moon about the earth. In 
astronomy also, the solar system and the 
contour of each planet with moons or 
rings, if any— all may be illustrated. 

value in all high schools and grammar 
grades in the country. It is the testimony 
of educatora who have tried it that no 
other device in the bauds of the pupil con- 
tributes so much toward a knowledge of 
correct business English. Its use calls im- 
mediate attention to business forms, to the 
correct uBe of capitals, to correct spelling, 
to neatness, to accuracy of expression — in 
short, to everything that should charac- 
terize English composition. But is such 
knowledge leortfi anything ? A gentleman 
from a distant city who often finds busi- 
ness situations for young people recently 
told the writer that he could secure desir- 

practice of the movement exercises and 
combinations ; it can only be done by 
such intelligent practice. You might 
read until you had accnmulated the 
knowledge of a sage and know perfectly 
how everything should be done ; but 
the thing is to be able to do it yourself, 
and yon can never arrive at that point 
without patient, continued and intelli- 
gent work. 

{To be continned.) 

Addition Backward. 

A few months ago I found in the New 
York Herald an article about addition 



C^iy ui^^ u£'^<^-^^'?'?^,!^i>1^^.(^/^^^(^>-^^C^ 

cf^Sj;3;3:Pj^' (^^ChBS- 

The utility of the circle to the drafts- 
man is very apparent. No natural object 
can be sketched without it, in whole or 
in part. In drawing the wheel, draw the 
outer circle first, then the nest large one, 
the inner circles, the straight lines. 
Develoi) tire, steel rim, felloe, spokes, hub. 
bos. M'/fccn^drrow.— Draw wheel, then 
straight lines. WagoH.— Draw wheels, 
box, etc. Constant practice in drawing 
the different forms of vehicles will secure 
variety and develop the inventive powers. 
No field will yield a greater number of 
designs mth the circle as the basis than 
nature itself. The beautiful curving 
rainbow, sun, moon and winter halos. 
Invisible to the naked eye. yet under the 
microscope myriads of living circles may 
be seen in the shape of water insects and 
plants. The microscope should never 
be omitted from the apparatus of the 

(To be contiinied.) 

The Typewriter as Schoolmaster. 

The following by a well-known educator 
is Irom a circular relating to the Reraing 
ton typewriter: 

The ability to use 
the typewriter is com- 
ing to be looked upon 
as a necessary part of 
a practical education, 
and in thousands of 
cases this knowledge 

Exercines with Mr. Patrick's Writing Lesson. 

able places for any number of young men 
and young women at $15 per week if, hav- 
ing other qualifications, they could write 
good English and spell cvrrectly. 

"The Journal's" Writing Club. 

No. e.-nir.ct Oral I,etlern. 

JUDGING from the appearance of some 
specimens sent in for criticism, we 
are inclined to believe that many of 
the pupils who are pursuing this series of 
lessons are in too much of a hurry to get 
their work criticised. Practice the copy 
systematically a few hours each day for 
two w*'ek8, then send us a sheet of your 
best efforts. 

We present herewith the rest of the 
capital alphabet, termed the direct oval 
letters, and we wish to remind you again 
that it is very necessary to educate your 
muscles. This can be done by a thorough 

Initials and End Pieces. 

[text and ILLnsTRATIONS BT C. P. ZAMKR — 


I VBLE as Imes 

u they are fre 

uently overlooked 

nd tonssidered of 

but little importance, whereaw 

tli« \ are the main, almost ex 

(.lusive means of expression 

Weak, nervous, undecisive 
lines are to drawing what 
harsh, squeaking, broken 
voices are to speech. 

You may have an idea, bnt 
without a skillful means of expression it 
will be of but little force after having 
been mutilated by defective execution. 

Then, too, you may be able to make 
lines, but unless there are ideas back of 
them they will he quite as useless as 
words from the mouth of a simpleton. 
Have ideas and be skilled to express 

Therefore acquire the ability to make 

straight lines, curved lines, smooth lines, 

rough lines, heavy hues, light lines, 

crooked lines, regular lines, white Imes, 
black lines. 

Prepare drawings to accompany article ou 
Light, Shade. Shadow and Effect. 

Anything will do so long as it reveals one or 
more of the above values. 

Now look about and see what you can pro- 
duce ; a group of objects, different ui shape, 
effect and treatment, is desired. 

backward, and made a copy of it, which I 
inclose. Personally I find it very useful, 
and believe "X. Y. Z.," Logansport, lud., 
could profit by it; 









To add backward, begin at the left-hand 
column of the above sum and write down 
the full amount of each column in regular 
order, a? below: 


A knowledge of this method of adding 
serves as a ready and reliable proof to the 
accountant.—/'. M., in The Ojp'ce, N. T. 

the ! 

9 of I 


iug a living. But val 

of this machine 
a person seeking 
clerical positi 
general use of it as au 

destined to make it of 
far greater value to the 
jiubiic schools. There 
is no doubt but that 
these machines will be 
used in the near future 
for their educational 

A German-English Shorthand System. 

A new stenographic association was 
formed in New York recently under the 
name of " Htolze Shorthand Society of 
New York." It is chiefly composed of 
German stenographers, and was founded 
with the view of propagating the knowl- 
edge of the Stolze shorthand system, which 
is now widely used in Germany. 

The new society tea'ihes stenography in 
German as well as in English, the latter 
according to an cxellenl adaptation of 
the origmol German s)8tem to the English 

The Postaye Stamp. 
The postage stamp will celebrate its 
fifty-second anniversary on May 6th, this 
year. England, fifty-two years ago, in- 
troduced the new system of prepaying 
letter postage, and, according to a decree 
of December 21, 1839. issued the first 
stamps, which were to be put before the 
public on May 6th of the following year, 
as noted above. A year later they were 
introduced in the United States and 
Switzerland ; and within three yeare had 
become common in Bavaria, Belgium and 
France.— (7(?(/cr'« Stationer. 

Multiplication Magic. 

Suppose that a person take an even 
counters, or any such, 
in one hand, and an 
odd number in the 
other, there is a sim- 
ple method by which 
to tell in which hand 
the even number is. 
Ask the person to 
multiply the number 
in the right hand by 
an odd number, and 
the number in the 
left hand by an even 
number; then tell the 
IxTson to add the t wo 
products together and 
tell you if the sum 
total be odd or even. 
If the sum be even. 
the even number is 
in ihe right hand, ar.d 
if it be odd the even 
number is in the left 

{Lesson Accoiiipctni/ 

.« ir 


them hi 

1 thf luft. 

I (<> 1h* Hblp to recognize h 
any iKwilion. "Wliat is 

24.) "A bdll." *■ Whiit 
iH all Hrouiid thf ball?" 

.)1(1 ui) their right handei. 
Take a picto of crayon in 

.11(1 aiul Ftand faciuff the 

right curve in this 

■f" (Fig. 27). Have a 

and show yon 

in the two fig- 

this?" (Fig. 28.) "An 


and show me the 

rij:ht curve in the egg. 


show me the left 

Many other simple famil- 

drawn. such as an apple. 
l>ear, plum. etc.. and the 
children requested to 
show the right and left 
■'^ curves. Have each child 

go tu the board and make right and left 

I have dwelt tipon these simple lines be- 
cauflo they are the foundation of writing, 
and this i)art well done will make your 
future work so much easier. 

Here is a paragraph by Lyman D. 
Smith of Hartford in the Anifrimn 
TfHcftcr, which gives a valuable sugges- 
tion as to the method of appl>nng the 
" new education " to the teaching of pen- 
inaushij). It will bear reading again and 

PitTUKKsguE Observation of Lines.— 
*■ Do you see any straight lines or curves 
in the trees, in the houses, and in the 
sky. and in the little boys' and girls' 
faces y Why, the whole world is made up 
of curves and straight lines ; and we are 
all curve," and straight lines. I do not 
think you can look out of your eyes but 
you see curves and straight lines'." Ex- 
cite their /iohvts of ubifrratioti. and help 

I to trad the ihi 

in ih 




of the I'ixihle world, 
iiuij the better. 

-, i..iti-.nright 
; I- tliH letter. 
-l.^wlv. iiist as 

quickly, t*j cultivate rapid 
recognition. When all the children 
know the Hnes of small i they have 
learned the whole ttaai:< of wrifiit'g. The 

straight line and c 


board, liack toward class. " In which 
hand am I holding the crayon, children?" 
" In your right hand." Make a long. 
curved stmke. the natural swing of the 
arm dii\mward. Then take crayou in 
yonr left hand and rei>eat question and 

Have them see that the line mmle with 
the right hand cur^-es toward the right, 
and the one made with the left hand 
curves towarti the left. Oive them the 
nam««. right rurt^, teftennr. Make these 
liu.-s about six inches long on the board. 

Brief review of last lessim. Draw Fig. 
3-i. Have the children see that the curve 
on the right side of the dividing line is a 
right curve and the left side a left curve. 
Blinding the (tointerou somelhiuK similar 
is a good way lo illustrate the cur^-es and 
fix them in the child's mind. " What is 

This lesson should be devoted to teach- 
ing the children how to make the lines 
which they have learned te recognize. 
The slate or paper is ruled one space, and 
they might be taught that their strokes 
shonld go entirely across the distance be- 
tween these lines, beginning on one and 
ending on the other. If the bsse line is 
rwl and the upiKT line blue it will help 
very much. Then you can use red and 
blue or red ami white crayon for drawing 
lines on the iK^anl. and yon will have no 
trouble in getting them to see that they 
must vrr'ite on the red line and have the 
tope of the letters touch the blue or white 
line. The lines on the Itoard should be 
not less than two iuches apart, and if 
your nxim is very large make them three 
inches. All writing on the lM>ard for the 
illustration of letters should be much 
larger than ortlinar>' blackboard writing, 
as the child must 1m> able tn $ee each 

stroke in the letter separately in order 
that its curve or direction may be per- 
ceptible to him. 

Do not make heary titrokes in any case. 
If your writing on the boani is heavy the 
pupils will surely imitate yon and acquire 
a habit of " bearing down " on the pencil 
or i)en which is fatal to graceful writing 
and one of the most difficult habit« to 
break, so l>e tvry careful that it is not 
formed. Write as lightly as can t>e seen 
by the children and rememlier my urgent 
r€<jnest in an early article that all work 
on the board be yonr best effort. AVivr 
let children see you do carries* ttxtrk of 
any kind. 

"What are these, children?" {Fig. 
29). '■ Short straight lines." " How 


1 tell me whether I began at. the 
top or bottom ? " Practice a few minutes. 
"What are these?" (Fig. 30.) " Watch 
and tell me whether I l>egiu at the top or 
bottom? Yes, we make the curves up- 
ward." Teach turns upii'ard and dnwti' 
ward. Make the curves "in the air" 
with your finger (upward) and have the 
children do the same, then on their slates 
or paper. Practice a few minutes, count- 
ing one. two. three, four, while you move 
around the room and see whether all are 
making them upward. This point will 
give you some trouble at first. 
•' What are these, children? "(Fig. 31). 

of i's. Keep time with my count, one. 
tvo, three, dot. Look, aome are mak- 
itig their dots too heavy, like this (imitat- 
ing). See how small youcanmakethem." 
Yon will also find the same fault that >-ou 
fonnd in the fir*t principle. Treat it the 
same, and have them tell yon the nameof 
the first str»>ke, and second part, erasing 
part if necessary in onler for them to see 
the construction. Have them te.l you 
how to make another i. you making the 
strokes as they name them. 
In teaching penmanship, as in every- 


"Did I make them upward or downward ?" 
Practice as before and give those individ- 
ual attention who are making right 
curves instead of left. Have them imag- 
ine that they are making grass or weeds 
and the wind is blowing, bending the 
stems over, and in similar comparisons, 
in order to secm-e attention and effort. 
i««*o» 4. 

Review the three elements (short 
straight line and curves), then join first 
and second elements, giving _/fr»^ priiici' 
pie. (Fig. 32.) " Look, children ; here is 
something new! Who can tell me the 
names of the two lines ? " If they do not 
name them readily, cover or erase one 
and have them name the remaining one, 
then make it again and cover or erase the 
other stroke. (Make it at least two inches 
high.) In this way they can be brought 
to recognize the strokes in the com- 
plete form. " WMiat does it look 
like, children ? " They will tell you 
various things. Ask them if they 
can bend their arm so that it looks 
something like it. Make it in the air 
and have them do the same, counting 
one two. one two, one two. Now 
ask how many would like to know 
the name of this curious little thing? 
I am glad there are su many. Listen 
now. We call this a first principle. 
What is it? How many will tr>* real hard 
to remember that name until to-morrow ? 
Practice <m slates or paper during the 
rest of lesson, counting part of the time 
its before. You will find the majority of 
the children making it this way. y ^ 
Imitate the fault on the lx>ard ^^ 
and ask them to tell you what is '■< j- 
wrong with it. 

Review first principle. " Now watch 
me. children, and tell me what I do?" 
" You made a right curve." " What did 
I join it to?" "First principle." (Fig. 
33.) " Watch again." "You 
made a little dot over it." 
"Did any one ever see this 
before ? What is it ? " Make 
it in the air and have them imitate yonr 
motions. Count o»ie. tusi. three, dot. and 
remember that yonr motions must lie 
/KirXvivird— that is. beginning with the 
last line of the letter— a* the children see 
your motions reverse*!. "Now. I wont 
to see who can make me the nicest line 


thing else. 

S9**-r Twit 


that which you can lead him to discover 
for himself. Knowledge gaine*! in this 
way will remain with him, and serve as 
a foundation for his future education ; 
besides, it is the l>est means of develop- 

I have given in detail the method of 
development with reference to the funda- 
mental elements or lines, and one letter 
with suggestions as to how the child's 
process of oliservation and perception 
and faculty of expression may be culti- 
vated in connection with the study of 
penmanship. Limited space will not per- 
mit me to give the i)rocess in such nuTiute 
detail for all the l.-tti-rs and fornis, but 
the teacher will n-adily >.-e that it is the 
application r>f the principle nf devtlnp- 
ment now applied to all siibjects taught 
in the primary school. 

You can carry the same method 
throughout the course and your work in 
penmanship will have an educational 
value, in addition to the acquirement of 
manual skill and knowledge of form. 
You are teaching the child to nee, to 
think, to reas07i and to express his 
thoughts in correct terms. Inmy opinion, 
one of the principal reasons the teaching 
of writing in the public schools— in fact, 
all schools — hjis proven more or less a 
failure in the past is that it has too often 
been made purely mechanical, a dry, 
monotonous task which the child per- 
formed simply from sense of duty or he- 
cause compelled hy the teacher, often 
growing to dislike the very sight of a 
pen. Children love to think and feel that 
they are doing something more than 
copying what some one else has done. 
Properly taught they are, as u rule, eager 
to learn and teaching becomes a pleasure. 

Foundation Work in Writing. 

Aill) rF:N.MANKIIIP."] 

Writing is not really taught in any 
school where movement is not made the 
foundation. All business colleges teach 
writing on the basis of movement, and 
tuni out business writers. The specialist 
in writing invariably introduces move- 
ment exercises. He could not teach 
writing otherwise. 

While there are some good exceptions, 
the great body of regular department 
teachers know nothing practically of 
movement ; hence they cannot teach 
business writing. It is pitiable to see the 
powerlessnessof pupils undrilled in move- 
ment, drifting into a class that have the 
mastery of their pens, and who glide over 
the writing page as easily aa though 
skating on the ice. while the former are 
unable lo make even a start. A clerg}*- 
man brought his two children, almut 12 
and 14 years of age rt^pectively, to enter 
a chuw where I wa>t teaching ; they had 
cfune from a school where writing was 
taught in the ordinary way, but they 
could do nothing at all with the writing 
that my pupils were doing. Tlie class 
moved right along with delightful free- 
dom, while the two newcomers, probably 
for the first time, saw the true writing 
process. The clerg>-uian also discovered 
that his children had not been taught to 
write. And this case is that of hundreds 
of thousands of school children in the 
sihfMjIs of this rountr>- to-day. 

I have ample evidence of the utterly 
helplesji writing condition »»f iinpiln who 
have come in from outside townn and 
cities which have no specialifts in writ- 


^'^c!^nmanA QTULClMiauia^ 

ing. where the teachers leave out the life 
of writing movement, and where they 
have only practiced in the schools the 
stage-coach method. When they come 
into our upper grades, where "muscu- 
lar " movement has been taught, their in- 
ability to assimilate with the class and 
go on and write is the strongest protest 
against the old drawing method. In 
fact, they work at a great disadvantage 
and are consequently discouraged. They 
have become hardened in the slow draw- 
ing method ; their muscles are all cramped 
and bound up ; their arms strictured— no 
movement whatever ; hence no freedom, 
no speed. They belong to the great army 
of poor good writers who are being 
graduated fr'?m the larger part of our 
schools, where the pupils write without 
ever learning how to write. I visited 
such a school not long since in a neigh- 
boring State, the principal of which was 
proud of his results in writing. I went 
into one of his classes and saw the process. 
The exercise consisted in slowly writing 
an arb-.tiary word all over the page, re- 
gardless of any movement. 

"What is your copy?" "Write the 
first word. How many have written it?" 
"Now wwte the second word." The 
teacher sat calmly at her desk all the 
time, paid uo attention to penholding. 
gave no movement drill whatever, and 
put no illustrations on the blackboard. 
The pupils sat and slowly drew the let- 
ters, vrithout ever knowing how to write 
—that there should be movement, life, 
back of it. Had I been the special teacher 
of writing I should have found enough to 
occupy all my time, in addition to that of 
the regular teacher of the class, in going 
right round amongst them : in blackboard 
illustration and explanation of the copy ; 
in movement practice, breaking up the 
diawing habit, and in watching every 
pupil as closely as the leader of an or- 
chestra watches his musicians. The 
teacher must be on her feet while work- 
ing a class, and have an eye for every 
pupil. You cannot be a spectator and lift 
the class. You must be right in the 
work. If teachers knew how to teach 
writing, the great rank and file of them 
would be as efficient in this as in other 

A man who had never taken his first 
ride on a bicycle would be as helpless in 
a wheel race as these undrilled pupils are 
to keep up with a class where "muscu- 
lar" movement is practised. Drawing 
letters with a pen will never teach one to 
write. Begin to mom is the way to learn. 
Remember this. However beautifully 
formed the letters may be. writing is 
comparatively of little value until it be- 
comes a life language of the muscles for 
daily practical use. 

What can the gi-eat body of department 
teachers do to effect this radical change 
in teaching writing 'i 

Much can be done when the teachexs 
are awakened. If you cannot have a 
special writing teacher to lift the work, 
you can procure movement books which 
will initiate your class into the right 
method. Associate the movement books 
with the regular copybook, and you will 
soon begin to see a change for the better 
all through the work. Practice on slips 
if you wish to. but the results of move- 
ment should be gathered ijito the move- 
ment book right along, and not scattered. 
All the freeing exercises for the hand and 
arm help to give control of that wonder- 
ful instrument. When you begin to 
associate movement with form, you may 
not get so evenly drawn letters, but you 
will get writing that has life and nerve in 
it, and in which the element of speed 

Where the Fault Lies. 
I think that it may be readily demon- 
strated that in its application to the every- 
day needs of the common school, the 
prevailing methods of presenting and 
teaching penmanship are false and mis- 
leading. Starting out with the theory 
that penmanship is either a science or an 
art. or a combination of both, a standard 
of excellence is set up by which to meas- 
ure results, which in operation becomes a 
direct bar to its general or specific adop- 

In laboring so zealously to lift up the 
standard of artistic writing, its promoters 
have raised it so high that the average 
teacher and pupil is discouraged rather 
than comforted by its very excellence. If 
writing teachers would work more from 
the pupil's standpoint of necessity and 
less from their individual conception of 
perfection they would speedily discover a 
middle ground whereupon results more 
in accordance with legitimate require- 
ments might be obtained. 

It cannot be denied that in many public 
schools the pupils learn to di 

part, regardless of consequences. It may 
appear, therefore, that the attempt to 
teach penmanship in public schools as an 
art is liable to prove a failure, and that 
any form of letters acquired by finger ac- 
tion on a fixed rest can have but a limited 
ai>plication in true arm-movement writ- 
ing. Aa it is putting the cart before the 
horse, you are more likely to retrograde 
than to advance. 

Writing, so far as it may find applica- 
tion in the counting room, must be essen- 
tially a habit, and not so much of form 
as of movement, for we know that in 
rapid business writing letters, words and 
sentences are constructed without con- 
scious mental effort. Continued practice 
with the arm movement begets a knack 
of feeling rather than seeing the forms of 
letters, and when we consider the very 
slight connection between the copybook 
form and the business hand, we wonder 
what excuse there was for learning to 
draw the letters at all.— C. li. WelU, in 
School Bulletin. 


IContributioQs ror this DepBrtment may be 
aildresBed to B F. Kklley. office of TllEPas- 
man'bAkt Journal. Uriof eclucutiouai Items 

The schools of New York State in 1^91 cost 

Massachusetts gives the greatest amouut of 
schooHoR "f any Stale in the Uoion. It actu- 
ally gives M.H months to every child from six 
to fourteen years of age.— Journal of Educa- 

a Tokio, 


the ele- 

,_ ._ _aid that be did 

school during the last 

At Paris a Roumanian lady, Mademoiselle 
BUcesso, has jiist taken her degi-ee of LL.D., 
after obtainiug the highest place at the f 

otbe bar at 
I have said. " I 

will never 
to pay for 


While the number of illiterates among the 
army recruits in Germany is only equal 

Howard Champlir 

Howard Chauipliu's position 


tate the forms of letters, and thus acquire 

a very accurate copybook hand, but has teacher of drawing and penumnship 

it any value in practice? They fail to pnblic schools of Nashville, Tenu., "the 

employ it in their lesson work, they do Athens of the South," brings bim out into bold 

not use it at home, and they cannot apply relief as one of the leaders in the writing 

aiid 3.3'2 per cent, of the 
This number shows a decrease of two 
in both sexes since 1882. 
At the Business College last night Miss 

Mayme ti. Cannon, daughter of Charles Can- 
non, under test by the watch wrote seventy 
words iu one minute. The writing is good 
too. Hon. H. A. Spencer, conductor of the 
Rapid Business Writing Club, may well feel 
proud of this young lady's speed in writing.— 
Daily Tribune, Neio Albany, Ind. 

The following sentence containing all the- 
letters of the alphabet was selected by Miss 
Cannon and written as above stated — "Rove 
the dog quickly jumps to sei 
Who can break this record i 

Chicaeo Latin : " In bog 

Little Four-Y.-a. < '|,i 

a bootifultiine ut ■•<■[ I -m 

, brown fox." 



The Emperor of China is learning to sjjeak 
English. Well, when he comes to pronounce 
such words as bough, cough, dough, and the 
like, he will find it tough.— /foiiy/i Nol^s. 

•'His this Colonel H'Ineersoin" asked the 
Cockney. "At your service." returned the 
Colonel. " Permit me to harek you. Colonel, 
don't you believe there's a hell in the balpha- 
bet ? " 

It was a Boston school child who, ou his 
father asking, "Johnny, are you writing a 
composition*"' replied, " No, tbir, a thethith 
on intemathional law, thir; but I cannot con- 
tinue my occupathion if I am tho conthtantly 
interrupted with irrelevant inquireth." 

Two little children who were in their first 
year at school rather sm'prised their mother 

■ht be- 
tedrher sfstei- Fanny exclaimed, 
' Mamie.^you don't say that with any expres- 
tion at ail; you must try again." 
The old conundrum, " Why is girl uot a 

it for business purposes. We know, fur- 
thermore, that no two persons ever did or 
ever will, without professional practice, 
write the same current style. It is also a 
fact that the very process of learning to 
make these perfect forms by imitation 
will, in the case of yoimger pupils, create 
a bar to any practical use of them. The 

world. He is now about thu*ty-three yeai-s of 
age, the prime of manhood, with an assured 
place among the working, successful teachers 
of his time Surely he may be cited as au ex- 
ample of what honest effort, sensibly and 
steadily directed. ,wiU do for a young man. 

Mr, Champhn is a native of Wakefleld, R. I. 
He was raised on a farm, as so many prominent 
I of his and all callings have been. 

swer, and much shorter, is "Because she is a 
pronoun."— Lowe// Courier. 

Older Brother (to little Paul, just returned 
from Sunday school): " Say, Paul, do you be- 
lieve all they tell you at Sunday school f " 

Little taul: " Ye-es." 

Older Brother: "Do you believe that the 
whale swallowed Jonah?" 

Little Paul : " Well, I believe it while I'm 
there, but I don't when I'm home."— fwcfc. 

nped and distorted position of the grew to maturity he entered upon the i 

hand and fingers, the enforced dependence 
upon one set of muscles, and that even 
painfully restricted, is certain by constant 
iteration to become an inseparable part 
of the writing itself. Whatever may be 
done subsequently in the line of move- 
ment instruction, this firmly fixed habit 
is sure to interfere, handicapping both 
teacher and pupil in any attempt to gain 
a useful degree of freedom ; and when to 
this is added the pupil's daily experience 
at his pencil lesson work, in which both 

_ __ _ _ _ _ form and movement are ignored, we can 

not lost sight of. What moat frequently readily perceive what must be the ulti- 

happens when thej)upils ^^.a,^^, *" ^^^^ mate outcome of this process by which he 

welding the links in an iiTesistible 

chain of habit, and which may easily 

prevent him from ever becoming a ready 

general exercises i* Does not their writing 
fall off perceptibly ? Movement will give SO^b 
them the speed power, which will enable '■^'■*' 
them to write practically. Their copy- 
books will uot be one style and their gen- 
eral writing another and inferior ; but both 
will show that life has taken possession of 
the handwriting. 

gi-aceful penman. 

Now, if the pupil, after all your care- 
fnl training, knowing perhaps that he is 
wrong, goes on day after day completely 
undoing your work, it must be for the 
simple reason that he finds it by force of 
habit the easier way, and you may be 
sure that he will continue that plan 
which calls for the least effort on his 

, teacher, with a special fondness tor pen- 
manship, in which branch he early exhibited 
unusual skill. His style is strong and grace- 
ful and as legible as copper-plate It is written 
with a firm, well-balanced movement— fear- 
less, accurate, artistic. It is such a band as 
would make a creditable national standard, 
and which the boys of our country must de- 
termine to master before they may be called 

Mr. Champlin was educated at the East 
Greenwich, R. I., Academy and Gaskell's Jer- 
sey City Business College. He has taught at 
Newport and Westerly, R. I.; Manchester, N. 
H.; Norwich and New London, Conn.; Glen's 
Falls, N. Y.; National School of Methods, 
Jersey City; Brooklyn, and iu the Training 
Department of the Normal College, New York 
City, besides lecturing upon his favorite sub- 
ject at many Teachers' Institutes in the East- 
ern and Middle States. He is ambidextrous, 
writing and drawing with facility with either 

Professor Hoff Resigns. 

We learn that D. W. Hoff hiis tendered 
his resignation as writing superintendent 
in the public schools of East Des Moines, 
la., to take effect m June. All we have 
to say is that that community loses a 
good man and whatever other city secures 
his services will be fortunate. 

Mr. Hoff has accepted the invitation of 
Superintendent Garber of Pella, la., to 
address the teachers of Polk, Jasper, 
Mahaska and Marion counties, who hold 
their convention at that iilace on the sixth 
and seventh days of May. The topic 
assigned by Supt. G^was "Penmanship 
as it is taught i 

1 the Des Moines Schools.' 

1 the t 

'ell as a fine penma: 

A. C. Webb. 

I wish to thank you for the many useful 
hints and helps for raemliers of our profession 
given in The Journal during the past year. 
Inclosed is *1 for renewal.- 
Teacher, C " 



1 made niooey. 


my cov 

ism In Illinois liu>t 

ElKhl'nlnil Pit! 


lie told me worked to 

„u iiN-si.oons, knives 



■ ■ '",,''';' I'.-Y^s'iVeek 

1 made $9 find i 

n : ■ 1 

' , ;V*rKcS 

jfeijir' tyen/ncui^ QS^it CL/ctcmajU? 



The Champion 5tAinp Licker. 

Thrrr Tliniikand An llonr and Tonicii«> 
■ • <^»od ■> Mru. 

Tli«titl«- r,f "KtiiMip lirktr'is not the 
muHt attrartivj- in the world l« tH»tow 
npun a yonnK Iwly, fdppcially whpti nhe is 
little, pretty ami charminK- But Miw 
A<la M. Crawforrt of 2112 Wharton street 
in nevertbclf^M a Htiimp licker ami what 
in more, in the worlil> rhamiiion in htT 
choHHn vocation. Miiw CYawford. who 
hat jnitt paMM.ll hor eighteenth birthday, 
in now forewoman for the E. C. Howe 
Company, puhlisheri! of (lirpctoriea at 
EiKhtb and Lf>ciitit streets. Three years 
ORo she entcreil the employ of the honae 
and at once attracted attention hy the 
lightning rapidity with whirh she ad- 
dreHse«l. sealed and stamiMMl envelopes. 

The first time she tried stjimping envel- 
ojM-is she did iriOO an honr. She can now 
do 34MKI an honr and has kept this nji 
Rtea/lily for days. Stranee to say, she has 
persistently declined to use a sjionge, and 
every one of the millions of stamim which 
have carried letters and circularB to their 
* dentinations all over the conntry has re- 
ceiv«<l a dainty lick from her tongue. 

Miss Crawford talked entertainingly of 
henwtf and her work yesterday. " Do I 
like the work V " she repeated in reply to 
a qu(«tion. "Indce<l I do. In fact, I 
wonldn't do anything else. I suppose it 
seems very funny that I should prefer to 
use my tongue instead of n 8i>onge, but I 
can get along so much better. I can only 
do 2000 an hour with a sponge, and I can 
easily do 30(M) without it. No : it doesn't 
seem to affect my health in the least. 

" I'll tell you a funny thing about it. If 
bnsiness l>ecomes slack and I don't have 
any stamps to stick I lose my appetite 
and can scarcely eat anything. But as 
(Kwn AH I get do^vn to work again my ap- 
petite returns and I become ravenously 
himgry. There seems to be something in 
the gum that actti as a ionic." 

When questioned alKmt her work Miss 
Crawford said that she could stick flOOO 
stami>8 an hour and seal 12.000 enveloesp 
(with her tongue) in a day. She can also 
fold 12,000 circulars and address ItiOOen- 
vi'lopi* a day. — PhilaiMphia Iteconl. 

The Petrified Forest of Arizona. 
From the Atlantic and Pncitlc Uailroad 
it is not hard to reach one of the greatest 
natural curiosities— the petrified forest of 
Arizona. Much the nearest point is the 
little station of nilUngFi. but there arc the 
scantiest accnmmodiiiions for the traveler. 
Only a mile eouth of the track, at that 
point, one may Bee a low, dark ridge, 
marked byaslrgle Cottonwood tree. Walk- 
ing thither (over a valley so alive with 
jack rabbits that there is some excuse for 
the cowboy declaration that "jou can 
walk clear across oo their backs '' !) one 
soon reaches the northern edge of the for- 
est, which covers hundreds of square miles. 
Unless you are more hardened to wonder- 
dcrful sights than I am, you will almost 

lotne enchanted spot. You 
the gloss of a gignntic 

■er whoec sparkling sur- 
Q indoite rainbows, 
such chips OS I'll 
warrant you never saw from any other 
woodpile. >Vh»t do you think o( chips 
from tress that are red moss agate, and 
omethTst, and smoky topaz, and agate of 
tvery hue i Such are the marvelous 
splinteni that cover the grouud for miles 
here, around the huge prostrate trunks — 
sonic of them tive feet through— from 
which Times iMtieoi axe has hewo 
them. I broke a specmirii from the 
heart c f « tree there, years ago, which 
hsd tnmnd the »lonc pith a remarkable 

fancy yourtcUii 
seem to stand r 
kaleidoscoiic, i 
face the sun breaks i 
Tou arc ankle deep 

nrrayof large and exquisite crystals; for on 
one ("ide of the specimen — which Is not so 
targe u my hand— fs a beautiful mass of 
crystals of royal purple amethyst, and on 
the other on equally beautiful array of 
smoky topiz cryRtals. One can get also 
magnificent cross sections of a whole trunk, 
no thin as to be portable, and showing 


and I 

1 the 

bnrk. There is not a chip in all the 
miles which is not worthy a place, just as 
it is. in the proudest cabinet; and, when 
polished, I know no other rock so splen 
did. It is one of the hardest stones in the 
world, and takes and keeps an incompar- 
able polish.— CAaWw F. Lvmmi; in De- 
ftmfxr Sf. yicholan. 

Across the Ocean and Back in Fuur 

The wonders of telegraphy are well il- 
lustrated :»y tljc fact that if a Wall street 
broker cables his agent in London ond 
don't get a reply in five minutes he com- 
plain!* of neglect. Four mioutea is the 
usual time required. There are three 
operators in the New York Stock Ex- 
'•hftnop who do nothing else man attend to 
the London business. 

There are an average of 800 messages 
sent daily from New York between the 
hours of 10 and 12. Most of this bus- 
iness is confined to about a dozen brokers 
in either city, and their ciphers are as 
short as safety will allow. One letter 
stands for the firm's name, and the rest of 
the message is usually included in two 
sets of numerals. 

These messages are sent by overland 
wire direct to Ileart's Content, N. F., and 
are cabled from this point to Valenlia, 
licland. Here they are transmitted by 
wire to the floor of the London Exchange. 
Messages are returned by the same route, 
and this complete circuit has been made in 
three minutes, although four minutes is 
the usual time. The price for this special 
service is the same as the regular service — 
25 cents a word. The result has been to 
bring the New York and London markets 
so close together that either city feels the 
slightest fluctuation in the other market 
almost instantaneously. 

How to Ruin a Husband. 


His salary was fi'HW per annum. 

But she complained. 

She wiiDle<l a better bouse. 

Better clothes, 

Nothing Ht to go out in. 

No country cottage. 



Nor society. 
She coveted a plncp on the ragged edge of 
the Pour Hundred 
She kept it up 
Night and day. 
And moaned and 

He lacked style also. 
A« well as new clothes every six weeks, end 

He got her a sealskin. 

Uet4er ts a moden room un two pairs of 
liati'k »tairs thsn in a cell in iA\l.— Cincinnati 
Commfrviol OatftU. 

I HAVE LAID IT Dows as a rule in mv judg- 
ment I'f men to observe narrowly whether 
some (of whom one is disposed to think liadly) 

■'■ — * all their faults upon the surface. 

'' — *--— -- di^wsed to thiol: 

The Calaiidar. 

The word "calendar" is derived from 
cn/cndi um, denoting the commencements 
of months, which, in the language of an- 
cient Rome, were I'alled (fiVjf calt*nfiae, or 
simply calendae; i. e,. on which " calling 
ont" should occur, from calo, I call. This 
■' calling out " took plate on the reappear- 
ance of the small crescent after new 
moon, and at the present day remains the 
custom of those people who. as for in- 
stance the Ttirks, reckon time wholly 
from the phases of the moon. This was 
loudly proclaimed from the roofs of pub- 
lic buildings by appointi-d jiriests or seers, 
who were required to seek for the moon's 
crescent in the evening sky, either two 
days after new moon, or four or five days 
after the last appearance of its light in 
the morning sky ; this was established as 
the beginningof the month. This method 
of reckoning time has been long prac- 
ticed in those countries in which the con- 
stant clearness of the heavens enables 
people to determine with considerable 
accnracy the first appearance of mo«)n- 

In countries, however, where continued 
clearness of the sky was not afforded, the 
seers at length desired that thev he per- 
mitted to calculate the recurrence of the 
phases of the moon for a certain time in 
advance, and therewith the regular snc. 
cession of the mouths, and to publicly 
record the number and the method of 
counting the days of the single months. 
Thus, in place of the public proclamation 
from the house tops of the observed hi>- 
pearancea, the calendar came into use. 
containing calculations of the "calling 
days." — Treatmre-Trove. 

Curious Inventions. 

The history and growth of inventions 
are subjects in which all are interested. 
The stylograph pen brought in i|200,000 a 
year; the india-rubber tips to pencili", 
$100,000 ; metal plates for protecting the 
solee and heels of boots and shoes brought 
in *1, 250,000 in all; the roller skate. 
$1 ,000,000. A clergyman realized $3000 a 
week by the invention of a toy ; another 
toy, the return ball, brought in an income 
of $50,000 ; the " Dancing Jim Crow," 
$75,000 a year. The inventor of a copper 
cap for children's boots was able to leave 
his heirs $2,000,000, while Singer, of sew- 
ing-machine fame, left at his death nearly 
$15,000,000. There are other and won- 
derful things which i)eople have thought 
it worth while to patent, strong in the 
hope of making a big fortune in the near 
future, only to find in so many cases that 
their inventions were impracticable and 
very often perfectly ridiculous. Among 
snch may be mentioned a child's bib, with 
a trough attached, the whole formed 
of some water-proof material ; a pocket 
which cannot be picked ; a muff and boa 
filled with air to save you from a watery 
grave ; cuffs and collars made of steel, 
painted or enameled white ; trousers with 
double legs— on the outer legs getting 
soiled yon tuck them up and behold a 
clean pair. This arrangement would be 
suitable only when worn with an over- 
coat. Under the head of umbrellna and 
walking sticks we find some marvelons 
inventions. One is an umbrella which, 
in some wonderful way. is converted into 
a walking stick, and so fonned that a 
spear can be attached, when it is used as 
a weapon of offense and defense. The 
next invention is a rain absorber, to pre- 
vent rain from running down from hats 
and umbrellas. 

The absorber is fonned either of un- 
covered sponges or of sponges covereil by 
a fabric. We are told that the abwjrber 
can be readily removed from the article, 
squeezed and replaced. We come next to 
an article which the inventor has named 
(take a long breath and shutyonr evea) 
the " Rhabdoshidophoms." This is' an 
umbrella which can be taken apart ; the 
gilk and ribs being hidden within the 
stick. It is thus transforme<I into a stout 
walking stick. — American Youth. 

Fireflies from Cuba. 

K>»rriairMiUB w|ih ikr l.tihi Thry Glvv, 

Secretary Laugley of the Smithsonian 
Institution has bet-n exiwriiuenting for 
some time jiast with fireflies fnmi Cnlwi. 
He says that the light they give is the 
" cheaiieHt " in the world, pn^luced. that 
is to sjiy. with the heat and the 
smallest ext^nditure of energ>'; and he 
believes that a snccessfnl iniitntion x>f it 
would prove a most profitable sulwtitute 
for gas and electricity. The injects are 
1>eetlea two inches long and b^-lung to the 
family of " snapping bnga." so called be- 
cause when (me of them is laid on its 
bock it snaps itself into the air with a 
clicking sound. 

The secret of the light this firefly gives 
is as yet undiscovered. Apparently it is 
connected in some way with the mysteri- 
ous phenomena of life, and chemists and 
phyaicista have sought in vain to explain 
its origin. On each side of the animal's 
thorax is a luminons membranous siK.t. 
and these flash at intervals so that the 
Cubans put a dozen of the insects in a 
cage together, and so obtain a continuous 
illuminaticm bright enough |o read by. 
This light is accompanied by no iM-rcepti- 
ble heat, and is seemingly produced with 
almost no expenditure of energy. How 
great an improvement it represents upon 
all known artificial light,-* can be imagined 
when it is stated that in candlelight, 
lamplight or gaslight the waste is more 
than ninety-nine per cent. In other words, 
if they could be so obtained as not to throw 
anything away, they would give nearly 
one hundred times the illumination which 
they do afford. Even the electric light is 
mostly waste.— IVV/.f/i/fiff/o;, star. 

What Science Does. 

Every time we strike a match we are 
Indebted to the men who have studied 
science for the mere love of it. The men 
who worked away at coal tar "just to hi'c 
what was in it " made tlm whole world 
their debtors by discovering alizarin, the 
coloring principle of madder. And to 
those men the world is indebted also for 
aniline, antipyrine and more than one 
hundred other coal tar products. Scien- 
tists, wondering what was in crude pe- 
troleum, found paraffine and vaseline. 
Pasteur wondered what caused fermen- 
tation. He found ont. and brought a 
new era to wine making. 

The singing and dancing of the tea 
kettle attracted the attention of a brain, 
and we have as a consequence all the ap- 
plications of steam. The swinging of a 
chandelier in an Italian cathedral before 
the eyes of young Galilee was the iMgin- 
ning of a train of thought that resulted 
in the invention of the iwndnlum. and 
through it to the perfecting of tin- 
measurement of time, and thus its appli- 
cation and use in navigation, astronomic 
observations, and a thousand ways we 
now pass by unnoted, has been of such 
practical value that the debt to «cientiftc 
thought, even in this one instance, can 
never be known. Science, in its study of 
abstract truth, is ever giving t« mun new 
begmnings. While the devil is engaged 
in finding mischief for idle hands to do. 
science is eternally at work finding some 
thing nseful for them to ilo.—Ahiminiiw 

Story of a Postage Stamp. 

Ilotr Voti Slolike Ufwnrilcd KlndiieiiM lo 
n l.litic lloi. 

Some f(mr years ago, among the letters 
received by the ex-Ameer of Cabul at 
Mussmtrie was one addn-ssf'd t« ■* His 
Majesty, King of Afghanistan," which 
ran nearly as follows ; " Your Majesty : 
I am a little German boy. and am making 
a collection of stamps. I wish very mncb 
to pr€>cnre wjme stamps of Yonr Majesty's 
kingdom, and shall l>e very much obliged 
if Your Majenty would M<-nd me some." 
The letter was made over to the English 
political officer in charge of the Ameer, 
who goorl naturcdly answerwl the It-ttf^r. 

'^t^m/naM QJ^k£^QjdcUAa.L? 


inclosing a small collection of Cabnl 
stamps. In dne course came a reply from 
tbe little German boy: -'Kind English 
Officer : The stamps which you so kindly 
sent me have arrived, and are valued by 
me in my collection. I showed them and 
yonr letter to a distinguished German 
officer who is now staying at my father's 
houae, and he is so pleased with the kind- 
ness of an English officer to a little Ger- 
man boy that I asked him to give me his 
phofograph to send to you, which he has 
done, and I hope you will accept it." 
The letter contained a photograph, with 
the autograph : " Von Moltke, Field 
Marshal." The little German boy was 
the son of a well-known manufacturer, 
who had been most liberal in providing 
benevolent institutions for workmen in 
Germany and who was the Field Mar- 
shal's host during the maneuvers in the 
neighborhood of his property. — Bow Bells 

Penmanship and Poetry. 

riedly wrapped up and addressed a copy 
of the issne without a glance and dropped 
it into the mail, with this brief note : 

" My Onliest Sweet and Dear&st Marie. — 
I send you a number of the Sunday sup- 
plement containing my little poem, Yonr 
face was an ever present inspiration to 
me when I wrote, and happy thoughts of 
you inspired every sentence. Here you 
will find expressed what I have ever felt 
toward you, but have hardly dared to 
voice before. Till death, «&c'." 

Miss Marie Cortlandt Van Clifton 
glanced through the tender note, blushed 
with pleasure, and hurriedly opening the 
paper, read : 

Drowns the roll of the r .._. 

Then I dream in the shade of the shally-go- 

Brings the smell of the stale poppy-cods hlum- 

llnili Mai.i hv (Jnod or Tbpy .>lnkr a I'nor 

*' Horrors, what an obscure hand you 
write!" said the literary editor to the 
new space writer as he turned in a bit of 

" Oh. it's plain enough," interjected the 
poet hastily. ' ' The rhymes and the meter 
will help the compositor out. and there'll 
not be the least bit of trouble if they just 
follow the copy." 

Ah, the shuddering shoo and the blinketty- 

Wlioii the pungliii 
In theblastofaTiiii 

Over the hills of the hocketty-how"! 
tJive tho rigauiarnle to the clangery-wang. 

If they care for sucti fiddlwledee; 
But the thingumboh kiss of the whangery- 

Keeps the higgledy-piggle for me. 

this simple mode of discovering the points 
of the compass. He said that he had 
never heard of it. I presume, therefore, 
that the world is in the same state of 
ignorance. Amalfi is proud of having heen 
the home of the inventor of the comi)as9. 
I do not know what town boasts of my 
American friend as a citizen.— LondoH 

An Educational Toy. 

One of the most ingenious, instructive 
and interesting electrical toys devised 
recently is like the slanting top of a school 
desk, with a bell where the inkwell would 
be. It has seventy -two small brass pins, 
over which is placed a sheet of cardboard 
marked off into seventy-two squares, the 
squares having holes to fit the pins. In 
the thirty-six squares on the left-baud 
side are thirty-sis questions, and in the 
squares on the other side are the thirty- 
six answers to the questions. Two flex- 
ible wire cords, terminating in wooden 
handles with copper pointers, are attached 
to the desk, one on each side. The pointer 
on the left is placed on the pin in a ques- 
tion square, and connections are so ar- 
ranged under the desk, as in a telegraph 
or telephone switchboard, that when tho 
other pointer touches the pin over the 
answer to the question the bell rings, but 
it rings only when the correct answer is 
found. A great variety of question boards 
are furnished— geographical, historical, 
statistical, arithmetical, fortune t-elling. 

Druiv}! fur The Joi'r 

And the manuscript went hustling up 
the tube to the composing room. 

" Sa-ay, what chump has been sendin 
in his Chinese laundry bill for copy?" 
wildly yelled out Slug 10, wiping a sud- 
den burst of per.spiration from his fore- 
head and glaring at his last take. "I 
can't make head or tail out of this thing !" 

" Well, Chinese or no Chinese," cried 
the burrj-ing foreman, "make whatever 
you can out of it and snag it up in 
mighty short order, for we're late now." 

And the type fairly jumped from the 
case into the stick. 

" Good Caesar ! " gauped the proof- 
reader, clutching at his brow. " Are my 
eyes failing or is this a premonition of 
nervous prostration?" Then he rubbed 
bis eyes and stared. "By goodness! 
either I've got the blind staggei-s or Slug 
lO's " 

At that instant a scream came down 
the spout: — "Rush that proof along for 
heaven's sake I We're late ! " 

The proofreader groaned, galloped 
down the column, hesitated, and then 
dfsiierjitidy thrust the slip into the tube, 
huskily murmuring. "I compared it 
with the copy, and that's as near as I can 
get to Hebrew these days." 

t F. ir. Coslfllo, 

: snoop at the giggles 

That night the i 


writer hur- 

" Yankee dandle ker-chuggety-chug ! 

The new space writer and Miss Marie 
Cortlandt Van CTifton are not engaged 
now.— Cinci/Mittfr Commercial Gazette. 

Every Watch is a Compass. 

A few days ago I was standing by an 
American gentleman, when 1 expressed a 
wish to know which point was the north. 
He at once pulled out his watch, looked 
at it, and pointed to the north. I asked 
him whether he had a compass attached 
to his watch. " AU watches," he replied, 
" are compasses." Then he explained to 
me how this was. Point the hour band 
to the sun and the south is exactly half- 
way between the hour and the figure XII 
on the watch. For instance, suppose that 
it is four o'clock. Point the hand indi- 
cating four to the sun and II on the watch 
is exactly south. Supposing it is eight 
o'clock, point the hand indicating eight 
to the sun, and the figure X on the watch 
is due south. My American friend was 
quite surprised that I did not know this. 
Thinking that possibly I was ignorant of 
a thing that every one else knew, and 
happening to meet Mr. Stanley, I naked 
that eminent traveler if he was aware of 

conundrums, and every possible kind of 
amusing or instructive subject on which 
questions can be asked. It is alarming as 
well as amusing to see the confounding 
of positive convictions that the toy pro- 
Shorthand an Matrimony. 

Mrs. H. M. Pemin, the distinguished 
shorthand writer and teacher, thus 
touches in her bright monthly maga- 
zine the right side of a subject whose 
wrong side has been made the butt of 
newspapur quip and quirk ad iiauseum: 

"Within the last few weeks we have 
noticed in the public prints in Detroit the 
marriage notices of five young lady grad- 
uates of the Pemin Institute, while two 
other such marriages are on the tapis and 
will shortly occur. While all this is 
eminently right and proper, -we regret to 
have such experienced and capable stenog- 
raphers drop out of the ranks, as they in- 
variably do when they marry. We trust, 
however, that the experience gained in 
actual business life will make them better 
fitted for the duties that await them in 
the home. Their places will be filled by 
othei-8 and in a few years the majority of 
these, too, will also follow their example. 
Shorthand is evidently no hindrance to 
matrimony, as evidenced by the career of 
our young lady graduates. Two of our 
lady stenogi-aphers in Detroit married 
their employers, both prominent and 
wealthy men, in six months after taking 
positions in their respective establish- 

Ethics of the Clothina Trade. 

" See this coat ? " he queried, as he en- 
tered a Michigan avenue clothing store 

" Yes, I see dot coat. Vhas sometings 
wrong ? " 

"I should remark! See how it is all 
shrunk up I" 

' ' I see. How did she come ? " 

'■ I got caught out in the rain." 

" Oxactly. Did I sell you dot coat for 
waterproof ? " 

" No, but it hadn't ought to shrink up 
like this." 

" Dot may be, but suppose dot coat 
swell out nnd vhas so big dot she vhas 
worth $2 more— would you pay me ex- 

" Of course not." 

" Oxactly. She vhas even. If she 
shrinks you doan' blame me ; if she 
swells you doan* pay more. Please doan' 
block cop der shtore, my frendt— dia 
vhas my busy i\ay. "—Detroit Free Press. 

The Rosetta Stone. 

The " Rosetta Stone," a famous Egypt- 
ian curiosity now in the British Museum, 
was discovered in the year 1799 by M. 
Boussard, a French explorer, near Rosetta, 
a seaport of lower Egj-pt. It is of black 
basalt, about forty inches long and thirty 
inches wide, with three engraved inscrip- 
tions upon its surface. The first of these 
is in Greek, the second a conglomeration' 
of hieroglyphics, the third is enchorial 
writing, a system used by the Egyptians 
in recording everyday matters. After 
years of laborious research the savants of 
Europe ascertained that the three inscrip- 
tions were three versions of a decree in 
honor of Ptolemy Epiphoneshy the priests 
of Egypt, because he had remitted their 
taxes. This wonderful relic dates about 
two centuries before the beginning of the 
Christian ern.—Amerieaii Vonth. 

Paper Used in Berlin. 
The city of Berlin during 1890-91 re- 
quired for work connected with the city 
government the following stationery : 
52,327 sheet covers; 12,285 sheets good 
writing, large size ; 325,746 sheets good 
writing, ordinary size : 2990 inferior 
wilting, large size; 586,094 sheets the same, 
small size ; .38,970 sheets packing ; total, 
1,183,683 sheets. Envelopes were used 
with printed addresses, 90,050, and 324,- 
010 plain envelopes. For printing, 7,116,- 
730 sheets of paper were used. Census 
papers for the census on December I. 
1890. 750,000 sheets. Total printed paper 
used, 1 ,510,938 sheeta.—Oeyer's Stationer. 

The Coldest Spot on Earth. 

The coldest known spot on the earth's 
surface is near Werkbojausk, Siberia. 
There, it is said, ''the ciilmiuiitiog point 
of excessive climate iu all the world is 
reached." In other words, it is the pole 
of the greatest known cold. The lowest 
readings of the thermometer, taken bj Sir 
George Nares, were noted at Floburg Beach, 
which was eighty one degrees below zero. 
Fahrenheit. For a long time it was sup- 
posed that Yakutsk, 400 miles from Werk 
hojansk, was the coldest place in the 
world; recent observatiooc, however, have 
exploded that notion. The soil at both of 
the places above mentioned is frozen to a 
depth of nearly 400 feet. It is believed 
to have been deposited in a frozen state 
during the glacial epoch, as no amount of 
cold could penetrate the earth to such an 

All sounds, whether high or low, loud 
or soft, travel at precisely the same rate — 
i. (!., about 1,100 feet a second. Were 
this not 30 the different notes of music 
would reach the ear at different times, and 
the result would be confusion instead of 
melody. If the sun gave forth sounds loud 
enough to reach the earth, such sounds in- 
stead of reaching us in the space of about 
eight minutes as light does, would only 
arrive after a period of nearly fourteen 

T^Mr^ ~<_>^y<//^^^/^^> 

ttC dycuAnjCuLP 

PENMAN'S Art Journal 

AdwrHMng rat^a, 30 cmtt per iwmparrt/ 
Hm*. f2.S0 per inth. each inarrtum. Ditctmntt 
for Urm and wpace. Speciai eMimaU* /tir- 
ni»hcd tm applieation. So adrertiMementa 
taken for Un than $2. 

SubieriptioK : tMe yi 

c*wt«. So frf» aampl* 

agent* mho are evbatribera, to aid them 
taking tuharription: 

Foreign tubtrriptionM {to eovw 
tal Union) $1.25 per y 

Ifew York, April, ISBS. 


Bvwy phase of handwriting will be dealt 
with, particniar attention being given to 
what \& tft-jiernlly known at^ the " expert " 
phase — the value of banclwriting a8 le^l 
eWdence. The work will take the form 
of a series of articles (of which the snb- 
joined is the finit) to lie pablii^hed in Thi^ 
JocRSAL. and may ultimately W repro- 
dnced under one cover. Examples will 
be drawn from the mo«t c*lebrated cases 
at law of our times, and illustrationtt will 
lie nsed as freely as may be required. The 
articles will l>e as clear, conclnsive and 
complete as the writer's best effort can 
make them. D. T. Ames. 

I'ereOMUtity in Itandwriltitg. 

In nothing el»e that a man does, and 
leaves of record, is his very personality bo 
interwoven as in handwriting. Being the 
joint product of the mind and hand it re- 
flects at once ta^te, jadgment. industry 
and the mental quality generally. as well as 
the manual dexterity of its author. Writ- 
ing i» first acquired by thoughtful study 
and careful practice and chiefly, at pres- 

matically performs all the phenomena of 
writing well-nigh unaided by the mind, 
which is occupied with its own functions 
of suppling the thought which the ma- 
chine records. 

Thus it appears that what is designated 
a-4 personality or habit in writing is the 
result of unconscious modifications of the 
original school hand, not through any 
purpose of the mind or will, but directly 
from the unconscious force of mind 
and circumstances conjointly operating 
through the muscles of the hand. It is 
therefore a habit of muscle rather than a 
habit of mind ; hence its existence and 
character are practically unknown to the 
mind and cannot be so changed at the be- 
hest of the will as to destroy its identity. 
Obviously the mind cannot direct the 
omission or change of that of whose ex- 
istence it is unconscious. It is upon this 
basis that all really valuable expert ex- 
amination and comparison of handwrit- 
ing is founded. It follows that every 
change which writing undergoes in its 
transition from the school hand to one 

!du(.-Biloniii Tojr; PFDmaoBblp ft&d Poetry : 
.rinl 4'oinm«ni 9 

Koriim . . .... 5 


Habitual Forms. 


Uodel lUsh Scbnol Diploma 

Riiallc Alphnbi't Ulualnttlns Lchod I 

IHiwtretli'iDi with Mr. nil 

^ r^^^Z^^'^*^^^ 

JUaniplp or OrB»i- Prii Worn iP. W.' Obaullo) 



Script C*pliai\l[ibal>i<i'S. ] 

I will way that I fetl in-onr; i/The Journai 
M not 111 school once a month, aitd I har< 
tried hani to qel up itte largest club ever sen 


ItandtFTiting SeteHttfieallff Considered. 

1U AVE waited for years for some one to 
produce an exhaustive work on the sub- 
ject of handwriting, scientifically con- 
sidered. It has seemed to me that there 
ought to l>e r(x>m for such a work, and 
that if done with careful intelligence and 
completeness it would be of distinct value 
not only to lawyers and bankers, who 
liave to deal most lately ]>erhaps with 
problems arising from disputed hand- 
writing, but to business men and intel- 
ligent people generally. With this belief. 
after vain waiting for others to perform 
this task, I have concluded to undertake 
it, and tr*at the subject as suggested by 
close study and {m>fessional investigation 
extending over a period of many years. 

ent. from engraved copies as models ana- 
lytically taught ; it is therefore formal, 
stiff and impersonal in exact proportion 
to the learner's success in imitating his 
copy. Several learuera practicing from 
the same models under the instruction of 
a skillful teacher will often acquire a 
style of writing so similar that were each 
to write a line under the copy, one after 
another, the entire writing would upi>ear 
to the casual observer to be the work of 
one hand. But let these several learners 
enter upon the active duties of life and 
practice their hands under the varjing 
environments of their different employ- 
ments, and at once a change is obser^-ed. 
First, the modifications are slight, then 
they become more and more pronounced. 
until ultimately each hand comes to 
be unconsciously evolntionized from the 
stiff, formal, analytic school hand to a 
facile, natural expression of the writer's 
mental and physical peculiarities. From 
long continued practice these indi- 
vidualities, which are numberless and 
chiefly unnoted, come to constitute a 
fixe<1 and unconscious writing habit im- 
planted in the muscles of the fingers and 
arm. rendering them a machine that auto- 

:^ ;- y -w^ /^^trz€^ Xa^^C^^^ e. 

matured constitutes a distinctive person- 
ality, and that the number of these 
changes which make uj) the matured 
product is entirely beyond the knowledge 
of the \vriter. For example, a pupil \va» 
learned to make certain letters of the 
alphabet and combine them in writing 
approximately as in the accompanying 

From the illustration it will be ob- 
served that all of the fifty-two lettera 
used in writing not only become evoln- 
tionized a£ to form, but also as to their 
manner of combination into words ; in 
their shade, slant, space, relations, pro- 
portioning, dots, punctuation, crosses to 
t'g, initial and terminal lines, etc. Cer- 
tain letters have also specific modifica- 
tions as they precede or follow certain 
other letters, for example of which see 
the last two lines of the illustration. 

Who could discover and enumerate all 
these peculiarities? The proverbial task 
of numbering the hairs of the head would 
be simple in comparison. Of course the 
more radical and conspicuou.s these pe- 
culiarities become the more obvious will be 
theindiridualityand identity of the writ- 
ing. Eccentric persons or those of marked 

personality invariably develop a handwrit- 
ing correspondingly eccentric and personal . 
It will sometimes happen that adnlta hav. 
ing no very determtntd or dominant 
characteristics, and who have written but 
little and that under circumstances not 
sharply controUing their actions, will re- 
tain much of the style they leam-Hl at 
school. In such cises theic* will be many 
coincident types o£ letters and perhaps 
of forms as between their writing and 
that of others developed under corre- 
sponding circumstances, so much so that a 
casual observer may be betrayed into a 
mistaken identity of writing, jnst as per- 
sons who bear a strong resemblance to 
each other are often mistaken one for 
another. There may be a superficial like- 
ness, even a striking one. in writing as in 
persona, yet there can be no posi- 
tive identity. What in a general way may 
appear to the casual observer to be the 
same, under the eye of those who are 
familiar from intimate acquaintance, or 
of those who are acute in discovering and 
judging of characteristic differences, ex- 
hibits points of difference so radical as to 
make the lack of identity positive andnn- 
mistakftble. Among all the millions of 
l)eople who inhabit the earth no two are 
identically the same. No more are any 
two handwritings. Although reeeni- 
blances may bestriking, aperfect likeness 
of two things does not exist. " Alike as 
two peas " is a trite saying, yet when two 
peas are scrutinized under the lens of o 
micra'^cope differences of detail multiply 
well nigh to the infinite. 

But it is urged against the identity of 
writing that the same person never writes 
twice exactly alike. This is true in the 
sense that a person's handwriting varies 
as to its precise detail, but in its general 
habitual characteristics it is the same, as 
several peas may vary in size, color, 
smoothness and outline, yet inevitably 
and unmistakably retain every character- 
istic that identifies them as peas and dis- 
tinguishes them from pebbles or any other 
object of similar ft)rm. 

" 'Like, but Ohl howdilTereutr' 

A fine or stub pen, haste or delibera- 
tion, good or bad health, sitting or stand- 
ing, may radically change the appearance 
and quality of writing, as may the condi- 
tion of health or age change or impair the 
personal appearance of the writer ; but it 
might as well be claimed that these ab- 
normal circumstances make a new man 
as that they make a new handwriting. 
The pen in a palsied, drunken or incensed 
hand may be erratic in its motion, but no 
more so than would be the motions of the 
feet and body from a corresponding cause. 
Eacrh inevitably strives to perform its 
normal and habitual functions, aud ap- 
proximates success exactly according to 
the degree of the iraiiediment. 

It is sometimes urged by teachers and 
the press, as an objection to the use of en- 
graved copyljooks in our public schools, 
that from the uniform aud impersonal 
character of the copies there is danger 
that pupils will acquire a style of writing 
so nearly alike jis to eliminate the ordi- 
nary personality by which the writing of 
one person is distinguished from that of 
another, and under this apprehension 
some teachers have even sought to teach 
what they denominated " personal writ- 
ing." True personality in writing can 
neither l»e taught nor materially hin- 
dered by style of copy or effort of the 
teacher. If a teacher reflect but for a 
moment be must see that any peculiarity 
presented in a copy could be only a copied 
form in the writing of the imitator. As 
we have shown, personality is not in the 
writing of the learner, more than the ma- 
tured face and form of the adult is in 
that of the child. Each comes by evolu- 
tion through time and circumstances, 
and teachers and others who are appre- 
hensive lest all or many people should 
come to writ«! alike, from any cause, 
should he equally apprehemiive lest the 
same childish forms and features which 
they see in the schoolroom should remain 
unchanged through advancing years. 
The teacher need be concerned only in 
assisting the learner to acqaire all the 
t;s.sential8 of a good handwriting — namely, 
good, legible forma, together with ease 
and grace of execution. 

riyenmanA Q^tifyOj'ouyZ/uLCo 



Anothtr Vitve. 

" Cohttng TitUi 

Editor of thk Journal : 

I bave been a reader of your paper for a 
luug titiie, aod found a good deal in it tbat 1 
liked and KOieved in, and some that I didn't. 
But it would be a tame sort of a iiublication 
that printed only what any one person would 
like and indorse. Now. I haven't bothered 
you much with " com mflnicat ions." under the 
plea that the public was dying to bear what I 
had to say, and I'm not going to bother you 
much tbat way now. 

Coming to the point, I can't agree with your 
correspondent who wrote in the last Journal 
about " Coining Titles." "Why canuot a man 
be a Mr., a Professor and a Prinripat at the 
same time f And if be be all of these, why is 
not Principal ns a descriptive adjective prefix 
equally as good grammatically and logically 
as Proffsaor / From my point of view it is 
infinitely better. Words gain and lose value 
from association, and I know of no word in 
our mother tongue that has suffered so much 
from this cause as the word "Professor," 
Words— real, live ones— are pictures. The "Pro- 
fessor" picture in the good old days brought 
before your reverential vision a rounded 
dome of thought, devoid for the most part of 
the capillary growth Nature had planted there 
in the beginning — Isng since burned out to the 
roots by the flres of intense, if sometimes 
rather smoky, intellectual activity raging 
within. Then there were windows to 
the picture — glasses athwart Ihe nose 
that caught and flashed with every strag- 
gling sunbeam and masked the middle 
part of the facial anatomy effectually. And a 
voice went with that old picture— solemn, 
portentous, freighted with much learning. But 
what is the ' Professor " picture of the 
day, especially when seeu outside of our few 
great universities and colleges i Is not the 
sprite it summons more likely to be Caliban 
than Ariel — say a one-legged man in green 
tights (tight) turning back somersaults on a 
tight-rope, or a bruiser with bands like a 
cauvased ham, hammering the life out of 
another bruiser for "scientific points f" For 
the life of me I canuot see what a reputable 
business teacher wants to do with the title of 
" Professor," as a prefix or otherwise. 

Again, doesn't your correspondent rather 
misapprehend the reason why some lawyers 
object to that designation as a title-prefix ? As 
a rule they don't care for it in any form. It is 
always " Attorney- at- law," " Counsellor at- 
law," etc.. on their letterheads — more digni- 
fied, you know, I fancy the chief executive of 
our country doesn't object to being called 
■' President Harrison," nor the bead of his 
cabinet to the designation " Secretary Blaine." 
Are these less proper than " Principal Arm- 
strong '." 

I confess to a strong liking for these direct, 
pertinent, descriptive prefixes wrought out of 
the iKrsoii's occupation. When a man calls me 
•' Penman Smith," it lifts me out of the some- 
what numerous coterie of Smiths who ore not 
penmen ; it describes me better and Hatters me 
more than " Professor Smith" would do. 

Buffalo, N. y. J. A. Smith. 

/ am the Lord's magnum opux, 

I am the light of the age, 
Mine is the mind of a genius. 

Mine is the skillfullest hand. 
Mine the most beautiful achooh-ooti 

Mine the most practical plan. 
Here is the only good college, 

Here are the only skilled men, 
Here is the only true method. 

Here the best work of the pen. 
Come unto me for your training, 

i^aaibly you might need /our. 
What do I teach by my methods i 

Bookkeeping, Busmess Law, 
Penmanship — rapid and graceful— 

And make one dollar bring t 

Jobbing and Oovemment Civil- 

Ever-ything businean men do. 
Send in your men and your maidens, 

Scholarly, igiioraot, all — 
Drink from the fountain of wisdom. 

Skill, tact, and knowledge enthrall. 
Ob, I'm a wonderful teacher, 

/, more than prophet or sage, 
/am the Lord's magnum opus, 

I am the Ught of the agf 

—8. R. Wkbster. 
rr'K lius. Vni., Atlanta, Oa. 

No Black Ink. 

That is a queer phrase that we often 
hear — " Asblack as ink." As if ink werts 
ever particularly black. Perhaps tin. 
phrase originated when the art of makinfj 
jet-black ink was not yet lost, and wheii 
Shakefpearc made Hamlet talk about hi? 
"inky cloak," he undoubtedly meant a 
perfectly black one. The Listener had 
some jet-black inks offered him, but every 
one of them was merely gray oa the paper 
or else tinged with purple, and the purple- 
tinged inks had a teodency to thicken 
and clog on the pen or else rub from the 
paper. Not long ago the Listener bought a 
bottle of ink which was made by a 
reputable house, and "warranted to write 
jet black on the instant." It turned out 
to be a miserable pale stuff. Perhaps it* 
proprietor, by dint of representing it to be 
jet black, has come really to believe that n 
ia jet black. Perhaps it is more charitable 
to suppose that he is color blind. An 
honest, clear and freely -writing black ink 
is the great will o'-the-wisp of the nine- 
teenth century. -Boston Traiifcript. 

The man that wrote the above evidently 
didn't know anything about ink, and as is 
usually the case under such circumstances, 
made a display of his ignorance. If he 
had taken the trouble to visit the labora- 
tory of any of our leading manufacturers, 
he would have found gallons upon eallons 
of fine black ink that would delight the 
heart of any penman and satisfy any 
reasonable man. — Ofv/fr's Stationer. 

Well, The Jourkal's experience is 
that, like the blind wise men of Hin- 
doostan, you are both partly in the right 
and partly in the wrong. There are plenty 
of inks on the market that are black 
enough for ordinary purpose*, such as 
correspondence, but we have yet to find 
an ordinary ink that is clear, free-flowing 
and jet black in fine lines — black enough 
to make good copy for photo-reproduction, 
for instance. — Ed. Jodrnal. 

The Stranger Within our Gates. 
During the jear 1891 there were landed 
at this port 430,884 immigrants. Of 
these Ireland furnished 35,951; England, 
22,820; Wales, 456; Scotland, 4887; Ger- 
many, 79,490; France, 4189; Russia, 53,- 
022; Poland, 37,500; Switzerland, 0201; 
Sweden, 32,820; Norway, 10,500; Bel- 
gium, 2773; Italy, 65,087, Spain, 134; 
Portugal, 1985; Denmark, 9024; Hun- 
gary, 25,433; Austria, 27,433; Bohemia, 
8074; Finland, 4030; Armenia, 946; Aus- 
tralia, 15; Turkey, 75; Arabia, 1; Greece, 
1038, and all other countries 3960. 

Not a Prize Penman. 

General Meigs, who died recently, was 
one of the poorest penmen in oflScial life, 
and to one not very familiar with his 
handwriting it was simply the worst sort 
of Greek in the world. General Sher- 
man, through whose hands a great deal 
of General Meigs's official correspondence 
passed, once wrote under one of the lat- 
ter's endorsements : " I heartily concur in 
the endorsement of the Quartermaster- 
General, but I don't know what he says." 

had been turned i 

Assistaut : '• Yes 

Museum Manng* 
didn't you let me know about it? I'll bet $4 
some o'her museum will get hold of the freak 
before we do." — Judge. 

3inar of salt.' 

Ve heard about it." 

' Well, why In thunder 


IQumipn* by JomxAi. rrmlcrs pcTlulnliiK (o 

cost to produce an eugra\mg by photographu 
process i 

We are going to tatkle tbis job of telling 
about preparing copy and making plates by 
photo processes in a series of papers that will 
begin probably in the May issue, but as out 
friend may he in a hurry, we answer his quer 
ies here. Similar inquiries often reach us 

(I.) The faint blue ruling usually seen on 
ruled letter paper will not photograph, there 
fore cannot affect the engraving. It is some- 
times an advantage to use such paper, as the 
ruling serves as guides in keeping the work 
straight, etc. Ruled lines of red or any strong 
color will make an impression on the photo- 
plate and spoil the engraving. Even blue 
lines, when strong and heavy, as with a blue 
pen(il, where they come between the black 
lines nf the ropy, leaving little or no interven- 
ing white (lilfluk) space, will shut out the light 
and atfect the plate. They should be avoided. 
Black lead j encil lines will also reprodueeand 
so will strong dirt niorks. If you expect the 
best it'sults you must have the copy clean. 

(:i.) Patch-work specimens will engrave as 
well as though the work were originally on a 
single sheet. If the pasted work is on card, 
board or thick paper, a little shadow wdl be 
thrown along the edges of the joining and this 
shadow will sometimes appear in the rough 
plate ; but the careful engraver can remove it 
with DO great difhculty. 

(3.) You can pay almost any price for photo- 
process reproductious and get almost any 
kind of plate. Some people want to get every 
thing as cheap as possible, regardless of quality ; 
others think they can just about afford " ordi- 
nary " or the usual run of plates ; others think 
the beet none too good for them. We train 
with the latter class and consider it genuine 
economy to get the best engraving, which, of 
course, costs more. We could easily save 
$1,000 a year by substituting " the usual run '" 
of (good) plates for the best, such as we show 
in The Journal. The best of anything 
costs more. On small orders the difference of 
cost is so slight tbat it is a wonder that people 
will tolerate anything less than the best. 
On a plate, say (J by 4 inches, for instance, the 
difference between a fau' plate and the best 
would be about fifty ceuts. The latter would be 
good for twice as many impiessious, and the 
last impression, with careful handling would 
show up as clean and delicate as the first. 

S, M. G., Yonkers, N. Y., wants to know 
how to make a good ink eraser. See reply to 
G. S. S , in this department, Fel>ruory Jour- 
nal. Hei-e is a recipe recommended by the 
Scientific American : "Try a saturated solu- 
tion of oxalic acid in water. The red inks are 
made of various bases for the color, as Brazil 
wood, cochineal and aniline red. The aniline 
red may be removed by alcohol acidulated 
with nitric acid. Javelle water is good for 
many colored inks.'' 

Where are all the "accounting sharps?'' 
We haven't haJ a single reply to the problems 
printed in this column last mouth. We give 
some new outs below, sent by the same sub- 
scriber. Come, boys, let us hear from you : 

1st. GavePasegatec 
*S:r),not©of Bm-ues(S 
Turned this 

my Journal 

2d. A, held a pat^ 
which hi' -iv,-".- H V 

Another "Muscular Movement." 

) B. & Co. j 

hicb they held for $365 



at the forui 

ntered on the books of tbe firm t 
A .feat tfitb a Moral-Sup-Suehera. 

Not being able to beg, borrow, or sponge 
the January Journal, my only alternative 
IS to inclose the necessary ten cents.— ./. .IV. 
Nicholson, Pleasant Plain , la. 

Well, that's the best way. isn't, itf You 
can't expect other people to pay your way in 
life and you shouldn't vvisb them to. Far par- 
entheses. If all the readers of The Journal 
were payers there might be some object in 
spending a thousand dollars a month and up- 
wai d to make a high-grade paper. Tbe trouble 
is there are too many sap-suckers who stick 
their bills in every«here and draw out all tbe 

Avrording to N. L. Hickok, Boston. 

juice they can without contributing auytbing. 
But after all, it's largely a matter of taste, 

Xame, Jf You Pleame, Al»o Addream. 

If tbe young gentleman (we presume) who 
wrote to us from Reserve (Somewhere), under 
date of March 10, inclosing $1 for subscrip- 
tion, will tell us where the Somewhere is and 
who he is— both importaiit in such cases— it 
will afford us great felicity to see tbat he is 
numbered among The Journal's hundred 
thousaud i-eaders tbe coming year. 

In Memory of Comenius. 

The School of Pedagogy of the University of 
the City of New York in union with the 
German- American Teachei-s' Association cele- 
brated t^e 500th anniversary of the birth of 
Jolm Amos Comenius, Saturday. March 2fl, at 
tbe Asbury M. E. Church (on Washington 

The exercises consisted of appropriate essays 
by representatives of each society on the life 
and work of tbe great reformer in teaching. 

A feature of the occasion was a paper by 
Miss Josephine E. Hodgdon of Brooklyn, the 
tirst woman who ever received the degree of 
Master of Pedagogy. Miss Hoclgdou's brilliant 
line of thought was clothed in the purest dic- 
tion, and her masterful effort made a profound 
impression on all present. Here are a few 

" Words have great 
man behind them, aiv 
had a genius behiml 

eight when there 

a world of chaos iut" ■■■ • <■ i' 1 1 i- ■. ■ inu thiuker 
was born, and it was his sysffui which did 
much to make it the intt'lhgeut and enlight- 

I Sweden. He 

iho iiioTicLT iiipl'"'"'" ""-' ^L'lynce of Educa- 
tion on equal ground with Law and Medicine 
aud granting appiopiiate degrees to those who 
complete the prescribed cniirse of study. 

tbe profession of teaching h 
ing throughout the country. 

The January 
to penmen tbat we 

; of The Penman's 

'raham''8 StudentH" 

Before you get out your new catalogue let us 
show you what we bave in the line of new stock 
cuts. Our new advertising cut catalogue will _ 
be ready in about two weeks. It will be tbe 
most complete ever issued. 

If you know good engraved work when you 

We think it will save you 
a ^od deal in more ways than one. 

For an outline portrait, what do you think 
of ournew "farbon Style" f (see portrait of 
C. E. Cbwse. next page.) It is something new 
and unique— gives a aoftuess and delicacy of 
finish that is very effective. 

JkMf' zJm/nan^ Q:^€it oJvu i 



BB STEADY and tIkt 
oai, wc nilgtit Biy wo- 
dcrfal. KTtiwtli or tbr 
prarUcal edocati'Mi Mrm 
tn tills ocmntrr i» 
»bn«rD Id the remarka- 
l*l«> ImiHing »ftivily 
ill the fleld, many In- 
-lancm of whkb wt- 
' have cbruolcUil in n- 
reiit Iwuoi. A con- 
>iidernlil« oamber of 
nur buflinoM %xA\r%ti 
prtifirietoni now own 
the tfuiklinKKiDwbicb 
tbrir inirtitutionit am 
bouwd, 8n<l In not n 
few caM9t th€M> build- 

01/ P. H'. Coattllo. 

inn an- nmong the moat mrtly, modem and 
iniiKiHinK in their aevcinl locations. U is 
nlwnyii n diiiccre pleaKuro to be able to rrcord 
«ucb evidenre* of wclleamed pnwperiiy of 
lutitltiitionii in whole or port devoted to what 
w« all know a.t a practical education. 

- WetlnmrlAT, MRreh 1.1. wo» a grwit day a 

centen in the country. 

— H. C. Rowland of the faculty of Scio 
Coilejce, Scio. Ohio, is an excellent teacher and 
an uncommonly succemful teacher. The com- 
mercial department, with which be Is 

?ipalof A P. 
AmutrongV Ca'iiital City 6. C, ^^alem, Ore.. 
Is an enmest and competent teacher and an 
excellent penman. 
— A pleamnt mn«ical and social . 
'.r Mil 

. III. 


fnim tilt: nrdiitect'sdrawing chow 
new ciliflr*' in the modem atvio mIx Bioriwt m 
hi-JRht, It will be 1»H by bO feet and W feet 
biKli. Tbp nrst fitorv will be of red granite. 
Thi* tipfMT litories will be of Melecteil pren l>rick 

!>le for whool piirj 

wi\\ rn\U-\ ,K iii..iiutn.iit I.I Uk- t'iuri;v. HL'iiii" 
and falthfulnew of D. L. Muiwelmon, who for 
ytwyt ha» stood in the front ranks of biisinem 

and tuscher of vxperiuiice, has accepted the 
jjosition of special teacher of writing in the 
public M'bools of Butte, Mont. Mr. Barrows 
goet* from Dublin, lo. 
— Few penmen oremoitters of a more facile. 

- O. J. Willis publi-shos the Oakland Busi- 
,« CoUiiiP .Journal bk the exponent of the 
tii)iti<<it "f which he is the head. 

1 II I III ii\aL in indebted for favors to J. 

I . un.l A. J. Keefer of Flora, D1., 

f> ' [ . I. <rn ikiv intercfitcd in the art of pen- 
ii-iii|. inJ kntiw 11 good thing in that line 

located at Cheliiea, Mich. 

- O. W. Dix is now sole proprietor of the 
Provo B. C, Provo City, Utah. He is aho 

'nun., B. C, of which 
ipal, reports a larger 

u>nH with II Kplendid tract of bind valued ot 

— Wiuchester, Teun., Normal College hat* a 
well organir.ed rommercini department in 
rhnrpeorH S. Shncklev. 

tiitn are rniMiblo of the very best work in the 
line of penmanship In its various depiulments 
and no ouc can make a mistake iu patronlxiug 

\„ r, V writer (a O. Ruwll, 

I" I' ' itn M M M iiu-. Mo ,Com. Coll. Ho 

u H I ,1 I ,> III) has been connected 
"iiK ) li III. . .11. _.Mit Red Oak and Croitun, 
la., iiiiii<>iini^-> ltii< iScotia Normal and Buk. 
Uni..8culiu. Ni'b. 

— A recent number ot the Sational Afaya 
zinr nf American Hislnry lins u bandsume 
st«.'el jwrtroit of 8. S. Packai-d with biogruphi- 
oal sketch. Mr. Packord in u leading memuer 
of the Ohio Society, one of the most prominent 
snrial organ icatio'ns uf tbe motrojioliiL It in 
in ihi» connection that the publication is made, 

— Tile Saiur*ia]i Call, New Haven. Conn., 
devotes a column of bright rradiug t 

m fwma to be still busy 
- brethren of tbe quill, 
nent pi-oclaima the nuul 

wl nti Maioh 17. 

his spurs 

has shown 
himself ca- 
pable of ex- 
c e 1 1 
work l>oth 
Id doing iind 
in training i 
others how 
to do. He is 
C. E. Chase 
of the com- 
mercial department of the State Normal 
School, Iiidiium. Pn., to which position 
he came about three years ago from his 
home at Hiawatha. Kan. 

Mr. Chase was much interested tn the 
articles puhliffhed in the January JuUitNAi. 
under the heading. " The First Earned 
Dollar." It reminded him of his own ex- 
perience in that' line, and how hard it— 
but let him tell the story. 

My cbildbo«>d's home was Kansas. Though 
it is the land of tbe grasshopper, cyclone ami 
blixzard, it is also one of tbe most prosperoux 
and sunshiny States in the Union. Kb rich 
broad acres yield annually millions of bushels 
of com, and it was from thecom that I farned 
my first dollar. Not by shucking nor stacking 
— I was too little for that, but by making corn- 
husk mats. The long white husks are braided 
into a string, leavlug about three inchesof the 
nub end sticking up. This is then wound Into 
a mat and firmly sewed. My prico for a foot 
and a half mat was fifty cents. I had made 
one for mother which a lady visitor greatly 
admired. She asked tbe price, atxl being told, 
inquired what I would charge for one three 
feet in diameter. I was always protty good in 
figures, and promply answered "one dollar." 
She immediately closed with me, and I set to 
work tilling the order. I itoon found that tbe 
areas of circles are not in proportion to their di- 
ameters, and, a.< I wejirily braided yard after 
yard of tbut mat, I pondered on the uncer- 
tamty of buuiuii ciikululioiis As the riiut 
grew larger the 

— Oar ariary departiiMnt shows up strODK 
asusnuL There arv tni> binl fl<>iirUb>-s bi>th 
good, by H. D. <)o!-h -^ " ' - '" '*- Vni 
Another clever dt^pj^ - i' '" 
l». H. Sooke, one . ' ■> ' 
B. C, Oo) Moines - ■■■■ ' 
A. Stewart of the Vt - < II 
K. W. Waltertnire, iH-iiiii.-»ri m i,..- i.uiti- i iij. . 
Mont,. B. C. 

— We have a poor eugravctl proof of w^me 
)Z*yaA pen work, including Sourlshuig and cap- 
ital letters, by 1.^ L. GalewtXKl, the brilliant 
voung penman of tbe Corry, Pn.. B. C Wc 
expect to prodace a deHign by Oatewood Incur 
■' Galaxy of Flourislicrs series next month. 

— F. K. Poraons, Rushfonl, N. Y., mwd!) a 
variety of work, inclu("ia;r»erlpl conibination*. 
capitals, cards and flouri<dle^ all of theiu <lonv 
In a creditable manner. 

— We have some delicately written cnrds 
and capital combinations rtom n. M. Uei<Nni», 
of Jones* B. C.CbirnL--. IM (»M-^r ir.- fn^m 

preciation of Thk 

J. W. I 

of a woll-printetl journal that comes to us f n>m 
l><t> Angeles B. C. Among it« illustrations 
is a half-tone rvpi*oductiou of on elaborate 
piece of engroRsing. 

— Wo find in the St. Joseph, Mo., HrwaUt 
of Feb. a7 an exteudetl ill titrated dosrriptiou country— is A. P. 

< iiii _in<''l young penmanistic friend E. 
\ M I 1, i II, lAte of Itbaca, N.Y., basestab- 
h.ii. -I I [iifr-sional teaching connection with 
l.hHtte(?.s .sitortband Institute. Oswego. 

— T. L. Btaplesi has purchased the Inter- 
national B. C, Port Wuyiie. Ind., and is doing 
a prosperous busine>ts. Ho is assisted in the 
penmanship line by W. J. Elliott Both of 
these teachers have distinguished themselves 


B. v., Walla Walla. Wash, we regret to 
learn that tbe health of Prin Stubblefield of 
this institution has not been good of late. 

— An attractive souvenir, containing a 
number of oniate engravings, comes to us from 
the lown B. C., Des Moines. 

— Chas. O. WinU-r, the pen artist of Hart- 
ford, Conn., finds plenty to keep his pen ago- 

— We congmtulnt« F. T. McEvoy. Prin. of 
tbe Youngstown. t>.. Normal H. C, U|ion tbe 
aceesBion to his faculty of so good a {lenman 
and commercial t«acher as J. M. Downs, late 
of St Jueepb, Mo. 

~ Our English friend, R. McCoskie, ha« 
oitened a book-store at Stratford- 
home ot the immortal bard, and make? i 
specialty of handling rare and scarce %-olume? 
His address is No. 2 Union 

TilK HDITORS SCKAl'i'.nill-;. 

Tqe JouRNALoflloe 

; more kindsof writ- 

a a week than Thb 

uld jiublisb in 

— The growtbof Blocker's B. C. Worcester, 
MoMi., has made an enlargement of accomoda- 
ti.nij. necvwary. Priu. Becker is a piiithlng. 

rnthiiMa«ticand -. .. - .._.._ 

having unusual 
pupiU this svAson. 

- UUlon J. Mallery. a b 

large attendance and tbe bvst of praopects. 

— W. O, Bi»taop. an ex|>erienc<ed commercial 
t«acher and an exceUent bwuness writer, has 
ixinUiactcxl to t^a-'h next seawn in the Com. 
Dept. of tbe UitOL>ln, Neb., Normal Uoi. 1 his 

nras|terous and everg 

—This isa portrait of oneof the most urogrese- 

and Waco, Texas 

ir^ is that be knows tbf 
alue of good 

Hutler, Pa. Mr. lint i , ^^, ,i. \l\ »..rk 

in the schoolroom l^ ul^ii*- iiii«li' .">•> l*> 
kind words found in TuK JolkNAL. 1 sball 
always speak of it in the highest terms, which 
it so well deserves." 

detail I" 
Oood jm 

icns.(la.; I. L. SnnU; i 
F. O. Putnam. On hIl i, .. i, \ 
Lawrence. Kan.. B. V..V. l>. (■■■' 
Cal.; Irving Green, Oelweln, la. 
son, Newcastle, Ind.. Bus. Uni. 

Moines, In.* sends uh a package of spedm 
represfinliiiK tin- wiitini; >>{ moii-s '>f thepu|iils 

of that in-MtntJ .1. TI,. -I I |H.|. 

foolscafi 1 ■!■ ' ■■ I '*'■ II '■■ '' " !■'■ . ^^ I'ti 

sheet. Ill tij. - 111 II. t ii. M I -. (iir.-iy 

through the L.tcMretully without tho cigu of 
a blot or any such defect. The writing is 


I and easy — the hiiirinef 
.nk rt 1-1 


sn't bring at leODt . 
examples of the latter sort. 

— We have received during 
tbe post monlb contributions in 

of iCis tort are t#o handsome initials by I,. 
Kelchner, who L* now teaching at the High- 
land Park Normal Coll.. r>eA Hointw. J. O. 
Hulbert of Bnud Creek, Conn., rends us an 
initial letter of humorous proclivities, the de- 
sign being better than tbe drawing. 

risk of injustice to siuglu out iudividunU; 
still it can do no barm to give a few Indi- 
viduals credit, and we take pleasure in thus 
naming W. A. Carmean, F. B.Tholslood. Ira 
JoncH, W. E. Payton. Scbueffer, tAnibort and 

— Miss Lizzie J. Dismau, teacher of pon- 
mansbip and drawing iu the public M-honbi of 
Greensburg. Ind., perinitM ns to we the itencil 
work of some of her »<ix year-oM pnidigieit. 
All of them deserve a favorable mention. We 
have only room to mrticularize Frank Trnr-y, 
Blanche Hbort and Wm. O. Tbonuon. Mint 
Dlsman's letter Inclosing the ipecimenB inone 
of tbe best written we received during the 

work of young inipils who get but from half 
to three-fourilui of an hour dally practice. 
Tbe writing Is very creditable, (Mnnulnrly 
npecimens by ClureDc« Bumnp and Mina Har- 

(Coalinued on page CM} 

The Penman's Leisure Hour — Continuing The Journars " Galaxy of Fiourishers " Series. 

The I'pper Exampfe is by C. L. Stvhha, Armahong's Bus. Coll., Parlland, Orey. The lower one is by O. W. llarman, SouU College, New Orleans. We have a treat 
in Store for Admirers of Flouiished Pen Work. In this Department neat month we iviH present a Charactenstic Design by the late John D. Wtlhams, " King of 
the Fiourishers.^' The design was never ;>«( in plate before. It will be about thirteen inches long. UV shall also present fine specimens by A. W. Dahin and 
L. L. Gatewood. 


;. t^en//uuii6 C 

Zit d/ccLUiaC? 

PmplU apmekmnkm, eimtinm*d from pag» SB. 


Tit»-r for Tnr Jr» 

wrlUnr wUI bcthMl t< 

jkn ttxri{|.i.«Nx pftn^ 

Bus. C«iir7Kt. l>Mt)i, inrl*" 

■bowlOK thr improvemmt of bin pupils. Tbi* 

pnUiUklaJitlc mad mccruful of tbe youoKvr 
gviirratlun of |>«DrnsDsbl|> t«at'bi:-r«. 

— W« haT« wv^ral Umm bail cKcaKloD to 
wfmk of tbr exoelleal work in penroaosblp 
Im-Idk done at the UrPherwjD, Kao., Collene. 

r -i.F' gmal opinion that < 

I I Mr, F. hax n deridnl 

hi. own »-aI to the Ixiys 
<•!■ I II Ki.reiv We |>lac<> in o 

«r«,,r,..,i. i^irtiniljirly neat KprdmenH hy 
W ttnitiiuin. A. J. Shaw. Ror Klcbey, E. 
Mitiill. SiiKfcHltuhcT and I.lzzlv Murray. Mr. 
V nlwi HumU proofs of oniiimeDtal engravjiij; 
whiclxbon blm tobe«-qually Hkillful in that 
'Ifpartmi-nt. We abow hli work below. 

Worfci of iBttractioa ii PeaMaatlilp. 

» hy J. 

HtatM be hnv only to ntep n 

D tbe Canadian 

icb Canadian friends m 
ay. \\c arv reminded to 
ihiHtinie l>y a number of 
r.t im by bni. Palanx of 
'111, sliowlnfi tbe work of 
Niko pleo«uro in Kiting 
K' deiwrvea, alxo in men- 
II signed to tbe Kpeci- 


— Th(< Mftrcb maKoitlneii ai-e alt rich in reud- 
inK and |.lctur««. The Century is in it* place 
at the hefid of the tirowMJion. Ihongh it does 
^|c.|.<.v.i n liltl.-.m Paderewttky, andistothat 

cxi' III 1. irii. 1 1 -Miii;. Beginning with the 

.\|i( I ' I 'I ' ' iilury will take up the 

riiHi I mndii, and itouie notable 

iMhti.iui ,.. I iiined. Senor Castflllar's 

iiiiii Ii ;ii,i]- iiij. ■ .1 J.ifeof Columbun" will b«- 

with its ehHrniing recollections of Louisa May 
AllcoU. the gifted writer, is the best yet 

— For younger readers St. Sichola» for 
March !» a rare treat. We can't begin to enu- 
inenit.' Mu- k"^»^ things it contaiUH. It is ju^t 
^M iiri-Jtiiti- in the hoiisebotd, and we 
iiiitiM iih 1 1 . . 1 1 1. till' old phrase, " No home 

I' 1 ' Hio leader of the I.othrop 

the yotingnter M'bo boH thu run 
f ul publlcaliou. 


— We have received another valuoble oddi- 

Diiyn," ciilirely in Mhoillmitil I 

Ii taking Ibnt view of it The copies are white 
•u black. They start With ktmple movement 
'xereises oud run the gamut to flniehed cup- 

For ftceoU extra the Guide will be » 
bound Id cloth The ntrular pn'mium has 
Prioe when •ent <ither- 




Anie«*4'opT-Nllpa Tor Neir-lnMiractlon 
In Prartlral Penmanablp.-Thia cover* 

■bout tbe HiiUL- irrouod m the Ouklc. but in- 
stead of tM-lnic In twMik form it Is composed of 
movable sllpd prottrcmlTely arroDged and con- 
vcDleDl for practice. Pull ln»(ructlonN accom- 
pany tbe Ettlpn. and the whole M encloeed In a 
neat envelope. Tbls work alao baa bad a vcrv 
larse sale ludritendentlv of its i 

Tbe Lord*B Praver 
PloarUbed Kacle u > 
8lac(24z3et: r 


UK fiCC- 

how'to apply foh a sitcation and 






The I 

eof theOxr< 




In KuIoK» r2A 

uatoof Penmau 

specialty. MOly >■ li 

ai ply. Salary from .'■ ■ . 

and refurcDees furni<ili('il i 
drvM ■■ EDUrATUlt." Uui 
A WAN of III years^experlen'o deain 

beard ul Ihc oxlonl iiniidy liflps, which have 
tiecD eitcptiively udverti!>cd durtim the past 
few months and have reached an unormoua cir- 
culation throughout tbe country. Prom a very 

Thk JoUltNA 
particularly m lU line. Pm 
26 cenU each. Paper im i 
Itlnding is in stllT puini . 

amount of mutter lhe>' ■ - ■' 1 1 
the pltbimva of It. III.' 1.1 
which toey tia%e been put 
vnre with which the k'XiI 

tbe count , 
trkspublUhed In 

^/tr <keire of mi^M t^ki. tU., «* Jti's tt-r<ial frr- 
mium . /0r It^ NBH' nil. rt*\ ^ wi/Uit^ mm, 
Ihrrt ^/ml-wrt ^rtmimmi.- M rtr«- X^l' tmfi. 
\%\\ 4imy fife t,/ »i,^vt ^rtmimmt ; /*r fiv NEW 
,«if. (f s>. -V urn ^/ .il^'t premiums. 

Amea* Book of Plourlahea. 

This Is our latest and quickest selling ponmnn- 
shlp publication. It conlnlii!i Iffi »peelmeti9 by 


FIllKT-n.ASK TftACIIKK of shorthand 
and (>t<cwritinir wnnt.-l by one of the 

prelCirCll. >JSti'llt. I'l'iiiini. I.r.ilirrii iir Mllii- 

son. Pnmeand iti<ii-i" n- iM> i > < nmi^ nir 

undoubted abllli>, i !■ in, ,,.i,i,, -. uniini.- 

answerlnir if yoii (nli -i m „u> "i xuv-.,- \,\ 


Hub. and' 

Jets. (SI. 411); 



>. (91.11)). for 

...Id Wets. (SI. 40): orf 


Ncir InHiriielloii tii Prueltcttl BumIi 
B id another splendid work 

; civn/t/iltiu 

Service m 
_-,t believe 
It placed ovc 

1, male and female. 

Service made a record liiitt year wbloh we 

--■" ^ -. - ..(I 

fall teachers reg- 
tiie date of registration. ' 

business e 

L' thi>. < 

.loy ! 



Pitls t Litit. Split 

Doctor fee. One V. 

— Ki Moii in .V. 

n^nRRn « L t>ninebe9 

very brlelly Indicate the character of the^e 

llo»' lo Roud Charneter rroni Hand 


J^)t■H^il. tc^tlor. will 1* i.«rli,ul«rlj ID- 
torv^t.^ In tbis W4irk. It t» nm llki-ljr tbat all 
wtti narw with the author that tbe llne.t sbodos 
of obarai't«r mar bp <lennlt«ly aod uoiDlstak- 
ahlr dlaxnaMO by eiamlnatlun ul handwrit- 

I looklnir 1 
'or Almr 
lume. 8« . 
JoirRNAL pHiiei, con 
■iindsomoly bound In 
M.ry for even a brief 

uo'd. No place i 

*-~ Keglstmtlon lust? for itlx months unless po- 

iN»«, sitlon lio necured before. Ueglstrutlon now 
'^'^ tukci th« applicant entirely throuifh the busy 

wesson up to the new school your next fall. Full 
' ' particulars upon application to 

Tbk Penman*h art JovaNAr., at Broadway. 





III the .> 


wights iM 1 






oiijil vr 

urity. ilnly 
rile. Addremi 



ADV WITH 0%-KR two ye«t«' expert- 
■i eni-e as teacher of Bbortfaaod (Pernio, also 
irterxm mnchine sysfem). typewriting and 
iKkkit'luDK-, iH open to engagement. Carelui, 
.'Urate, reilahle Can also teach the rommon 
iiii'hc«,l(u[ prelets those named. Cnexcep- referem-ea. "yOALFlED." C4re Pl.i- 
t s'i* Airr JooHX Ai- 

keeping, onrn-spondenoe. etc.. highly eom- 
ended by present employer, wishes l~ 


Hair Intereat with th*- m<Mt thorough and 
experienced (e^icher. in the fh»l known, Ihitt 
located ami lle«l payinv CoIIfkc iu the We>I. 

St. Joseph. Mo. 


enKruming. Intely executed, net 

I and of value l 

biiiltbandiioodbat>its. lorrcspondeQceinrit«d. 
'- WUBKBK." carv Ps.<cma!<'b art Jocilmai. 

~ t_yen//iaM^ QyvttCL/oiotnjzlO 

Rl IllfuCspSlmtr,. 01 Flootlsh-^^ 

J LXir- ntADYi 

JM Xl W a Hand Trainer, adopted ill the 
Toledo Pnblic Scliools. Studeiils make licauli- 

fill penmen witli lillle Practice. Tral <-™- 

pendiumtt Exercise Book sent forJSc 

nd years as a day. No a 
etic teaches it. A short, simple, prac 
elhod by E.C.ATKINSON. Principal o( 

season IB coming aroniid. Don't wait nntil tlie last moment and take your chances of ^ettinj; prompt de- 
livery with hundreds of others wlio rush in then, to bo disappointed perliaps about getting them in tnne for 
„.o T. „„.t= *„ .»*„„j .. .,..• ;„ fg^^j_ ^g ^^.^ i^ ^^^^^ ^^ gj^g ^^^^ ^^^^^j^ j^^. ^1^^ ^^^^^^ .J 

use. It costs no more to attend to tl: 
ordered before the " rush season " sets 


lidUci by Francis H. IhmpcrUy, 

Author of "Aoiilogical Syllabic SliorthancJ," 

unci Pi-esideut of the Phllttddphta Pte- 

nograpliei-s' Associution. 


The Typewriting Dtpaitment is coiiducU'd by 

Bates Torrey, author of "Practical 


Send fnr Sanijitc Cnpi/ tint! Cntfiloifw o/ 

The Stenographer Pub. Co., 

140 So. Fourth St.. Philadelphia, Pa. 


instinct ion and for .-lus.-t use. The best arrai 
most attractive and most practical copies ei 
Post-paid. 51. Wliolesule pru-e on npplica 
J^eod for circular. 

Prickett College. PhilaOelphin 


No natiHrarlory e» 
respondence bj' elvlii 


(/) IV/iai kind of a School? 

al diplon 

{2) How many Diplomas ? 

I without kaowinx theie two facts. Sav 

ElliemtiiToDr llrst letter of Inqnlrr. 

mproyinp: our processes and are now handling a line of diplomas, certificates, etc., that we believe to be 

ard in all respects the best that are offered in this country. Get all th^ samples and estimates you can ■ 

work and prices and judge for yourself. It isn't at all ncce38ary to take anybody's word for it ; still, it 

u L __ recently made diplomas after they had 

richest, most 
compare them wi 

can do no harm to fjive a few extracts from le"tters received from people for whom 
carefully looked over the entire field with a view to making the best barf-ain po?si 

ndale Hlgli Sclio 

\cUrT a (ircotlu infr.rUtr i'fnlwi Js indeed dithi- 
ist to thos-^ not Intimately cnnversiiGt wit I, 



lunk you for the nist-iiic^ 

PreNldeDt (Jiilver».ll) 

c workmanship 
!. The moderate 


mgh to iilnce 
the Sacrrd 

noish of thedlph 

■s in your hou«o us demand eallsf or 
. B. jr. niilllsan, Hector Obnrch 
Heart, New Brunswick, N. J 

hly pleased with the artistic design and 

Prom W. A. I 

uvtlle, Sec 


e, LlndHl 




We a 

lighly pleased \ 

Buibucll, III. 

diplomas yo 

Noriual Collctfe, 

made for us. The work 

highly pl( 
really better than 
Prom Temple A Hamilton, Prop*» Temple Oc Hamilton 
Bualnemt rolleee, San Antonio, Tex. 

You have made for us three elenant diplomas— one for our liuslni 

itisfaclory 1 

rjth s 

s ordered of you duly r 
. _ re wellpleased withf 
ani-hip of the highest artistic 

ilpleased withthem. Thedesi 

' li 'iider for otherwork of 
I Rome Bus. Uul., 

I. and 'tis puttioB It mildly 

els I 

lo w that usually charged for this class of work. 

Demln:; * Proctor, mTadlson, Wis,, Bus. College. 

the diploma is Indeed ele(rant, and for design 

cns~Twenir-ave Designs 

e Huch references ; 
r Twonlr-fiT 


The Great 

Secret of Success. 

In this day and ige the secret of success 
and the key to prosperity is Special Edu- 
cation. We will mail free to any address 
our pamphlet entitled Special Edneation. 

Always Profitable. 

It contains information that will inter- 
est and inspire every ambitious young man 
and woman. Are you eager to achieve 
success { If Ko, sfnd for it. Enclose two- 
cent stamp to pay postage. Address 


^" Sandusky. Ohio. 

r/ Li<t of Diphvias etc., that we Carry in Stock.- 

" ■ ■ '■■ ;'■■ ■' I ■■'■■ !' i^iate er' 

■ ■ ■ -Ni'with a . __. ^ ^ 

e will regulate t 
of tht 
s required, I 

i eSfects ! The 5 
e. date and 
a. puttln^r n 
li-etr-'-'- ■ 
nrd Of the s 

-Size abo2it iS x 2j Fnclics. 

^h and roprewsnt fli-^i 
■'■yof dlpl ■ 

ne of Krai 
lamples of f 

ility of diploma lin<'' 

"— ^tbemis 80 cei ' 

3 of graduate c 

> be ( 

■yy f 

iin. Order KB Ofpio 

■ front pnsre of this is 

ion of ■•Union." ■•: 

. Certincates.TMtlraonial9, Kewaid* 
Colloge. etc.— Order as Dip. L. 

iCir • '■ ■■- "• ■ 

purial t*iibllc ■^ 

i ILsl 

Urdcras Ulp^loiiinO. 

diplomas N, O and P. bBlng changed 
r Private School. 

[ Shorthand ond Ty 

Efdueationni Ins 
nip. I. 

" " t*horthand and Typewriting Deiia; 

''*-Dl' '{l'^'"'^-^**"-'''*"^'^ l>lpIomB(nookkeepingund Accounting Cour 
We also do cfery hinri of plate engraving from your eopy or oun 

Merit, etc.. adapted for use la any Public, 

Special Business Oolllege Diploma (Any Defartment)— Dip F 

" College of 
■■ IUifiIne<w[: 
-pip. J 

il Penuinushlp DIploi 

(Oookkeepmg and Aicouotlng Course) 
Ml Kit Any PenuianshlpSchooD— Dip. X. 

Portraits, butldic 

t cards, journal headings. letter head- 

e illustrations for catalojcues a specialty. 

D. T. AMES, Penman's Art Journal, 202 Broadway, New York. 

' CJenma/bd Qyttt Cl/oa tnaiP 

Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of them, make books which they try to palm off as superior to 
(he originals. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

-W H "ST ? 

I'.ecause it is the best te.xt-bouk on the subject ever published, as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books preceiling it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from it. 

What evidence is there that it is a standard work ? 

It has been published 33 years without change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
the country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
crs in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of Ai.i, About Phonography, the 
largest and handsomest shorthand circular ever published. 


Author and Publisher, 

744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting, 

744 Broadway, New York. 


lA(v«<t 11kr> ifrtAhllHhmont In tho world. Flrrt- 
cltuwStvvnil hainlliiHlninu-ntsftt Imlt nfwpriii* , », „ .,,,.,,, ■ ., ,^ 

lJnpr,-J"'il<"i ft.lvi,•,^ RiVL-n on «U1 mak.-,H. Ma. .,V'.' A' T ?,'**'",'?,',' 'v* '"I'' '" '"'^"'"^^■1?? vt 
cliim« intlil on itiuntlilj- i)ftjTiieiitfl. Any Inalru- SHAlJKI), E'UM I i<i> Hjst^Tii-H, wlion 1 » \;l.\ f 
EXCIIANliUJft A BrK(:r\LTY- WholwialB oriooB 
to dmlcrn. Illiutmlvd (Malogaea Free. 

TTPEWEITEE h\ Brondwviy. New York. 

HEATftUAETEES, fa»WBba3hATt;.,chicft«o. 

(T ^ I 


tampblct of intur* 
m, by the editor of 
Jlnnpnr** J'horworaphic irwAlM.that tellahow to 
learn tfac art lu tlie ibort«0t time. Svnt free by 
n.KJi.Miiijt 1) I. SCOTT-UHOWNE, 251 W. Htli 

H. M. PERNIN. ^tf 

Detroit, - - - l^loh. 


ilo. Prico 81.75 I 

taiaiD^ Mrs. PBckurtl'i 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 

The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 years' experience, author of "Aid to Graham," 
" Shorthand Copy-Book," &c., President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
System in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unequaled in the history 
of shorthand teachers. The publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will be sent 
by mail post-])aid to anv address on receipt of the price, $1.50. 


SEira FOR. CIR,OmjA.RS. 

THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., Publishers, ,.„ 
^3 to 27 Euclid Avenue, - Cleveland, Ohio. 

[N.-TKI'tTtlK and :sicnr>irnipbcr'ii Hant-Book.— Vtc of Machlno. 88 Omdcd Lcnm)d«, General 
InrorTnMUun.i!a|>ltAl.s Punctuallon. Lpttcr-ffrftloc, Pomwof Addn«». At>bn.>vliitU>n«k lllnia 
to su-uoifnii.thT», Eservl<es for PnioHcr, SI naitn of fac-stmlk- tjiK-wrtHnir. I'loth; W 
l-HffM, :H X lu; two color-. Pr«'|«ld 10 any aiJanwiK. »I. SiKiliiijt and I*tl*r-WrHinjf, an 
tvirv*, some pric*'. St>ev'inien imkcs f tpt . fpcocrr. FbIiou A Lo<.>nH8, riovclwnd. Ohio. S-tf 

Typewriting by Touch. 

E. E. CHILDS. Childs' Business College, Springflehl.JIass 



Better made, 

Runs easier, does 

Better Work, and 

More of it, than any other 

Constantly improved. 


WyckoJ^, SeatHans & Benedict, 

527 Broadway. New York. 


Learn Shorthand? 

I have rtpplicutioiiH CDnlinuallj lor 
youog men which I cannot fill. 1 couUl 
have located two or three times hh touuy 
young men the limt year if I had tho 

There is no better field for smart young 
men than Shorthand Writinj;. Let it bo 
» stepping stone for something higher. 

SPANISH taught by mail and penwn- 
ally. Spaniards tttUKht English. Buh- 
ineps men fiinii«htd competent Sten- 
( ijfraphers without charKf for my aervicew. 

OSWECO, N. Y. Itf 




riaok •n TihoribanU. 

Elfgunt i«i|>rr. Ur«y Xyy: >iU|>tTlor <-( 

Retail Price, - - «l.80. 

Sample Copy to Teachers, • 1.00. 

Ilie Bryant and Stratton Mlisliing Co. 

l-U 46 t MAIN ST., BUFFALO. N.T. 

lulur. MHL'hiniw rented on trial. 


American System of Shortliand. 

To supply the incrcasinK demand for 
stenographers, schools of shorthand and 
type-writing hav been cstahlished in var- 
ious parts of [he counuy, and. with few 
exceptions, all bn-^in?^-^ -:ol!--t:.-. now hav 
a ■' department n(vh..rih,uMl A ..umlH-r 

of systems ar l.uik^^tii luii that Of BeflR 

Pliman is more flenerally used than anv other 
In this country, and may be calltd the 'Amer* 
lean System."— /-.x/mf^ from M/ U^fon „/ 

the Cammitsion^r nf EJtuation ( Wathinglon 
n. C,)./crth£ )Var 1887-88. /»a4v.j27. 




/y/" i5^^/Aie-::<rf«5flt«*^^:'C-«!^S^ ^.^aic€€i^ ^e€Z^^^^ €^^t€^^4^.€d^ 

y v.. ^J...y..Z...A ^'^''^a^.A^- 


The ORIGINAL, and lor 54 >ear« the STANDARD 


spud for book rontaiafuK alpbiilM-t. nnd c«tn- 
itiiiuo of works by Isaac I'ltmau, the Enveutor 
*)l rlionogriipb>'. A discount of <0« allowwl to 
scliooia and teachers. Aililress : 


The Phonographic Depot, 3 Eail 14th St.. NewYorli. 




Adapteil for use wilb or without Te.\tBook, 

and the only spt recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 




PavoraWe armngomeiits made with Biislneaa 

Uuotinn ami use. Dc«crlplive List now ready, 
'urrespoiideute invited. 

Tuebeat Pen in tlie U.S., and best penmen use them. 


partkutarly adapted for Public and Pri' 

ibllc and Private 
Put up Is Boxes, 


119 4 r2l William St. N, Y. 




I. W, PATTON, F»rln., 

Norrolb, Va. 



Lock Box 338, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 


S'siVel ,"' W rru'a'n°J 'leT.'i'nn'"" he' 


geS! "oa"m'mh?i "c'?"iiES'."li"u'!l' 
^^rrrr- Agents waute.1. 




R MA fins nvSIMiHH 

It miUemjyUiU tpiah/uin 



and I will send you t 
writing it, with Inatru 
stamp, and I will send yo 
h&od, prloe list deaori " 

Cards, Flourishing, el 

m in fall, and 96 c«nt& 

; or send me a 3-oent 
i addressed In my own 
of Lessons by Hall. Bx- 
ng Exerclaes, Capitals. 



Executes all Kinds ol Ornamental Pen-Work 
To Order 
<>"£, EngTosaln^, Pen-Dra' 


B hig-heat c 

and Pen-Drawings d 

le best possible 


A. E. DEWHURST. Utrca. N. Y. 


ni.\ON. ILL. 

dlBtinot couraes: (1.) For Prolesalonal 
iir in tlie Public Sclioo s. An advanced 
Wschcjol in WrltinKand DiuwiSgundto 
posstble branch of pen worlt. Hooiis 

V...J puooiu.B iiraucn or pen worit. B 
handsomely eciulpped. iinly nineteenth 





Albany, N.Y. 

425 Clinton Ave. 




Kipressly adapted for professional use and onifc 

mental penmanship. 





All of Staodard and Superior Qoality. 





' ~~cJc'n/na/i^ Qytit^ oJ^icinal3 

^f Ail S/f/IO£S /l/VO 

I » lINKol WILLIAMS* K«OEIlSIiauir|Kipul«rroiiiiii<-r<:tal Put 
thret- month, from tb. pn-»i It liM I)"" laoptM l>y many ot th<- leMI 
i«i.«ndc.n.mcit*.l.lf|«rtmant.nril.c countrr. .nd tcchcm .n.! 
n,.n,blp .n lilLItu^ -ilb It. It It otlrtln.l. "nlqu^ "nd Ix^utltul. .ml It. pccnll.rltlcs com- 
m<'n<1 It ln.t«ltlr to .ll ""w m.mlno It. Amonu It. (tronir qu.liHn! •re : 

Fiii»r-Tl)i- im™ .rci Biimt reproduction, ot the Bctual pcn-writioB ol one ol the !«•« 
nr.rtlml wrUen In the eountrr. In.tead ol .ccunltc rnnrsvlnn from ocooll -Irawlnpi roplc. ere prlnletl on ruled poper. which eontrttiutoiK. mucb to their natural- 
fiM. th.t the Bveraae impil doca not .u.pcct that the Hoe. are eeKravlnff.. 

Tiiiiio-The Kt contain, to large • number ol cople.. S» In all. th.t the pupil Onds ample 
rarlety which KcurM and bold. hi. Interwt. 

Fou'eTii The BOOK Of INSTHntrTIONP, whlcb accompanies every pet. afford. the pui.ll 
ju.t thoae hint., .ura-tlon. and dllTCtlon. a> to how to practice to Insure Improvement that 
the mi»tca!«iUeU-achiroIwrllliiK would Hive him. . .. ™ . ,„ , 

Th.reU.l price or tbl.i«t. which l.e.lle.1 the I <,»Pi.«t> EnilloK. 1. Jl.m. and one will lie 
mailed to any addrcM on rocelpt of that amount in po.tBl note or poataiic sUimiie. A set w.ll 
be roallwl \o any teacher, with u view to Introduction, lor Wic. 

NEW INTRODUCTIVE BOOKKEEPING. 125 Pages. Retail Price. $1.25. 

Fit ri>mniimrtl Ii<|uirt T»int» uti'l E\ mirifr <"l«»*c». .Inolhfr HiiMrfwmir B'wA- 

FIRST LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING. 75 Pages. Retail Price, 75c. 

COMMERCIAL LAW. 310 Pages Retail Price, $2.00, 
BUSINESS UW (* .''!f.''ffit''"). 200 Pages. Retail Price, $1.25, 

For I'.iiimi.TfisI St-h<H>l(iBtiil t'timmerrtnl Doiwrlmcnl*. An KrrrriUinjfu I' ».">*,. 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 275 Pages. ^ Retail Price, $2,00. 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC (\%Tffi.V;"). 225 Pages. 

Retail Price, $1.25, 

For r.-mnKTihil rtti.l i ,>mm.-nnil lU-partm.-nt*. (Hrri, KTcellfiit Snti^fOftl'm 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT, 235 Pages. Retail Price, $1.50. 

Retail Price, 75c. 

SEVENTY LESSONS IN SPELLING. 130 Pages. Retail Price, 30c 

THREE WEEKS IN BUSINESS PRACTICE. Method ,.<•' Outfit, $35.00 


I , ^irrfi^fut ubeme ei-er pttti'lali-d far murtratiny ButiMM. It nffitnU jtijit thr ilrilt I/1.1I .« 
tttcoanry Ot M the pupil In ttu tKtt iKiMItU iMtii for iiglre latrk. 

t<l 10 th9 nilrlrfi* of anv ttaehtr fnr rramtnfilton, lelt/i a eleie lo Ir.rrorfMeKe,,. 
,c.;,oir Ifcerelnll price ; a«d .ample cor*. 0/ n.«li.e.. Practice lelll II. .»al/e.l 
„,,„„ ,„„,, ,„ u„v lOi.lne.. College rrl»el|.al on appilratlon. 

We alsrcrrrrr'nneTDiplomaVfo7'both Commercial and Shorthand Departments which may be 

adapted to any school : also Blank Books and Business Forms for Bookkeeping, Stationery, 

College Currency, &c , &c. Correspondence Solicited. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Educational Publishers. Rochester, N. Y. 

AN ABRIDGED EDITION of Pen-Wrinen Copies i Reproduced), 

(•ni.hiioiii:; iilinul lull ic.|ii.-) nn.l 11 lio..k of In.lnitlioin, .i,l«|.t<-.l tu piililic :.ii.l 
iirivriti- M:liool8, hn* junt been issued. The retail price is .50f. and a set will be 
tnnllcd to any l«achcr, wilh a view to iotmduclion. on receipt of 2.')e. in poslul 
note lit poi-HiKc stamps. Attention is also called to tlic following; 

NEW COMPLETE BOOKKEEPING. 275 Pages. Jetail Price, $2.50. 
NEW BOOKKEEPING. 250 Pages. Retail Price, $2.00. 


'."or'oue ccw |«'i»tn5e stamps" ' AelilS 

W. H. PATRICK.' 643 N. Fulton Ave.. Baltimore. Md. 


Inoorporaled J»n. 21.1 890. P«ld up Capital Stock. S 1 00.000. 


lid Ave. Business CoMe«e,?0 Euclid Aye.. Cleveland. O. 
on Business College. Cor. B'\«ay and Wmson Ave.. Cleveland, y . 
Cafon-s Nat. Business Coll»ge. Cor Pearl and Church Sts^^Buffa^o. N. V. 
The Detroit College of Commerce. New Jrl^""?,° ."if '„? O 
Caton's College of Commerce, Caralnor BlocK. rsoiwiiK.u. „..„„,,,„ „„„^ 

■lisl. iUinsturteoKionrolMlii is'.il ">■ I..,ts placed In BOlrf 

aai Meo's Kmployraent lloremi in i h. i..~i i "._!..■ inonthfc More 
malorityol have form. . I > L.^.n. .lii. I";™"". 

iof t.xt-liooks. ol wliteh wear.' inirt r, l.shen»._ttn(l wlllrto 

own printioit ami "pilirilnir In our o.rn publl.lilnit 

.iiKb our llusi 


I (fre 

M.J. CATON, Cleveland, Ohio. 


teachers of PknmanhhiI'. of Cohmkii- 

_ brnnchcR and of Drawixo and Pkn- 


D4-> no 


Tr""'to iTnno „ P.-nnian. Ar„s. ,u,a Teacher. M.^er,. rraHi,.l Melb.,.. -;^™^. r;;:;«;-- J|;-^,.i^:|7i- .S''' ""ffi:^'^i 

!^:l';i;e:p""'Mr'::,:^!;:;;,ri;;?.v::;b;;.;;"';b:;: tn^^. ^^. ^J;;;:;:^:;;;;;;::;:^^!,..: '\;^ i. ^.an .. ^-ide,, su^... ..,«i. - .,.,, w„r. d 

.WnoH-e. M»..,«tent,v tllnstrat.,,, sbowin, w.itlt o, «rad„att,, eU. .n. b.r^l^.n^s .^ COLUMBUS. OHIO. 

1..S.-ZANER-S MASTERPIECE. A Flourished Eagle, entitled ■■ Progress," 82 x 28, worth *'^- ^f^f^};':^' V^^Ch.^l^t,'^^»^<.^ ■ 
Ptot. A. W. Dakin. Amsterdam. X. T. the Renowned Penman, saja: ■■ I believe it wras engraved from the ane.t .pecimen ol Floun.hing ever eiecuteo. 


NEW YORK, MAY. 1892. 

Vol. lb. No. 5 

Our National Postal Cemetery. 

- «nil t*ackng 

..f the New York 
flrrald writing from 
Wiishington. gives a 
batch of fresh statis- 
tics relatJDg to the 
iiionuinental careless- 
iif?s of people about 
•i*^^ their mail matter. 

All people make 
/"^^" bhmtlers sometimes, but 
tliey seem to make more 
^K^*" blunders when they are 
"^ addressing letters than at 
, any other time. When the 
fact is understood that of 
the approximate 5.000.000.- 
000 packages of mail matter pass- 
ing annually through the mails of 
Uncle Shui 7.000.(H)0 eventually 
reach the hands of Dead Letter Of- 
Hce Superintendent Leibhardt's clerks : 
when the knowledge is disseminated 
throughout the United States that about 
five and one-half per cent, of this 7.000.- 
000 contains inclcaures of money and 
negotiable papera and stamps : when it is 
clearly comprehended by the non-pains- 
taking public that packages at the rate of 
between ninety-five and one hundred 
thousand are received i)er year, and that 
these are either eventually sold at public 
auction or deposited to the credit of 
Brother Jonathan — then, and then only, 
will the ma.1or part of the jmblic use 
pains in their handwriting and avoid il- 
legibility, omissions and incorrect ad- 
dresses when sending a letter, paper or 
package to friends via Uncle Sam's mail 
jiouches. It is rare that any substantial 
loss occurs except through carelessness 
and negligence of correspondents, and if 
thiise who use the mails would conform 
to the plain and simple requirements of 
the ijostal regulations, and would place 
name and address of sender upon the 
outside of the envelope or package, few 
such articles would go astray. 

'• Dead letters" are l-eceived at the rate 
of 20,000 per day ; 8000 of these are with- 
out addi'ess. 

Under the watchful care of Mrs. A. H. 
Evans a very curious collection is being 
accumvilated in Washington. All these 
articles (except two mail piiuches depns- 
ited as a reward lor f;ijt)ii»l -rivi..- ..f 
over ninety years) on - xini.ii i-n ,h thj , 
museum passed throuKli tin I nir.-d stjiit ,s 
mails and have been sent to the Dead 
Letter Office as unmailable. short of post- 
age, without address or without name of 

Here is the "Record of All Valuable 
Letters in the Dead Letter Office" from 
1777 to 1788. covering forty-four pages 
and 365 entries. In contrast with this 
the entries of valuable letters received in 
the eleven years ending June 30. 1887 (100 
years later) were 2.C80.884. 

II in the collection 
! to Prof. S. D. 
nd by him refused 
--ive postage due. 
oil exhibition is a 
■ Huh" jwistniaster 

showing 100 variations in spelling the , opened the packages containing them are five fruit of the mind of a disciple of 
word "Chicopee," as received at the several large and ugly looking snakes Euclid ; upon further reflection it appeaw 

irom liermanv. one a inret^ rnttlpsnabii ^ , - , . . . . 

to be an unsuccessful imitation of the 

Boston Post Office. 

One from the pen of the assassin of Gar- 
iield. Charles J Guiteau. runs in a ramb- 
ling, .semi -soliloquizing manner as fol- 

She's my dnrling from this day you will 
surely die for the murder of James A. Uai-field 
on the scaffold higb. my name 'tis Charles J. 

, my r 

will t 

my aged parents in sorrow for to die how little 
did thpy think while in my youthful bloom, 
would be taken from the scaffold to meat my 
fattle doom. 

In a letter deposited here and written 
while in prison was a curl of his hair with 

from Germany, one a large rattlesnake 
with four rattles : centipedes and homed 
toads, all of which were received alive, 
being sent in a perforated box. Another 
instance of the abuse of the mails is the 
sending of a loaded revolver to Spring- 
field, 111., and from there to Havana, 111., 
whence it was returned to Washington. 
This was undoubtedly sent with the idea 
that the young lady who received it 
would handle it carelessly and shoot her- 
self or somebody else. Several years ago 
a letter reached here addressed to " Jesus 
Christ in Heaven." This was accompa- 
nied by a juvenile request for a new 

circular chirography of the late Senator 
Plumb ; later it assumes an appearance 
somewhat approaching the indistinguish- 
able scrawl of ex-Senator Edmunds, but 
it is finally deciphered and delivered as 
IchaV)od Jones, Pohunk Hollow. Texas. 



this inscription : ■• This contains my hair. 
Charles J. Guiteau." Accompanying this 
was a request for the modest sum of $1 .000 
to aid in the compensation of his counsel. 
Needless to state the lady to whom this 
letter was directed would have, if the 
letter had not miscarried, declined the 
invitation so coolly made. 

Heptlleg bt/ Mutl. 

Tile property division of the Dead Let- 
ter OfBce handles all the merchandise 
that finds its way to Washington, and a 
very motley collection it is. Glass cases 
covering three sides of a large room are 
kept filled with articles to show the curi- 
ous visitor specimens of what is sent 
through the mails. Among the most 
curious— but which must have been nutst 
unpleasant— surprises to the clerks who 

dress, in which the writer might more 
neatly appear in her Sabbath school class. 
A purse was quickly made up by the 
clerks for the impecunious little girl, the 
childlike but earnest prayer was i e warded 
and her belief in the efficacy of prayer 

An interesting Western effort was re- 
cently received : 

Tijuigbt I lay out on the pruiiie. 
And look at that bright sky ; 

I wonder if ever a cowboy 
Would drift to that sweet hy and by. 
One letter addressed to Henry M. 
Cooper. Philadelphia. Wfis after an inter- 
val of search and inquiry of twenty-five 
years finally placed in the hands of his son. 
The poor penmanship exhibited is seem- 
ingly ridiculous. For instance, a letter is 
received with what seems to be the figura- 

? the mails were to 
' Manning the ad- 

1 11' lis due to de- 
'Iditsses would be 

If the people wh 
cultivate \W ti;il.i 
dress of a !. iii t ,ii 
tenths iif ilii' |iii' 
ficient or rimuiMi 

At a desk in tin 
clerk whose duty it is to decipher illegible 
addresses and to rectify the mist^akesin 
them. To judge from "some of the speci- 
mens shown she must bring her imagina- 
tion to bear on many of these blindly 
written directions. If not, how could she 
divine that a letter addressed to "Sena- 
tonne. Washingth." was intended for 
Senator Ryan. Washington. D. C. or that 
" Mr. James B. under Wood gea bsnton 
Con Kan" was intended for James R. 
Underwood. Gear, Barton Co.. Kansas: 
"St. Tullia" lor Centralis or ■■Calf 
Creek " for Buffalo Creek. 

Somewritera are decidedly sentimental, 
for there is found "Beausville" for 
Bowlesville. Others are fond of British 
rhetoric, as '■Eyewood. Hillinoie." fur 
Highwood, 111., and a large percentage 
are illiterate, as exhibited by "John I. 
eads, Qpisiteon, forance co.." for John I. 
Eads. Opposition. Lawrence Co.: *' Sara- 
gordy Post Office" for Cerro Gordo, 
"Seneki''for Seneca, and " Pageaway " 
for Padua. 

A curious postal, written by a juvenile, 
was recently received and read as follows: 
Dear Pebcy— Mary and the tfiw, Uiissell 
and the pups, I.i?.zio and the vnX» are all well. 
Eddie has gone West and his girl will have ri Willie is fat and hungry. Henry is «till 
crying. Catherine is very bimy with hf-r 
squirmy children. Tell mamma In Iniy yi)ii 
some caps for your pistol-lsy. 

One uncomplimentary communication 
ran as follows ; 

Jack Smith, the web-foot scrub, 

To whom this letter wants to go, 

Is onttiug cordwdod for hU grub. 

In Boise City, Idaho. 

One who imagined his poetical effusions 

to be a passport for his letter, wrote to the 

postmaster as follows : 

Hello ! Uncle Sam. 1st me yo iu your mail, 
As I've taken a notion to ri-Je on thg rail. 
To Illhiois Slate, and there let me drop. 
In McLean County please let me drop. 
In Le Roy Post Office please let me lay 
Till Reason R. Gay shall take me away. 
The postmaster replied thus : 
Played out. my dear b'-y. there is uo use in 

If you can't pay your way yoiril have t<> try 

A letter recently received was addressed 
Edgar A Kent. Dakota Territory, Lock 
Box SCJ This was mailed liefore Dakota 
had mat ired into Statehood. It was 
found tliat Fargo was the only post office 
possessmg a lock box of that number in 
the then Territory, and the letter was 
duU delivered. '■St. Joseph's Asylum. 
Laf w i" delivered to St. Joseph's 
Orphan A^vhuii. Lafayelte. hid. - \^'^ 

flycA/na/b^ ^ 


Smith street. P. P."* wu dengned for 
Pff/vidence. R. I. : " New Oxford. A. C." 
fur .Ntw OifoH. A*l«ms Connty. Pa. 
" .Min. Kat*- Kellfv. Seventh str^t Ro«d, 
u^\x»\\f ' Genera) Howard"* residence." 
mailed at New Ynrk. wim fonnd to be in 
Wajihin^on. '• Caspar Ballet, care of 
.)<>hn Lemoniak. 24 Dandridge Dtreet. 
Nonlommka." wa* Iiy referrnre to a 
Cnited Stat** Street Dire<tor>' (which 
wan recently mmpilefl by the ofHcialxf. 
fonnd to be in Cincinnati, thnt bei^K the 
only city bsving a street of that anme. 

One letter wan 9p#_*ci6call^<fddr«iwed 

" Miw Kate , a (drl W^^ nixteen 

yearH olil. Aomf (fold in on^of her front 
npper teeth, who Huddenlyjeft her board- 
ing honse mi Chvrry utret-t, Philadelphia, 
Alx>ut SeptemlxT. I"k5." Annthcr is ad- 
dretwed " To the nideflt Son of the Bigftent 
Proprietor of the largetit store in Crescent 
Mills. Plnmao Connty, Cal, " Another. 
IMwtmiirked in North Carolina, was ad- 
drewM "P. M.. please to inqnire of a 
collard Kenllemnn l>y name of Mack 
Henry. Hilliard. N. Y." 

Probably two of the most uniqne siwci- 
mens of the "nn-Lont Art" are of the 
following : 

Mr. Wilfred . New HnvcD, Coun.— 

PI411H0 deliver tbiff to tlie nirner and oblvdgp, 
an I do not know tbe lost psrt of lifR oome. 
He miiil!i hu lottrm in tbe New Haveu Poftt 
ofllco. Thi^ contoinit n letter that Iwlongs to 
Ibis paily. 

The other, of which the person ad- 
dressed conld not tnithfally say after 
Dryden, "The welcome message made 
was soon received," read as follows : 

roslDiaster, pleaao deliver this letter to my 
•on, who workH on tbe railroad. He drives o 
yoke or red oxen and a railroad pawe« tbrough 
hi* place. 

It would seem from these extracts that 
illiteracy is by no means at a dittcount 
in some parts of this country, and that 
painstaking on the part of correajiondents 
is on the wane and far from becoming a 
time-occupying pnrsuit. 

Money— Various Nolions as to What It is 
and Isn't. 

A London jiaper, 7'irf BHn, recently 
offered a prize for the best definition of 
"monty." Hurry E. Baggs won with: 

" An article which may be used as an 
unirertinl passport to everywhere except 
Heaven, and as an universal provider of 
everything except happiness." 

The following is a selection of some of 
the best deAnitions submitted : 

'■ The reward that sweetens labor." 

"Money is auidol worshiped in every 
clime without a single temi>1e." 

"The best microscope for finding rela- 
tionship with." 

" 'Tis a bee that stores honey, if you 
know how to use it : but it stings, aud 
then wings, if you only abuse it." 

" The only commodity that remains in 
fashion from generation to generation." 

" The father's independence, the moth- 
er's satisfaction, the sou's snare and the 
daughter's blessing." 

" The guerdon of industry, the vrill-o'- 
the-wiflpof indolence, the servitor of love, 
the «inews of war, the good man's portion 
and the bad man's idol." 

"That which every one desires to ob- 
tain in order to have (he pleasure of part- 
ing with it." 

"The 'counters' u^ed in the "ame of 

" Money to man is like water to a plant . 
only useful as long as it promotes and 
facilitates growth : like water in the 
fountain or water in the tank, keep it 
flowing and it blesses, keep it sUgnant 
audit injures," 

"The world's passport to everything 
but health." 

Commercial College Work at the 
World's Fair. 

Jfnfd.Ifyou pk-aw. Miss Wabash of Cbi- 
csKO has just raltrd. 

mss Athtnia H»hhs (of B4M00I : Take the 
parrot om of the rxvini. Anast*si«. heton you 
«how her lip I Jo not wish tbe bird to aixiuirr 
any pmviQciA) rxpretwoDs. 

I BE oimt A i 

MR. S. S. PACKARD, chairman of 
the committee which is looking 
after the propoia^l exhibit of bnM- 
new college work at the Wtirld's Fair, 
makes an interesting statement with ref- 
erence to the plans of the committee as 
outlined to date. He says : 

Tbe vducationnl ezhlbiU will be on tbe 
ground floor of tbe Main Building, which has 
been nxngntrd totbe Liberal Arts andtoMnnU' 
facturtM. Tbe space awarded for tbix purimsu 
is about tiOO.OOO »iiuare feet. Of Ibis floor sur- 
face Dr. Pe^body roughly estimatw that LV), 
000 feet will tte required for St*tr esbibiU, 
leaving, my, .W.OOO feet for sufbsnrcia) depart- 
ments of iDslTuctton as can best oe given in a 
eiogle ezbibit— viz., kindergarten, manual 
traiaioe. (rsdu scbooU, bustuoss colleger, etc. 

One difficulty which toe managera have eo- 

Dumber of eoomiiltMK. nppotnted by tbe Bu&i- have different tUvs w4 
one Educators' .\.<«ociatina who should fmas ~ 

upon Ibe •lualiBcattons of rtudentji applying 
tor place* in the exhibit. Ev^ry student who 
bao uudersraduateond in actual attendaooe 
upon «>me businan college or commercial de- 
partment should be eligible to mcb a ponition 
upon a proper certiScate of attaiameut iwueil 
by any one of tbe i-oramittecsL The oertitlcate 
tbus i>(sued tibould call for the highest qualifl- 
catiitns, lioUi as to knowledge and arti.«tic 
work, uid idioald be recognittd by tbe buianne 
edurat'irs and the cotsmunlty as of supreme 
value; and the pupils of the different schools 
•ih mlti l*v encouraged to apply for theiw certifl- 

thought of tbe Mntnij la all tbe linM 

*4 apart f< 

imodate these oxiMiDg* 1 

t for thmv different 

permanent Memorial Art Palace 

erecte.1 oil tt..- ^h>'f>■ ..f Ijiko Mi,lil»:ni 
tbe be«rr ■'* '•'.■■"'■ ..»...-i. ,.,ii i„. .v 

SitiOD -' 

halb»T I 

the expoMtion. The manager of the ezbihit 
should be mpplied with thenamwof accrvdlte<l 

rial dars, one to 
. and dl^cuwiions 

- — — connected with 

butdnesn college work, and the other dny to be 
known as Alumni Day, to t»e set a|iart to the 
graduates of budnew ei>Ueges who slrnll t>re- 
wot tbemeo of prMeot Intenst more orV»s 
connected n-ith or inspired by the e<lucntiun 
received from the schools. It is pro|Hwed to 

I suggestion of its character and efficiency. 
Tbe graded school system, for iostaoce, is our 
educational crown of glory ; but how can the 
graded system !«c presented to the eye— how 
made an exhibit that shall not only instruct by 
carefully studying ite proceiwes. but attract the 
casual viiitor ( ()ne mggesttou has been to ex- 
hibit a series of schoolrooms, with modern 

chool furniture aud appliances. But empty 

Ir-sign — can give no aue- 
ili.) work done therein, 
interest* of the furniture 
' iiltxiuately give tbeim- 

force. And in order 

these candidates, it would lie well tbat each 
, should indicate tbe exact tlnie when it might 
bent answer bis purpone to bo drafted into the 
work. It is presumed that the great detire to 
be uresent at the exposition, and the honor 
conrcrred on individuals by being designated 
to p«sitif)na in the butineffi college exhibit, will 
maxe sure of a constant supiily of good work- 
ers to 611 all the places required, from the be- 
ginning to the end of the exposition. It is also 
suggested that an appropriate medal be pre- 

unrk of honor by busine&« ^ucators and tbe 
busioea conununitv. 

for theee days the ripest 1 

1%-enieoceof specialty, aud to have the »uhjTCta m> clearly 

could be thus sattsfac- 

tho real working of a graded school with its 

tests and its outcome could " 

torily shown. It would l"- li 

atthel»est.. This woiiM 

however, of a kluder^'i. 

working mntcrlal coul.l 

iiKni toucliiiic a [)rO|HT biisiuesi 
it. Tbe tii-Mt tbougbt was to at- 
working achool, witli teucbersand 

MltlHMiKh il w..nUl 

honii a|i|mrent. The 
I H lack iif Npnce. for 
e necessary to supply 

P"l>il- "I"' " I ■■■ 

of business college work according to the 
plans which are here indicated. It is calcu- 
lated that a,000 wpiun- feet of lliiur su'faco will 
be sutbcient. aril] < ii;i_ini.(n lia>^ t)een re- 
ceived which f^iMi ir riii .1^ in working 
upon this ex[>e(i i; I i: .1 [.roportions 

of this space CHI ■. i.uttheplan 

contemplates, m ri,. iii-in .j the de|)8rt- 
meuts, sufficient wall spaie to give a fine ex- 
hibition of specinieuK of penmauttbip and pcu 
work, of all grwies, from practical writing 
and off-hand nourishing up to tbe flnest pen 

ambition aud permnal advantage to the fur- 
therance of tbe general cause. What js'dmired 
to be impressed upon observers, is the work 

which is being done by th-- 1 imiii> n i ii . ii. >..)■. 
of tbe country There wih i . i, m 

op|Mirtunity for tbe iudivii ■-.■^w 

their w'parate work umli 1 | [i- 

. . . It is p."OIK)Sni t I I III 

partments, properly labili 1 1, I. rl;. ^lulKiin 
of Sfhoul work, wbichshnll < ..iii|i[ k. l- .us m 

peuuiuu'jbip, farms of busiri' -' I l>- m.i Ihim- 

ness pajwr, and all that culi 1 - mi', ili. '.w iit^ii 

r of shorthund and typewriting 

iif *li.irtbaud work aud tbe 1 

fvj. .^^ rtt'T- r-iiri bo mode in . ., 

There should be an uppor 

sented to the eye, there are few intelligent 
people who would not be intiirested in the fin- 
ished product of the schools, both in the shape 
of artistic ivork and in the application of the 
school methods to real business. 

■ I I 'i>" li'adingsystems of sborthnnd 

I' ' ill iiy experts in taking down from 
'h ' .' I 11 i">tli upon paper and the blackboanl, 
n? <il>-. ..1 Uirj leading typewriting machines U> 
Hurk under the hands of expert operators. 
A constant interest can be kept up in this de- 
partment which will be attractive, even to a 
superHi'ial ob!^c^ve^, aud at the same time 
satisfv tb'^ mnr.' tli,.iii;htfnl and critical. 

Tlifi'i- -t Ill I"- -MlHi'ient floor space to ac- 

iu ogwrotlon ii 
teacher who has had auy experience i 

the progressive business colleges; and 
teacher who hat ' ' 
department of < 

""■•■ I ■"- lueunanciai 

worK or men M,ni. . -1 ,\.\.-\ „i<_ comprifiinc 

tborecorjlsui u...,™i..,„.,.u.lall the details 
of omoe duties, iiiiJuaiiig business paper and 
vouchers of whatever sort., correspondence, 
etc.; there should be the transportation office, 
complete in all its functions ; the post, office 
aud kuch other offices and departments cover^ 
iug flnancifll operations as would exhibit in the 
l«^C form and manner the practical ability of 
studentK trsined in the business colleges and in 
commercial departments of the higher schools. 

lu addition to this there should be a depart- 
ment of correspondence, with a sufficient num- 
ber of stenographers and typewriters kept 
constonUy at work in the real correspondence 
which tbe perfect working of the offices would 
require. Tbe fltting up of these offices, while 
It must be in accordance with the general plan 
of the ozpreiiion. ^lould be of the mntt modem 
style, and supplied with all the labor-saving 
expedients and appurtenances in vogue in the 
best business offices of the country. 

A Lmrgr VUrteal Corpa Xrrramarp. 

In order to moke this pliin effective it is es- 
timated that from twenty-flve tn forty clerks 
bookkeepem aud assostantji would be required' 
and these coukj be readily supplied frwm the 
different i<-b«)o1s, under proper restrictions. 
For instance, it is e«tinuitMl that there are in 
*">» "l^neascollegesof thecuuntrv fromfiOOOO 
to .5.000 pupils. Of these, possibly one-fourth 
would be sufficiently advanced in their work 

A Largr Sum of Monty NerdrH. 
Itbaslieen estimated roughly that to put 
such an exhibit into operation aud to C'>ntinne 
duriug the entire progres* of the exposition will 
require from $10,ft« to $30,000. uo^aibly more, 
and thb money must, of coun*. be* contribute*! 
by th'«e who feel o sufficient interest in thn 
matUr to help secure itA fullest success. From 
9 already had from vnriousquor- 

where opportunities will tie given for the < 
fereot department'! ut edu< 

understood m advance as to secure an Intellf- 
geut discumion of tbe various tonics that are 
presentecL It is the purpose of the cxiiusUion 
management to secure such roport« of them 
congivsM'N in tbe papem, addrvsxni and dl»- 
cusaions as may b© appruprfatelv prcwrvrd in 
a seriefi of volume*, which it is oii-oumed will be 
the most permanent outcome of the intulUn^lual 
l>art of the great exiMsition. 

ThkJoursai- devotes a litrge space to 
the above stntettient for the reason that 
it is a matter which appeals to every 
commercial school proprietor and teacher 
in the country, hs well as to the more 
ambitious students in attendance at such 
institutions. Mr, Packard invites sug- 
gestions as to the plan ontlinetl, criticisms, 
new ideas, etc.. from the profeAsion at 
large, promising to ombody them in 
the report he will make at the B. E. A. 
meeting in July, iu order that the impor- 
tant matter of the exhibit may be viewed 
in every light and carefully weighed as 
to every detail before the plans shall be 
finallv and definitelv formulated. 

A Hair Turned the Scale. 

•■ As fine as a hair" could well Ih- the 
praise accorded the wonderfully delicate 
weight tester for coins at the Mint. As 
the coins run down into it through the long 
spout, the tester needs to balance them 
but for an instant, immediately shooting 
those tbat are not found wmitiiig into the 
expectant uiid open-mouthed «»t:k ut thn 
end of u lower spout. If t(Ki light, they 
are tossed out through another Bixnit, and 
if too heavy, through a third one. Not 
long ago an astonishingly large number 
of coins were tortsed into the " too-heavy " 
spout. Surprised at this unusual rejec- 
tion of so great a load of the silver pieces, 
investigation was instituted; when, lo I 
it was found that a single tiny hair 
caught in the scales had made over- 
weight for every coin paNsed through.— 
Philadelphia Record. 

JUST FOR !•( N. 


When a man buys a porous planter lie goner- 
ally sticks to his bargain. 

ft takes more religion to hold a man level in 
a horse trade than it does tomnkubinisbout at 
a camp meeting. 

Of two women, choose the one Lbatwill have 

of what has t>een 

men t of Liberal Arts. In addit .. 

nroposed to take our appropriate place in the 


work will doubt for a 
t tbat all the material that will l>e re- 
quired, and even much more than is neces- 
sary, can be constantly furnished by the dif- 
ferent schools which will be in operation dm-- 
iug tbe progress of the expoaitii 

e a Jewel," said the guxhing young 
girl; "and I'm going to have you 
And theu he quietly took ber in hi* lap. 

" Did the plumber come down to innpoct the 
pipes tbis morning (' "Yes- "What did be 
say I" " He Raid there was nothing the mat- 
ter, but he oould soon remedy tbat." 

" Johnny," said the minister, aeverely, '* do 
vou know where little boys who nwim on Sun- 
days go ! " 

" Oh, mo»t any place where they ain't Ilkelely 
to be nu wlmmcn paMin*,"waH Johnny's reply. 
— Waxhington tiUir. 

Stfker : "You h»ve been farming many 
years in this section and know the iH-cullarlty 
of tbe soil prettj' well ; what do you cmslder 
the hardest tbmg to raise on your farm f " 

MeekfT : " The money to run it."— Soj/on 

World's Congresses, which are t« be *o impor- quietly, 
taut a feature of the exposition. Under the -'"~~ 

able supervision of Dr. Bonney a plan has 
I»een elaborated for a ^ries of public meetingn 
under the title of Tbe World's Congre^M. 

tbrough tbe curtains into the n>ce*M where 
Ethel. Mr. Tompkins and little Eva Mt. very 

• dificu«lng I 

'Yeth'; thatb what vou w 
May I have 

ntillc T(Mnpkinth tbald. 

Ethel said, - You kin.' 


'^f^en/naM Qyttt Cl^cc. 


Free-Hand Drawing. 



No. 3. 

The circle in perspective is named " the 
ellipse." No circle, unless viewed from 
directly above, will preserve its perfect 
contour. It almost invariably ajii^ars in 
nature in form of the ellipse. To produce 
the ellipse, draw a horizontal line bisect 
with a perpendicular line extending a 
short distance above and below. Begin at 
the left end of horizontal line, draw a 
curved line to the top of perpendicular 
extending to right end of horizontal line. 
Continue to lower end of perpendicular 
and finish below and to the left. If lines 
are imperfectly drawn, do not erase t»i(i7 
completed, they can then be lightly erased 
and correction lines drawn. The incor- 
rect line drawn first will be a guide to the 

with pencil in one hand and eraser i 
other. To illustrate free-hand i 
ment. let us draw the "lish." 

Draw a firm, bold smooth stroke, about 
3 inches in length, to represent npper out- 
line of body. Then a similar stroke to 
represent outline of under side. Four 
short curved lines represent fins. Two 
small curves, small circle and dot com- 
plete the picture (flat copy). 

In drawing the drum the ellipse should 
be drawn first. No. 2. A short perpen- 
dicular line at left. No. 3. A short per- 
pendicular line at right to coiTespond 
with No. 2. Connect lower part of 2 ;ind 
3 by curved line parallel to lower side of 

•The Journal's" Writing Club. 

Dcsfsneil for Prlvaii? Learner*. 


At the request of many of the pupils 
who are pursuing this series of lessons, 
we present for this month's practice a few 
business combinations. If you have 
studied and practiced carefully what has 
been presented in these columns during 
the past six months, you will experience 
little difliculty in executing the work 
given in this copy. 

As this is the last lesson in the series, 
we wish to compliment our pupils on the 
splendid record they have made. We 
would like to give the names- of those 
students who have madi- ri.Mn;irk:iblf im- 
provement in their woilc but -.v- tb- \ -av 
numbered by the humbnU, wr h .n tb;it 
we should be taking t'ln murb ^t the 
Journal's valuable space. 

How many have practiced these lessons 
without turning in their work for criti- 
cism we have no means of knowing. We 
would be safe in saying that they are 
numbered by the thousands. 

G:::i:^C5^^^^*^Z^^^^g<^2>^ {C^iX^O^^^^^^^^^^^.:^^^ 

Ejjercises with AcGOinpanying Lesson by Prof. Patrick. 

correct line to be drawn afterward. This 
applies to tlie entire subject of drawing. 
Let us notice then the steps. First. — 
Sketch the picture lightly free-band until 
the correct form appears. Second. — 
Strengthen the correct lines. Third.— 
Draw correctly the other lines, using the 
incorrect ones as guides. Fourth. — Erase 
the incorrpct lines. After constructing 
the ellipse a number of times according 
to instructions above, and having acquired 
a knowledge of its tnie form, free-hand 
movement should be used exclusively in 
its construction. Practice will eventually 
enable one to draw it perfectly in almost 
any position. Do not depend upon a slow, 
cramped movement. Dr. Harris says : 
" Drawing (he should have included 
writing) is the only branch which is in- 
tended to cultivate skill in the hand and 
accuracy in the eye." This can never be 
accomplished by checking, dotting, or 
dividing into sections, nor by working 

No. 1. Begin a short distance within and 
draw No. 4, extending some distance. 
Make it parallel to 
No. 2. Draw No. 5 
same length as No. 
4 and parallel to it. 
Connect 4 md 5 by 
curved line, 6. par- 
allel to lower part of 
1. Draw two short 
perpendicular lines 
same length and par- 
allel to 2 and 3 and complete with No. 7. 
Numbers 8, 9, 10, 1 1 indicate the parts to 
construct next, while 12 and 13 indicate 
the drumsticks. Teachers will notice 
especially that figures indicating the 
order in which lines are to be drawn will 
greatly aid the pupil, for he is liable to 
become discouraged at the commence- 
ment unless he is shown what lines to 
draw first, and so on. 

To one and all we extend our hearty 
good wishes, and hope that you have 
taken as much pleasure in the practice 
of these lessons as we have in presenting 

Our College Currency is lithographed ou a 
fine article of hauknote jiaper, is beautiful in 
design aud Snish, and bas been expressly ap- 
proved by the U. S. Government, and its 
users therefore incur no risk. Circulars upon 

Addiess D. T. Ames, 202 Broadway, New 

Mouer Batty made. 

II. F. Delno & Co., 

Columbus, Ohio. 
Dkah Sib :— t bought a Lig'Titning Plater from 
your agent. Mr, Morrison, and made 845 in two 
weeds, plating tvatches, jewelry, table-ware, 
etc. I get all the work I can do. I have sold 
twoplafora. Enclosed find $I0. agent's price 
'-- tbcm. Ship by first CTprcsa. I want the 

Initials and End Pieces. 

^^^*iL. ^U ^^^ which behold 

'jj^TjE-'^ llr "°* beauty in il- 

'™* ^IlL^ lustration are but 

nts to an 
brain ; they keep 
up appearances, 
but are of lit- 
tle value as com- 
municators b e - 
tween the worlds 
of matter and 
ideas. They, like other organs of sense, 
are capable of cultivation. Then how 
necessary it is that we develop observa- 
tion, acquire the ability to see and see 
minutely, and form the habit of observ- 

Drawing is but recording one's observa- 
tions ; then, first of all, let us learn to ob- 

End Pieces and Tail Pieces are the same, 
and are those found at the end of an ar- 
ticle, chapter or book. 

H— ' "■ '-' '^" 


Like Initials, they may aid the accom- 
panying text in exiMessing ideas, or they 
may be mere ornaments, wholly inde- 
pendent of the test and in no way related 

They may tell their own tale, sing their 
own song, arouse a sense of love or hate, 
hope or de.»ipair, or relate adventures of 
the most daring or ridiculous kind, as the 
rtist wills by the agency of the pencil or 



al to accompany 
Scrolls. Now get 
■^ to pose while you 

mouth brings to 
view the work of 
some young pen 
worker whose ef- 
forts are above 
the average, this 
month in A. N. 
Daniels, whose 
initial begins 

night he 


omy, but is com- 

meudable as it is. 

Some of our o^vn work 

is not free of faults in 

this respect, as will be 

VEN Mr. Holt 
finds time to con- 
tribute something 
each month. Be's 
a busy young 

; still 


(Tn tw 

better, he 


sketching KonieChing, al- 
ways observing.always try- 
ing to get closer to nature, 
the foundation of fine art. 

The figure might be im' 
proved by fewer s b o rt 

I am very much pleased 
with your papT ; it hati 
been a gi-eat help to me in 
my writing- I only wish it 
cemo weekly instead of 
monthly. Yours truly, 

:, Tei, 




Teaching Children to Write. 

manablp for Piibllr KCbooU. 

.lOfBNAL— NO. 7. 

FittfiT TKAR rtrrit wepk. 


I hoiH- that yon have not neglected the 
hiin<l drill ilhiHtratfd in the December 
numlMT. The chihlren »hcmM have a few 
itiinnti'H' practice rrvry tinjf. varj'ing the 
exercines and iHwition »(i Jw not to become 

Review la«t leiwon on the conHtniction 

(Hniil.VKiK) of the ttmall yfy- ^""^ 

t-acbers prefer giving the elementit and 
principled a name which means «ome- 
thing t« the child— that is, a terra which 
the form itself Hnggeiita, snch ai " lower 

turn "for l^.- . inHtead of first prin- 





of hccond principle. The only objection 
to Kuch namea ia that they are inaccurate, 
and niiiHt at flome future time be dis- 
carded for terniH more accurate, but per- 
haps, on the whole, they are earlier for 
little children to leani. and I will give 
both ways of designating the parts of let- 
ters. Practice tho small i a great deal. 
As stated in la.'»t article, the lines of which 
it i» composed, with the left curve, are 
the biiHis of writing. 


/y "Isit pointed at the bottom 

^ like this one ? " (Fig. 38. ) ' ■ No. 

^f it is round. " " Yes. it tuma at 

the bottom, so we call it a • lower turn." 
Be very careful that yon do not make 
yours sharp like this one." (Erase Fig. 
:J8. I do not believe incmrect forms 
should remain in view of pupils only just 
long enough for them to see the contrast. 
as it may l>ecome fixed in the " mind's 
eye.") Practice two or three minutes on 
lower turn. 

"Look, children! Is tiiis 

(Fig. 39) like the one we have 

J/ just been making?" "No, it 

ia upside down." (Make these forms on 

the board two or three inches high.) 

" How many would like to know the 
name of this? We called the other a 
' lower turn ' because it turned at the bot- 
tom. Does this turn at the Ixittom?" 
" No, it turns at the top." ■■ Yes. and we 
call it an u/pprr ^/rH. What is it? How 
many are going to try real hard to remem- 
berthatname? Letussee if wecanmake 
some lower turns." Count one two, ox up. 
down, quickly. Practice two or three 

Hand-drill exercises 3") and ;i6. about 
five minutes. "What is this, children ? 
(Fig. 39). What is the first line? lathe 
first line made upward or downward?" 
If they do not understand, change torm of 
question: "Do we begin at the top or 
bottom to make a left curve? What is 
the other line?" Make strokes separately, 
then join them, and have them practice 
the same way. Count as for lower turn. 
Is this right, children ? 
^ (Fig. 40). Be very careful 
"'' " that you do not make yours 
ay" (erase). 

How many upper turns are in it? How 
many left curves? How many right 
curves? How many strmigbt lines? How 
many think they know how it looks? 
(Ernse) Now. who can tell me how to 
make another n ? What must I make 
first ? What muist I make next ? Is it 
finished now? What else must I make?" 
Repeat this operation until they can 
readily tell »on its construction. They 
will soon learn it. and when they do. they 
will never forget it. The form of that 
letter will l»e indelibly fixed in their 
minds, and they will go alxint teaming to 
execute it intelligently. If you can use 
some illustration, such as comparing the 
upper turns in the n with a mouse's ears, 
as we used the grasshopper in connection 
with I. all the letter. 

" Illustrative examples arc necessary to give 
reality ooil force to l«ssi>DS. Any illustratiou 
or experiment that will tlx a principle is n 
meann of cultivating judgment and observn- 
tion."— 7>acA^rj' World. 

Send one-half of class to the Iward 
and have them practice five minutes on 
the forms they have had. Teacher calling 
for the different forms, Same with the 
other half of the class. Return to seats. 

Hand-drill exercises 36 and 41. Prac- 
tice n two or three minntet<, revie\viug 

Look, children ! 




oonstmction hiive them practice making 

— - , ■ — "Is this right, chil- 

yKy\y dren? (Fig. 4J<.) What 
0- It is wn>ug? See that 

you do not make yours that way." If 
they do not seem to understand the 
motion have them make it in the air. fol- 
lowing your motions. 

(7b V fontinue^i.) 

In a Western City. 

We subjoin a clipping from the luinnal 
reiwrt of the Superintendent of Schools 
in the city the i>enmanship department of 
which has been so ably presided over many 
years by our eminent co-Ialwrer. D. W. 
Hoff. The methods of such teachers are 
well worth our study. 


In a branch of learning which has to do 
so materially with the life work of all as 
that of writing, certain things should be 
emphasized. and readiness of move- 
ment are more im|H>rtant than labored 
accuracy, and the quality ia an important 
factor in the amount of work done. Com- 
plete example in writing and intelligent 
embodiment of such form through the 
skill of the pupil is eminently desirable. 
Mr. Hoff, the superviaor of i>enmanship, 
is putting commendable stress upon these 
essential features: his system is gJiiniug 
creditable recognition abroad as well ii> 
at home, and reflects credit ui>on out 
system of schools. In connection wilh 
other special lines of instruction of etiunl 
merit, I have the honor to sxibjom the 


>hii). ill thf luu-t ru.^t uf tiuir ai, 
cal ettort. 
To this end we teach the pupil.s 

prerequisites of «Mii(i [(fiinijiii-. 

first. con-.Tt ...|,i,.^ T„l ■ I, .1, 

tions of I. It I ■ ■ 111, ,„, ,1 

Vie. :»■'>. 
Hand drill and practice on exercise 35. 
counting quickly for each stroke, the chil- 
ilreii making them with a free, easy swing 
of the arm half across the slate or paper, 
(tive attention each lenson and through- 
out the lesson to three p<')iuts regarding 
position ; Iwdv, Iwok or slate, and hand. 
Body erect, slightly right-oblique, feet 
Mjuarely on the fliwr : book slanting or 
obliquely on desk : hand sliding on tips of 
third and fourth fiugera (no other part of 
the hand touching desk or slate): wrist 
level and raised so that a ruler couldslide 
under it. (Jo to each child individually 
and ciirrect his iKuition. If you find that 
they iK?rswt in dragging the side of the 
band and wrist on the desk or slate have 
them place pencils on desk and review 
lesstui three, first week. Vary the move- 
nu>nt^ and exerx-ises with a view to en- 
forcing and training in correct jiosition. 
(live more attention to this subject from 
this time on. but do not criticise so se- 
verely that the children become nervous 

Hand-drill exercises 36 and 41. por 
exercise 41 count about twelve strokes 
for one. then have them make a new one 
Free, easy movement, hand in correct 
position, alwut one in,-h long. Count 
iliiickly for all exercises. •■ What is this 
children ?•• (Fig. 30). Practice three or 
y^P^// ^""^ minutes. " Look. 

^__/r„4^_ what is this?" (Pip. 

■^/ 2 42). (Souieof them will 

probably know. Teach the name.) Have 
them try to make it for a few moments, 
then ernse the right curve and ask them 
what is left. If they do not see. erase one 
part and ask them what is left, then add 
the same part and they will readilysee that 
there are two " upper turns." Then add 
right curve and practice remainder of 
lesson, " How many upper tunis? How 
lower turn s? How mauy sharp 

I»oints? Is this one 


What is 

-? -^ 44.) Teach 

Have them try to make it for a few mo- 
ments. Have them make it "in the 
air." following your motions made hack- 
ward. If teachers who experience diffi- 
culty in tracing tlie lines of a letter in 
the air backward will make the letter 
very large on the hoard at the back of the 
room it will be very easy. 

Hand-drill exercises 35. 36 and 41, m. 
on the board. Have them look at it care- 
fully, erase and call upon some one to 
tel! you how to make another one. 
Teach the construction just as we taught 
the construction of h, by erasing parts, 
building up, asking questions about the 
number of upper turns, lower turns, 
points, left curves, right curves, etc. 
When they thoroughly understand the 
construction of the letter have them prac- 
tice on the upper turn (second principle) 
five minutes and the m the remainder of 
the lesson. Call 
attention to this 
4' J" fault (Fig. 45) jiH 

we did 71. Do not neglect iwsition. 

„ , , '"" "*'* FOUM STUDIES. 

Hand-drill exercise 46. counting one. jhe ultimate aim in form study is 
(CO. three for each line, or nlide, down, store the mind with accurate concepts 

•i little value, 
■iisions and relations 
Ls. by comparison, by 

third. det-HMli Kii.nv |. .1 :■■ . .1 1 ||, |,,.„-, ..V 
of constniitinii : i..iirtii, liomi niatiTuil ■ 
fifth, a position whicb will admit of the 
freest poi^sible action of the writing 
ugtli. pre- 

cles consistent with 

.11 jnid J.n.lily comfort ; Hixfii, favo 

iri'iifil .111.1 physical conditions ; o 
h, ili..iMii-li ineutal diHcipline ; 
1 - 1 ' II I 1 n 1 1 1 1 i;4'-nt and aystenn 

Hand Drill— Practice oxercisi- :J6 with 
easy swing of the arm half acr<»!>s slate 
or iwper. tvunting one, firo, /Anv. Five 

7~7 ■WhHtistlii»,children?"(Fig. 

fe^-*^'-^ "If yon prefer lower 

■^^ turn" say we have another 
name for it." 

Hand-drill exercises 36 and41,re%'ie 
small I. upper turn and n. practice on i 
few minutes. *' L«x>k. children, what 
this?" " M." '• Look at it carefully. I a 
going tn'rub it out and then a^k s<mie oi 




xlidf. making them on the board as you 
count. Make the lines about half across 
slate or paper. Five minutes to this exer- 
cise. Review construction of m. Practice 
up|)er turn and m. Write the three let- 
ters I. II. m. Select best two or three 
slates and show to class or hang on the 


Haud-dfill exercise 46. Review and 

practice lower turn. Review and prac- 

" Look, children. If 
we rub out the dot 
and make another 
lower turn joined to the i. what letter do 
we have?" (Fig. 47.) Teach name, form 
and constmctioD. as in preceding letters, 
by erasing parts, building up, asking ques- 
tions abont the numl)er of lower turns, 
right cur\es. etc. "Has it any left 
curves? Has it any turns at the top? 
Has it any jioints at the liottom? How 
many straight lines?" 
When they thoroughly understand the 

\V. T.-,,, Ii til. .Iiii: 

of letters i.y ajiafys , .„^_ 

association and by monograming. W 
teach construction by building, by di 
ing or by writing the exercise in the i 
euce of pupils, together with verbal 
plauations and instmctions as to 

til it betoim-.- a thiuK of habit. 'J bi- i«). 
.fition refiuired for bmly (front), feet. 
amis, hand and twiper are the same 
throughout the graaes. 


For the first two years we tench 
" finger" movement. We then introduce 
the "muscular." The effect of the effort 
to a«Jopt the latter after having i-stab 
lUheii the fonuer ref.iiltM in the haniton i- 
ons blending of th»- two. This "com- 
bined" movement is continm-'l tbrongb- 

-"tye/u/iarvd Q:7UL<:ifoia/ui:W 

forward and backward, straight or rotary 
arm Tibrations. in running combination 
with lateral foreanu 8weei«. together 
vk-ith a sympathetic action of the fingers : 
the forearm restine- upon its flexible mus- 
cular pivot. Thus is united the strength 
of the arm and the nimbleness and shap- 
ing power of tliH fingers, without an ex- 
cessive use of either set of muscles ; the 
culminating iwint in true movement cult- 

During my first year in the Des Moines 
schools I found it necessary to do " foun- 
dation " work in all grades. The work of 
tlie first four grades, for the first half 
year, was essentially the same, as was also 
that of the last four grades. Since then, 
however, the work has been gradually 
pushed down, until now each school is 
dniu- til. I.citimntp work of its grade. 

('Ill Mini I 11 hi niir first grade at the age 
,,t M\ 'lli> \'-.y\ >;pent in graile one we 
cnii^ulM III' iiiitst critical period in a 
pupil - ixiM iiriiLi so far as i)enmanshipis 
cucc«.riied. It is Hit- habits there formed 
which effectuallv facilitate or im- 
pede his future progress. The efEect of 
wroug habit once established is too well 
understood to need cdiiiiiunt Rtbcf can 
only be found in a lu.'tlK"! \\ Inch i^irvents 
their taking root, or in ;i rnHiniunu.-- ap- 
plication of counterartint; r.iii. liio. ine 
former has been found Uj bt. by far, the 
more effectual. One year of prevention 
is worth three of the most persistent cor- 
rection. First impressions are the most 

"We learn to do" {properly or im- 
properly) "by doing." Both correct and 
iuci.rrect habits are established by repeti- 

1. Movement exercises on same sheet, 
but separate from paragraph or quota- 
tion, will be admitted. 

2. In the first, second and third grades 
form only will be considered. Above 
those grades form and movement will 
have equal weight. 

McCoNNELLSViLLE, Obio. March as, 1«W. 
PnoK. J. C. Witter. Bridgeport, Conn. 

5(> ; \ notice in your department of 

PbnmakV Art Jodhnal this month an 
offer or students' certificites to pupils of 
public schools, (1) and I write to ask if 
the offer ia free, (2) and to pupils under a 
special teacher of penmaoflhip ? 

.(3) Also if it is the best two from all 
jou receive of a certain grade you select to 
give the certiScates, or two from every 
grade in all public schools sending; (4) and 
if the offer includes the first and high 
school grades ? 

(.5) I presume jou will think me inquisi- 
tive, but may 1 u^k what system of draw- 
ing you use in your public school work ? 

It affords me great pleasure to further 
add that the articles you have been fur- 
niehing the Journal have been of great 
interest and benefit to me. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Anna M. Hai,i.. 
S-pcdal Teacher Pmtnamhip and Drawing, 
Public Sc/iooh, Malta, Ohio. 

1. Tlie offer is a5»o/u(e?ff/ree. 

2. Pupils under a special teacher will 
be allowed to compete, but we may find 

Keller writes, excellent, and we hope to 
see the day when all applicants for 
positions as teachers will be required to 
pass a similar examination. Then we 
will cease to be a '' nation of scribblers : '" 

1. Define muscular or combined move- 

2. What do you mean by business writ- 
ing y 

3. Give complete analysis of small a. 

4. Name the letters that are two spaces 
above the baseline. 

.'). Write the capitals that you use in 
the schoolroom. 

fi. Give the position of the pencil in 

7. Give the position of the pupil at the 

8. How do you give the first lesson on 
the capital stem ? 

9. What time do you think best for a 
writing lesson, and why V 

10. Write a sentence and apace it off. 
or write the sentence as though on staff- 
ruled paper, keeping the proportion of the 

Min and Muscle Writing Books. 

The editor of our Public School Dept... Mi-. 
J. C. Witter, sends us a set of his new series 
of " Mind and Muscle Penmanship, Exercise 
and Composition Booh for Schools." We have 


Every 8ul»orlber for Thk .Ioohnal «l t] 
prtoe of one dollar Is entitled to oholw of tl 
rollowlnK vaUmljIo itremlums free : 

Works of Instruction in Penmanship. 

Ame** Guide lo NeK-lusirnctloa I 

heavy paper biodUiff. Price when sent other- 
wise than as premium: Paper, 75c.; cloth . .»1 
Ameat CopT-MlpR for Keir-lnntrucllon 
In Praclleal PenmaiiBlilp.^hls covers 
about the same ground as the Guide, but In- 

I of beJiiir lu I 

ible slips protti . 

venlent for practice. Full In 
lips, and the wh' 

jpe. This work 

Ittme sale independently c 

The Lord** Pravo 
Plourlnhed EaKle (24 3 
■ " " ennlal 

4iarHeld Meniorlai (19 : 
LIncola Euloey t^ x ;W 

rule Page for College Catalogue, 

tion. Hence the importance of allowing 
coiTCct habits only to take root. 

A series of lateral movement exercises 
has been arranged for the first and second 
t;ra.le^, tin- chu-f objects of which are to 
t,i,iiit:ii. ih. I. nhing of hand position, 
I,, i ,il motion, and for the 

^vi .jniient of script forms. 

Sn. I, 1:. I . I , n nf these exercises that 
;, |,i,.|,, I 1 1 |,i I. 111. Ill of movement in their 
i-\rf lit liiTi wiil I IIP the hand to a work- 
in ' l„-iiii ill .1 position which will admit 
uithr In r-i in^Mlilc actlon of the fingers 
and lun aim. cuut-istent with good results. 
When persistently carried out this plan 
effectually prevents the formation of 
habits of dropping the wrist or hand. 
D. W. HOPF, 

.Sf/»«*U(»or Penmanship Public School :i. 
West Des Moines, Iowa. 

Our Novel Offer. 

The number of inquiries we have re- 
ceived relating to our premium certifi- 
cate offer indicates that many teachers 
are interested and we hope to receive a 
large number of specimens from teachers 
and pupils. 

Thinking that there might be others 
who would like more information on some 
points we apperd answers to some of the 
general questions received and will be 
glad to answer any others. 

Manistee, Mich., 3. 29. 92. 

I am in harmony with vour competition 
scheme for Public ^' 1m '1 Oni.l.^- :iiid will 
send samples from ill i i : i ■ i ■ - 

1. Would you aiinni 'tm .M.'v.ment 
Exs. similar to anv •n a.- lu-i 4 -p. i mien'r 

•i. Will Form or Munuii.,,! LavL- the 
greater weight in the eyes of committee V 

Trusting your approval of the above, 
A. J. Cadman, Supervisor. 

it necessary to have two classes ; those 
under a special teacher in one class, and 
those without this advantage in another 
class. This arrangement would, we 
think, be fair all around. 

a. Certificates will be presented to the 
best two pupils in each grade, selected 
from all sent in of that grade in each of 
the two classes. 

4. The offer is open to alt grades, from 
first to high school inclusive. 

5. We have received so many inquiries 
similar to this one pertaining to the draw- 
ing, that we do not think an answer out 
of place here. There is no department of 
educational work which is being given 
more attention or more rapidly advancing 
in the estimation of educational authori 
ties than drawing, and there is a wide and 
comparatively unoccupied field opening 
to young teachers who \vill thoroughly 
prepare themselves for this work. 

We are now using in Bridgeport 
White's New Course in Art Instruction, 
published by the American Book Com- 
pany, 808 Broadway, N. Y.. which has 
only been out a few months, but has al- 
ready produced eminently satisfactory 
results, and is. we believe, the best as it 
is the latest, being the combined result of 
the experience of several prominent 
Massat-hnsetts supervisors of di-awing. 

Examination Questions. 
The questions below, by Miss Mary E. 
Keller of Duluth, judging from Nos. 8 
and 0. are intended for teachers' exami- 
nation. They are, as every thing Mise 

and retails at 10 

Mr. Witter also sendo «- v 

having the same general title. These 

; narrlasc Cer- 

Oxford Handy Helps. New Fremiums for 
One New Sub. or for Renewal. 

Most uf Thk .loi'RNAi. i>a(lfi> hii\>- doubtless 
beard of the ux(..r,i H.iniiy H<l|.s which have 

ciilatfon tnrough.iut thi- tnuntry, i-rum A veiy 

particularly in lu 
2.1 cents each, Fi 
lllndintr is in stiff paper, 
Ttie worts ore r ' 
amount of matter 
the pith mess of I 
whltin tney 

i each. Paper and i 

9 inches. 

which tho i;iii,i iiir- i"T(i v^(,|irated 
from the dross so I liiir •\-\\ ni\<- mjiiis. Our 

For twc 


>n« (SL 

we will 


will send the en 

r premium. 


'. the 


printed ia previous issues of The JouaNAi, 
ornacnental designs which were used for the 
covers of this work. The books are altogether 
the neatest and it seems to us the most prac- 
tical thing of the kind that we have examined. 
Therearefivein the series and they are laid 
out so as to lake the pupil when he first begins 
to hold a pfeDcil or pen and carry him through 
the entire course. For some of the special 
points of advantage in the series we refer 
Journal readers to the cut printed on page 6.*! 
oC last month's JouBNAL. 

One of the very strongest points of the work 
is its unique system of graded ruling, thus 
preparing the pupil gradually and progress- 
ively for plain ruled paper. In the primary 
book the base lines are red and there are four 
intervening spaces marked off by blue lines. 
These intervening space lines are gradually 
eliminated es the pupil learns to dispense with 
them until he reaches the plain ruled paper 
the advanced books of the 

li thv 

,ny In- 
that all 

The leaves of one style are perforated, 
euabliog the teacher to detach sheets for use 
uage exercises, compositions, spelling, 
that the child can have paper ruled 
the same way for all his work, which is a 
great advantage. If the teacher wishes all the 
leaves to remain for inspection the plain or un- 
perforated style can be used. 

Another point in favor of these books is 
their remarkable cheapness. The handsome 
bound book retails atonly a few centsand con- 
tains an amount of excellent paper that could 
not be purchased for that figure at retail. 

The number of the series will be 
fouud a very cheap and convenient penmanship 
pmctice book for business colleges. It con- 
----- thirty sheets of first-class paper, 8 1 103<, 

of character i 
ably djagnoscu u 
ing. but nothinir i' 

writioK will bo »\i\ 

graphy and tlif y 
support Th.. w'., 





sold apart from 

Rtmtmbtr thai any iubteriber at 9i, nrw or old, 
mav have his sheUt 0/ Iht aiovt book* or fiielure 
Srimiums FH£E. Premiums should it ordered 
when suit are tent- To any prettnt subteribtr viho 
will tend us on* NEW tub. (aot a rentval), we will 
rive ehaitt of aiovt books, etc., as hit s/eeial pre' 
mium : for two M£tV suit. ($»). we will give any 
three 0/ above premiums; for three NEW tubs. 

good in their way 

^o drawing l)ookB 
ine. These are as 
penmanship books 

BCBltlCN lb< 

reward the t 

peclal preiulun 
laKor or the Kiib«erlpl 
ibHcrlberit will aUo b 

I! \3* r yen/nan^ 



Telegraph and Telephone. 

The (iDc-fltion of gdvernnipm control of 
telesraph and telephouc ii« treated by 
the Hon. Walter aark. of the Supreme 
Conrt Bench of North Candina in the 
March Arena. He takes it for (franted 
that it ia a perfectly cnnntitntional thintc 
for the poet office to handle me»»iiges of 
this kind, and dwells more njKjn the 
cheapness and effectiveneiw of each nn in- 
stitntion : 

" Ever)- civilized country, with the sole 
exception of ours, ban lonjf since made 
the telegraph a jiart of it» ixwtal service : 
and in all it has worked siitiffactorily. 
The rates in Great Britain and Ireland 
are, like postage, uniform for all dis- 
tances and are one cent per word. In 
(Ji-rmany the rate in nbont the snme. and 
in Anstria less. In France and Belgi"!" 
the rnt* is under ten cents (half a franc) 
for ten words between any two points. 
No department of the post office in any 
country pays better than the telegraph. 
In most countries the telephone, too, has 
been added. It is very certain that the 
telegraph and the telephone, a.-* parte of our 
postal sen-ice, would not only wonder- 
fully improve the means of intercourse, 
but it is believed that n very cheap uni- 
form rate— probably five cents a mettfago 
—would pay a handsome revenue to the 
Oovemraent. In the presence of the ex- 
orbitant rates to which we are accuH- 
tomed, this will seem hazardous ; but re- 
flection will show that it is not. Tele- 
graph wire costs les* than eight dollars 
IKT mile ; polea in our countiy are not ex- 
I)ensive, the cn»t of erecting tlieni light. 
The chemicals for use in operating the 
wires are inexpensive. Where, then, is 
the coat V The Government pays freight 
to railroads, steamlwats and star routes, 
and sends letters across the continent 
at two cent.-*, and round the world for 
five centw. The latest Postmaster-Geu- 
eraVs report states that while, owing to 
the cost of heavy packages and matter 
carried free, there is a deficiency in the 
post office, yet on the carriage of letters 
there is a net revenue annually of *8«.- 
Odii.OOt). Why. then, is it chimerical to 
8)iy that messages sent by wire, at a cost 
of n few cheap chemicals and with no 
freight to be paid, would not jmy a profit 
at five cents per message of ten words? 
It may be noted that the telephone jmtent 
expires next March. Now is the time for 
Congress to adopt it for the i>ost office aud 
establish a telephone at every country 
post office. The advantages to the rural 
population would be umnifold. Phy- 
sicians could be summoned promptly for 
the sick. Witnesses and others sum- 
moned to court could be notified what 
day or hour to attend, and be saved nse- 
le«<ti hours hanging around the county 
court house. A telephone message to the 
nearest railway station would uscertain 
whether expected freight had come, and 
thefaruieT would be saved aneedlfss trip 
of his wagon over bad roads. News of 
approaching frosts could be ]>n^in]>lly 
distributed thnmgh the country dis- 
tricts and many a valuable crop saved. 
Thwe may seem homely pnr|>osee to 
dwellers in cities, but they will deprive 
country life of some of it8 drawbacks, and 
be a Uv>n toa iH^rtion of our jiopnlation 
who claim that they bear their full share 
of the burdens of gov»-nmient and receive 
less than their share of its lienetits. It 
comes, tot>, at a time when Ihey are dis- 
jxised to asftert and maintain their right 
to be better considered iu a distribution 
of the advantages of gi>vemmental favor. 
For this service, it might well Ite pro- 
videii that for telephonic messages within 
the County iv for a distance leas than 

fifty mil(«, the charge would be only two 
cents. A system similar to this now pre- 
vails in Aujftria and some other countries. 
The )>u»tmaster could verj- easily keep his 
accounts, either by the use of stamps or 
by a nirkel-in-the-slot attachment to the 
instrument. If the telephone is not 
now adopted by our Government, some 
gigantic corporation, some vast aj-ndicatc 
will be sure to utilize it. and when, here- 
after. Government shall Ije forced to take 
it up for the public serrice. Congress 
will be waive<I off as tresjiaHsing npon 
private and vested rights, as is already 
the case with the telegraph. 

Inside of Your Eye. 
" There is a strange cxi)eriment in 
optics discovered by Purkinja." said a 
young medical student to a friend re- 
cently. " In a dark room at night, move 
a candle backward and forward before 
the eyes, these being firmly fixed on the 
wall beyond. After a few seconds the 
air will assume a reddish appearance, and 
running over it in all directions may be 
seen the veins and blood vessels of your 
eye in hold relief, while from the center 
of the figure there rises up a dark trunk 
from which the veins branch out on all 
sides. The trunk is visible where the op- 
tic nerve enters the eye. and this experi- 
ment is chiefly interesting to the student 
as proving thot the parts of the retina 
which actually receive and jiroduce the 
sensation of light must He beyond the 
blood vessels, since these cast their 
shadow on to it, and we are enabled to see 
them as we see any other object exter- 
nally."— .Veic York Mai} and Express. 

Orif !■ of the Word " Dollar." 

P«ir permu bare ever IruoMed themndTCB 
to think of the derivation of tbe word dollar. 
It IK from U>e fi«>nnan thai ival1ry>, and t-amr 
into UM1 thin way mnw 3U0 yMn>i a£o. Their 
is a hitle stlver-niininK city or dii4rict io 
norUuTD Bohemia called Joachinistal, or Ji>- 
achifn'K Valley. Tbt* reigning duke of the 
region authurizud this city iu tl)e sixtn>nlh 
c«)tury to cfjin a silvt-r |ti« «• whii-b wns called 
"Joacbimstludi^r." Thi* w.ini " jimihiru" wbs 
soon dropped and Itie nanit< "IhaUT" only re- 
taiD«d. The piece vreat mtn Kem-ral iise in 
Uermaay and also in Denmark, where the 
orthography was cfaanged (o "daler," wbencv 
it camo into Engliiib. and was adopted by our 
torefalhiTB with txtme changes in the spelling. 
— i'«n Francifco Chronicle. 

Flrvt mm. 

Wry clu.i. 

Brnn.lT sni, 

Menu cm- 


All done. 

Hearse for i 

-N. 1 

'. Tribui 

Governor Russell's Quills. 

The Governor of this Commonwealth 
signs every bill with a quill. This isn't 
because he is fonder of that particular 
kind of a pen. but it is rather in obedi- 
ence to a well-established custom that 
has obtained with the chief magistrates 
of the last decade. There are always ■ 
few members of the Legislature that 
have the collector's passion, aud re- 
quests are regularly received by Private 
Secretary Roads from lawmakers and 
others for pens that the Governor has 
used for signing bills. Accordingly doz- 
ens of these quills are purchased ever so 
often, and the G.>vernor makes his sig- 
nature each time with a uew pen, which 
is carefully preserved and set aside for 
the next (luilMiunter that calls.— Bos/on 

One Man's History. 

a very bu«i 

Ue gave the meals he ate. 
i'or yeai> be laborvd on until 

He grew quite gray aud l>ent and old. 

But iun be lahore<l ou, 
S«<«iDg naught else l>e»idw the work 

He was eoRaged upou. 

Until one day the Angel Death 

^d : " Come '. you're past your prime. " 
•' n by. no." be nuinnurml, " i can't die 

I rtsally bavent time." 

— Somerrillr Journat. 

The trend of experimeut and discovery 
in electrical matters is to-day toward a 
solution of the problem of sending tele- 
graphic messages without wires, or. in 
other words, through the air, and even 
through substances. These discoveries 
have to do with electric waves or vibra- 
tions, and experimenters are hard at work 
to conquer and make use of the new phe- 
nomena. In this country Nicola Tesla, 
in England Lodge, and in Germany the 
scientist Hertz have all been experiment- 
ing. From n recent newspaper report it 
appears that Tesln has been able to dem- 
onstrate the power and action of these 
waves, and he recently brought the mat- 
ter Ijefore the members of the American 
Institute of Engineers. He made nse of 
a dynamo which produced waves of im- 
mense rtvpidity and high power. The 
current from the dynamo *vas led to two 
metal plates, so placed that one was on 
either side of the lectnre-room walls, and 
they were directly opposite each other. 
When the current was turned on it was 
discovered that the electric waves gene- 
rated by the dynamo were carried or prop- 
agated through the air of the room from 
one plate to the other, and without any 
communicating medium visible to the 
eye. such as a wire. Extraordinary re- 
sults were produced, which fascinated 
the spectators. They were witnessing 
something new. startling, perhaps almost 
appalling in its suggestive probabilities. 
When Mr. Tesla held in his hand the 
carbon filaments of an electric lamp so 
that a line drawn from one of the plates 
to the other would pass through the lamp, 
very brilliant incandescence was pro- 
duced. No metallic substance whatever 
connected the lamp with the plates. 
When he withdrew the lamp, so that it 
was no longer within range between the 
two plates, the light was extinguished 

From this experiment all sorts of possi- 
bilitie.s have been predicted, and a new 
era predicted for the commercial use of 
the valuable discovery. What has been 
done abroad in the same field may be 
gathered from t he February number of the 
Fortnightly lievtew: " Rays of light will 
not pierce through a wall, nor. as we 
know only loo well, through a London 
fog. But the electrical vibrations of a 
yard or more in wave-length, of which I 
have spoken, will easily pierce such me- 
diums, which to them will be trans- 
parent. Here, then, is revealed the be- 
wildering possibility of telegraphy with- 
out wires, posts, cables or any of our 
present costly appliances. Granted a few 
reasonable postulates, the whole thing 
come? well within the realms of ]K>ssible 
fulfillment. At the present time experi- 
mentalists are able to generate electrical 
waves of any desired wave-length from a 
few feet upward, and to keep up a succes- 
sion of such waves radiating into s|tace 
in all directions. It is poasible, too. with 
some of these rays, if not with all. to re- 
fract them through suitably shaped 
bodies acting as lenses, and so direct a 
sheaf of rays in any given direction : 
enormous lens-shaped masses of pitch and 
similar botlies have been used for this 
purpose. Also, an experimentalist at a 
distance can receive some, if not all. of 
these rays on a properly constituted in- 

strument, and. by concerted signals, mes- 
sages in the Morse code can thus pass from 
one operator to another. What, there- 
fore, remains to be discovered is : Firstly, 
simpler and more certain means of gen- 
erating electrical ra>-s of any desired 
wave-length. fn>m the shortest, say of a 
few feet in length, which will easily pass 
through buildinpi and fogs, to those long 
wavtw whtKH- length!* are measured by 
tens, hnudreds and thousands of miles : 
secondly, more delicate receivers which 
will restKtud to wavelengths between 
certain defined limits and l>e silent to all 
others : thirdly, means of darting the 
sheaf of rays in any de«ired direction. 
whether by lenses or reflectors, by the 
help of which the sensitiveness of the re- 
ceiver (apparently the most difficult of 
the problems to be solved) would not need 
to be so delicate as when the rays are 
simply radiating into space in all direc- 
tions, and fading away according to the 
law of inverse squares." 

XOTi:S .\NI) QlJKRli;S. 

IdoIoho « stamp wtieu yoii 

~Ui(ly poDiuausbip 
[I ; particula-'" 
if the peuinanship tencber requires the i 

nl ; particularly s 

""uires the ut© oi 

-L. M. KIkin. 

the '*mu»?ular 

Certainly not. The forearm or combined 
movement, ridiculously calle<l "muwiular," 
is commended by progrcs-iive writing teaeherK 
fur the reason that it ctmtributes to precisely 
thoiie end.1 thatare most valuable to the short- 
hand writer— accuracy, rapidity. Instead of 
retarding the progress of the »borthnodleanipr 
it ought to he of the icreateM oeaistauce to bim. 
AH»trer0 to ItuBtttfta I'robtrm; 

We thought our boys woulJ wake up oti tbe 
business problems recently proposed Iu tbJH 
column. Here are some of the ouswera re- 
ceived : 
fj-om Chas. F, HadHall, Davisvilh, Cat. 

Inclosed please find my answers to ■' Stmie 
BtisineKs PrubleuiK " in your March Journal : 

1. Stock. J 

Fixtures, - *4,000.00 

Accounts, I 

To A 2,000.00 

*■ B a.coo.ooM'" '«»",'*;i"f 

I A and B. 
B $3,000.00 

ToC 2.000.00 l^jJjJJJjY."'^ 

2. MdHB 10.00 

ToPriv'te Exp'so 10.00 

3. 1. Bills Rec. ItiS.OO :;. A....«45.00 

To A (H.OO ToMclBC....$2«.0ft 

a. Bills Pay.. ftS.OO 


equal division ot 

. . ___ should n 

rth fiM each 

•i. It is to be understood that the horse and 

wiitx-b buve been chargtd to P. Expend when 



To A 

3. A 

To Mdso . 

>r comniifwion. should there be i 
Auswent to bu)>inu« problemain 

Imoi and (}uin. . 340.2fl 

Ai.-(1) Ixwand (ioin..l,.^00.00f„^'5'""": 
,.,, . , \g. (^ f tlon of pai 1- 

CJ) A l.-VWOO 

To Cash .100.00 ( Ateloseof 

" Lf>«j( and flalnl.'HKt (10 f partnership. 
From T. T "'-7 „. /■, ,,--,r,„, III., B. C. 

In unsvM 1 II I I I .k t-ntrles in the 

March i-v-n. i i i ' ll')wiiig Journal 


come tl 

B. Or 

ToC Cr 

Perunal Exp< tmf, Dr 

Pillb I 

I tlie 

merely pri- 

fn M(Im- , 
Pillb Pa> ,Dr 

To C. Or. 

c/e/unan^ QytkCoJoiocAXilO 

From JV. A. DaviM, Milton, Oregon. 

In aoBwer to " Business Problems " in March 

1- Journal entry on tlrm books would be: 

IJ. Dr »a.000 

ToC 12.0(10 

Continue the books OS before. It the books 
are closed and a new set opened, as iutimated 
in questiun, tbere would be bo journal entry 
on books of A and B. and the slatemeut of 
Re»oun-es and Liabilities on opening books of 
A and C would give the necefsary record. 

The price paid by C to B (»3000) has nothing 
to do with the value of the business transferred, 
which is clearly stated in question as being 
one-half of M(lO0. or *2000. 

2. Journal entry on store books would be ; 
Personal Expense. Dr JIO 

To Merchandise *10 

The trading of private property for private 
useii has nothing to do with the books of the 

3. Journal entry would be ; 
Sundries, to Sundries. 

Bills Payable »"W 

To Mercbandise $2t* 

'■ A 20 

Con mis8iou 10 
iiO's and Oa n 

a«a Front street. 

Bills Receivable »S75 

Cash »18.7S 

Profit and Lois 350.41 

BilliPayable 365 

Profit and Lobb 10 

Bills Receivable 37& 


B 1.500 

A 1,500 

A 1,300 

Cash 500 

Ixjssand Gain 1.000 

While the last part of this entry shows a 
gain which was really a loss, still when the 
books are closed they will show a loss of $1000 
in B's personal account. 

This is the way I would make this entry if 
B look the money In pay A out of the busi- 
ness But if B poid A out of his own private 
funds, then the entry would be the reverse of 
the first part of this entry. 

were spared to address a hundred graduating 
classes I would say fir^t of all, " Lay broad 
and deep the foundation of character and let 
the cornerstone of that foundation be truth ; " 
it is the proper standpoint from which you 
should view life's work. Congratulate^our- 
selves that your lots have been cast in the best 
land on which the sun ever shone. It is the 
land where honest labor finds its just reward 
and where success is tlie guerdon of energy; 
where the mill boy of the slashes, with persist- 
ent effort, commands the applause of listening 
senates, and where merit wins its way from 
the rail-splitter's lot to the presidential chair. 
Through your veins courses the best blood in 
the world— the Anglo-Saxon, wiih its refining 
Norman strain ; its inmost quality is force 
and its brightest exponent is individuality. 
The crest of an old Norseman was a pickaxe 
and upon it was inscribed this motto: " I'll 
find a way or make one ! " That crest is yours 
by inheritance ; take it and use it for your own 
good, for the advancement of civilization and 
for the benefit f mankind 

Edmind C Atkinson 

who ai-e teaching what is eiisential to the liv- 
ing present live id the living present and ho 
Americans first, last and always, casting aside 
that which savors of humbug and bollowness 
— in a word, let us be businessmen and known 
as plain Fred White and 

R. J. Maclean. 
Com'l Depf., AlbiTt Collefie, Bellvvtle, Ont. 


lay I 

! of TBK FBI 

[Contribntlons for this Department i 

addressed to B. F. Kkl 

MAN'S Art Jocrnal. Brief 

The public schools of Minneapolis have '2[,- 
950 pupils. 

Comenius was once invited to Ijecome presi- 
dent of Harvard College. 

There were :f63,«35 public school teachers in 
the coxmtry last year. 

The school enrollment in the United States 
went from tt,H7I..V^-:> in 1S70 t.j 12.088,973 in 

Reduced fac sim le of a ne Ce I ft ate na i n The Journal opi e a d a 1 1 d to o erfe s e I si of blank Diplomas and Certifi- 
cates ca Tied n stock ns per a Ive t se ent o page 77 In ti e Certificate as ue car j it in stock there are blanks where the 
name of Graduate and no « of School appea m tie alo t also wl ere the words the Shorthand and Typewriting Depart- 

nent of occ r so that the Cert ficate n ay be used fo any Kind of a School tf o witho t specifying a particular course or 
d part e t Spaces for sig at res are Uso left enttiely blank so that the t ties a d n ber of signatures may be regulatcU 
bj every School using the des gn ft e f tl s zed deitig i is \Q x 1 i ches 

The payment to C was not made until after 
B's note was paid, therefore Or. " Loss and 
Gain" and not " Discounc." 
From t:. W. Hale, Waterbury, Conn. 
In answer to Problem No. 1, April Journal: 

Bills Payable $365.00 

Lobs and Gain 10.00 

Interest and Discount 18.75 

ToPasegate $18.75 

To bills Receivable 875.00 

From A. li. Lefever, Iowa Bus. Coll., Des 

Below please find Journal entry for your 
first problem in April number: 

Sunds. to Sunds. Dr. Cr. 

Bills Receivable $37.'i.00 

Bills Payable 305.00 

Pasegate $18.75 

BUls Receivable 355.00 

Loss and Gain ■156.25 

from C. L. Cooper, Sumner, III. 

I venture tojournalize the business prob- 
lems given in The Journal for April : 
First problem. 

Bills Payable $365.00 

Pasecat* & Co $18.75 

Loss and «ain ... 346.25 

^Opening) — Second probK-m. 

Merchandise 3000.00 

A 1500.00 

B l.'iOO.OO 


Mercbandise .500.00 

Cash 500.00 

his address explicit enough to insure the de- 
livery of a letter to him, we will try again at 
answering his inquiry of late dato. 


f "coining titles," re- 
vues of The Journal, 
iL-d with title prefixes 
iited with an educa- 


Fighting Zifc'a Battles— The Anfflo-Saaeon 

{From an Address to the Graduates of the 
Sacramento, Cat., Business College ) 
You are now fitted to go out into the world, 
to enter the arena of business life: to engage 
in the contest for honor, for wealth and for 
power. I assure you that it is a hard struggle. 
I enter into your hopes, your desires, your 
ambitions, and even your air castles, with the 
greatest interest — that interest which is alone 
begotten of experience. You are to go out to 
build fortunes. It is said that every man is 
the architect of his own fortune. He is nut 
only the architect of his fortune, but the 
architect of his character as well. Remember, 
young men, that no superstructure can stand 
unless supported by a solid foundation. If I 

Japan ba J8 UOl I 1 i by local 

i thor ty OOO f the e 1 l elementary 
rhe tea hers n be ob t ^000 a I the 

holars J 410 UOO or near } 1 alf the total popu 

ope ng of B own 

e number of g Is 
f the Pro^ dence 

1 I s hool B aidha ea -anged for 

classes u laund y work m 
b 11 at the gi I n av be t« gl t 

bmi. ad ug — / o •( Herald 

l eneral I-^ac T M stor of Philadelph a has 
/en *10f 000 to the Un vers ty of Penn^ylva 
* whereitith to bu Id a b olog cal and ana 

by Lord Salisbury Regius Professor of Modem 

last year they had o 

We are indebted to the Journal i 
cation, Boston and Chicago, for se 

1 American heiress. 

of another one, when you don't know how to 
spell the other one. "—Good Neivs. 

Teacher: " It seems you are never able to 
answer any of my questions. How is this, my 
little boy f " 

Little Johnny : "If I knew the things you 
asked me, madam, dad wouldn't go to the 
trouble of sending me here."— Harper's Ba- 

Wickers : " They tell me, professor, that you 
have mastered all the modern tongues.^' 

Professor Polyoot : " All but two — my wife's 
and her mother's." 

e : "Give it up, muh deah 
" Why, because he found — 

nameof his fathers, as is ili^ mi;jii \sIi.m n.^i;."'- 
in some mercantile pur^Ult ' It i-tni iln mun 
who knows his work thatsLi-k-.t..lii> tl^iU. ini bv 
sorae empty title, but the poor unioi-lunute 
who wears a big watch guard, a big finger ring, 
an eyeglass and an unstable head — these are 
the " profe&soi"s," professing what others know. 
We often give ourselves credit for our pure 
American ideas and for our dislike for the 
cobwebism of the Old World, but are not a 
great many of us too much title inclined and 
not enough plain American i It would seem 
that some are longing for the doy whentbey 
can call themselves Duke Blowhard, Earl 
Wholeai-m, Marquis of the Flourished Eagle 
or some other pompous title. Whatever the 
" classic-hall " man, the theorist of ages past 
and gone, or the bird flourisher and whole-arm 
ink slinger may wish to call themselves, let us 

actions speaking louder tha 

Adlel: " Wheuaman en! 

and accompanies his order V 

friends and nothing mon 
don," he said, refiectivi 
mind spelling that last v 

Farmrr : " Mister, you needn't show me any 
cyclopedias. My boy graduated from college 



PENMAN'S Art Journal 

f Vork 

Adwriitring ratn, yn e^nts prr wmpajrii 
Unr,$:i.SO pnr inch, rarh iiuerlum. [Harountm 
tor tfrm and Kftae*. Special e$tin*attM /i 

•■ ij^ar •! ; one number 10 

f:'"* exetpt lo buna fide 

• itfOTM, to aid them in 

■•' (to emtntriem in fon- 

Annual Mej^. 
lehirh nmil HI r 

iMcemtter JODBflAi:^ foi 

New York, 




qnarter uf ■ centary or h> ago inclndetl 
moflt of the commercial Mchocils in the 
coanlry. anil Kare the name " Bryant & 
Strattan," which vtill clings to many uf 
imr oli]<*r ix)mmeTcial colleges. Upon the 
ileath of Mr. Straiton and the breaking 
np of the "chain." Mr. Bryant began to 
.Wo adrerti^ementt devuti- his euerKie? to the bnitiUnKup of a 
Kreat commerciol-teachinfc institntion in 
the then yonng city of Chicago. Events 
have proved how wisely he bniUled. 
Since the eetublishment of his college the 
City of the Prairiex has come np from an 
overgn>wn town to be one of the most 
popnloiiH und proffrespive commercial 
centers of the world and the develop- 
ment uf the Bryant College has lieen no 
lem remarkable. 

Immediately ajion learning of Mr. Bry- 
ant's death we telegraphed to his associ- 
ates at Chicago for definite information, 
but regret that thi»i did not reach us in 
p15girM'ro™u"M«rtoVii"!'.!'*" iw ti'np for nse in the pret^ent issue. 
.hp»»c«iB.;;i;i;;".". ..'.'.'.' ".".-'.".. «« Forftnuml>erof ytan^Mr. Bryant's son. 

** a traintMl and experienced business edu- 

"" ''^m°TO*r^xi-i«o' i^'n** '^"****'- ^^ "^^ associated with him in 
I 7*c p*z2ncri i^BE'HA/DLnilr the conduct of his college, ami the busi- 

iii.VHu.if. ■ neew will, of course, go on uninterruptedly 

1^" o""ISJ o-ur.ViV.'pMnf.D-*'* witliout material change as to faculty or 
tM'"*'ii' '?iS JhS"t™o'^*'»i"'*T management, 

^'■'""'> ■ »** Jt. M. Barttett 

v,r-r"'''„''Mnn'«Hi«iorT-V.nie* Bond Hill, near Cincinnati. Ohio, on 

''"", .rh,.„'l'wrmn ■ Antwem'" ^"^*'*' ~' '" *^^ ^^^^ V^'^^ »f *lis age, 

' I . I... r ng. n» n j^^ Bartlett has been called the ■• Father 

of tlie Commercial College,' his experi- 
ence in that direction dating back fif ty- 

1'iimmi.nV VV "'".".TZ *^^^^^ *'^*''^' ^^^ ^^^^ school, which is 

(f H. B. Biyant ADd rVm. BVu'ttTooii- claimed to have been the first exclusively 

>^pr.u<U: TMB JormsAL-B Bxt«nit d commercial college in the world, was 

l'il!l'IK*''*^^.'!"!^.f°f."!'.'.''''.:.■::::.:;■■ M opened in Philadelphia in icy4. The idea 

"il'jipShi*"':. ■"::::; ::::"::::;::: '1 of awarding diplomas to commercial coi- 

»i the frorrnnion 7.1 lege graduates is also claimed for Mr. 

*"." '*;'*«';*'■=.'"»'«■■•• B^'"«-»«'"«- _ Bartlett. together with various devices 

wttvi- for nini-Vcnv '* # > ^i , - 

iLLOffTBinoKB. *" mcthods of teaching business. 

.t>u«iiiT.o.i,iwifti. im Kobert Montgomery Bartlett was born 

;;?,VVM"'Vr''i^m"%^">rrf'rtVncy'.'/>nTi: n7 "^ Salem. Washington County. N. Y.. on 

' """ "' "'""■ '" ■-'' I ,,^ October 7. 1807. He removed with his 

' ;,', ' ,,,\ , I',' parents to Kentucky at the age of ten. 

: ,;;;.; , ', \\':;\\'.\[X ,■ iil "'"* ^''^""^ ''^^'^ "" " *'-"T' ""*'■ 'le arrived 

N>iti-. i.t'Uiiri- iinur 75 at his majority. From 1S28 to 1831 he 

■'K/,IaS^t£."piS&?M"';'ono^by*'L.' worked in a woolen mill at Ripley. Ohio, 

;"'""' _ where his manual dexterity and hisquick- 

lw'"mV i.'itVv'iy"uVi«r^i"w " ^lia "* "^^* *' mastering all mathematical prob- 

u'hwI, Ei>d''S^-e«""ic.'i'.$T w c<« '**""* ^^"^ui^ " neighborhood maxim. For 

i..iV, K7.^"BittwJ!j!*M.'V^dp'!" '*"''*'''■ ^ singl*" term he attcmled Ripley College. 

_-_-Jr^'- -^ After founding the Philadelphia school 

. deliuhted with every cony of Tn« "' ^^'^ ''^ reiin.ved to Pittsburgh and es- 

thal each nnmber seemn better, Init tablislied uiiutlKT successful college 

LB's COLLKOK. Nbw Orleans ,S ! '^ ^'^ Cmcinnati m 
1««»* 'i"d established there the school 

, , , ,fc J J ., , which he personally conducted up to a 

iiito note the deserved proapmtynf „,^„, „. » ■ j , -. ^ " " 

HAN'S AitT JovRNAU It ffivirx M- y*^ "i^ *" o s»"t'e- a»*l left as a legacy to 
year. Our »tuae»t» and tearhem his sou, Prof. C. M. Bartlett, upon whom 
., . , -n » LiLUBRiDOK. PROP, j,,, ^..jj^^ .j^jj^ ^j ^^^ priucipalship have 
ili'volvcd for some years, 

Miiiiy intereatilJB storiw are told aliout 
Mr. Bartletfs jjiick and vim. and his 
slaying qualitien as a "Bglilir" for the 
coninwrcial school, idea that bv stood 
sixinsor for, and the methods he used pro- 
voked a storm of opposition and endle s 
controversy. Here is one of the stories 
that ivlate to jienmanship ; 
„..!?' o!."'.''','." ,'"..""■ ""'"'"'I'l"" school 


I., Bus, Coll. 





!<1„., '«,,., 



TlIK silent reaper has gathered in the 
past few wt-eks two of the most 
prominent figures in the business- 

leiuhing world— veterans both, who 

yhat ctl. I 

(1 Haiu 

:'.l thfir live 


■ of , 

niercial edui-ation. made the world richer 
fur their Iwing. aud go to their rest 
erowned with the honors of many years— 
11. B. Bryant and R. M. Bartlett, Ui»on 
such brow* the cypress chaplcl hut makes 
till' laurel Kieener. 

The DK.VTH is aunounce«1 of H. B. Bry- 
ant, senior proprietor of Bryant's B. C. 
Chicago, one of the oldest and largest 
c^>mmereiHl i\>llegt« in the world. The 
death of Mr. Bryant removes one of the 
oldest landmarks of the bu.<iness college 
profession. As most Joirnal readers 
know, he was one of the originators aud 
Itartners of the famuns Bryant & Strattou 
chain of commercial colleges, which a 

quired for wbti liiid hteppeirout 
for a short time. L']K,n receiving infor- 
mation from Professor Bartlett that Dick- 
son would soi>n return. Haines usked fur 
pen. ink and paptr. and with no little im- 
presatneul indulged in fancv flights of 

the way »f eagles, lions. 

antelopes and whales. 

Mr. Bartlett weighed bii_ .., „ ^.„„^^ 
at his make-up and resolved to "have some 
fun. Seeing Dickson approach he gave 
him the wink, and then mtrodiiced him 
to Hnines jis Mr. Brown, one of the ad- 
vanced pupils of the schiMd. and one who 
he had hoi>e. would at some time make 
an excellent i>euman. Then Dickson, in 
his assumed character, took a pen and led 
Haines a merr>- dance through all the 
curlujues and comiwond flourishes of 
eagles, elephants, whales and dinotheri- 
nms. which he threw upon the paper so 
rapidly that the eve bad difficulty in keep- 
ing pace with his motions. It was the 
I»en electrified by the genius of a great 
master. Soon the New Yorker remarked 
that he couldn't wait any longer : th^t he 

urging him to wait for Dickson: but 
finally, ii|>on his promise tu return in an 
hour, he was excuse*!. He failed to re- 
turn, just as his tiiruient.irs anticipateil. 
The eipertness of the ■■ a^lvauceil pupil " 
evidently modified his estimate of bis own 
great talent. 

Readers of The Joi^rnal will recall a 
reference to Mr. Bartletl's Cincinnati col- 
lege in Mr. Packard's "recollections" 
publmhetl in the February JoniNAL. Mr. 
Packard was Mr. Bartletfs writing 
teacher at this institution us far back as 
1848. and thinks that he was the first 
special penmanship teacher in a business 

Ihr BaaeulM JtftuI Uo: 

(Xx'ASloNALLY (we an* thankful to Ite 
able to say not often) infonnation reaches 
us indicating that people have been vic- 
timized by some smooth-tongued individ- 
ual who setB himself up as an agent for 
Thk Journal, collects money and uses it 
for his own purposes. It is needless to 
say that such an act is a felony, and opens 
the doors of the penitentiar}' to the im- 
Ijoster on conviction. It is. perhap.--, also 
worth all the trouble and money required 
to run down snchrascals. esjjecially when 
they claim to be instructors of youth. 

We have received a number of com- 
plaints recently from people who claim 
to have paid money for Journal sub- 
scriptions to W. W. Bennett, who heads 
his letters "The Capital City Bus, Col- 
lege," Indianapolis, Ind, We have had 
similar complaints about this man before, 
and have also been victimized by him in 
more ways than one. In answering onr 
indignant remonstrance he coolly writes 
that he did collect money under pretense 
of taking subscriptions for Thk Journal, 
but "concluded to return it," and if we 
will send him the complaints of his vic- 
tims he will make it all right with them ! 
But we are not doing business on that 
plan just now. We are doing a little 
negotiating on our own part, and the mat- 
ter is liable to develop in a way that Ben- 
nett will not be likely to forget. 

There is another kind of rascal less easy 
t<i reach, but no less deserving the penal- 
ties that attach to swindling. We have 
in mind the particular case ol a man who 
promises to do great things for young 
men and young women. He inconioratea 
these terms into a ' " catchy " adv. , writes 
a pleasant business-like letter, and gets 
terms and rates for advertising. These 
he accepts and sends on the "catchy" 
adv. A little time goes by ; no money : 
evidently this little detail has been over- 
looked. Then you venture to remind him 
of his contract. Ah ! yes : too bad ; he 

overlooked. Will send check on 

(fixing an early date.) The early date 
comes and goes ; no money. You ven- 
ture to remind him again : still no money : 
no notice. Again you write: rather 
fiercely this time— you will draw on a 
given date. Prompt the answer this time; 
•■Can't meet draft, but will give you u 
beautiful job lot of space in his school cir- 
cular." You have no use for the space. 
You are beginning to get indignant at 
what looks like a premeditated swindle, 
played on the strength of "old acquaint- 
ance." You are disgusted, and rather 
than have any controversy, writ* in a 
pleasant way that you are willing to dis- 
count his promises by half. No go. You 
will take a quarter— an>-thing. Not a 
penny, but a fine letter jdending jwverty, 
while spread-eugle circulars and advs. 
are proclaiming the great prosjierity of 
the institution and boldint; out the most 
extravagant promises to youth. Then 
you get right down angry, tell the 
creature just what you think of his 
confidence game, and lo ! a most in- 
dignant response, threatening to invoke 
the majesty of the law and spend endless 
capital if you should dare to say a word 
in print as to how you had been swindled ! 

Now, the question is ; Is a person who 
is capable of such dealings, who has no 
regard for liis contracts becanse they can- 

nafi (II tnnini; Demgn in a I nzt Conttxt ) 

not be enforced legally ; 
his plausibility and hij 
to get in respectable chw 
bait for young people- 
worthy to have charge 
Is it not a real service 
teaching profession to ; 
shams, pretenders and 
make a special iwint 
the information where 
to get victims 'i 

The < 

who trades upon 
I genius for lying 
nnelshis alluring 
-is such a person 
of young jH'Ople '/ 
■ to the busiuess- 
diow up all such 

rascals, and lo 
of disseminating 
he is nicwt likely 

have referred to is not the 
only one that we could illustrate, or that 
we propose to illustrate forcibly. Wo 
have suffered many impositions to avoid 
any suspicion of malice until our forliear- 
ance appears to have bred a most auda 
cious feeling of security on the part ol' 
certain individuals, and we give them 
notice that they have reached the end of 
their rope. The necessity for such a 
statement as this in The Journal is most 
painful to the editor, who would take ad- 
vantage of no man, and respects any 
honest disabilities under which a man 
might rest. But he, has ik, 
idea of being deliberately victimize<l 
without reveahng it to the fullest extent 
of his opportunities. 

neflttina The ./o„rnat'« Home. 
The home of Thf Jol-rnal has been in 
a state of more or les.s disorder for some 
weeks, caused by a refitting and expan- 
sion to meet the demands of a growing 
business. The Journal and the firm of 
Ames & Rollinson, which is the art end 
of the business, now occupy aliiK>»t an 
entire floor of one of the big Broadway 
office buildings. In addition to the 
spacious working rooms we have fitted 
up handsome private offices and recej)- 
tion rooms, and if our friends will honor 
us with a call when they are in the city 
we shall be pleased to show them tluoiigh 
what we believe to be far the largest iien- 
art establishment in the world. 

The refitting referred to has delayed this 
issue of The Journal several days mul 
caused more or less friction by misIayiuK 
matter intended for publicaticm. Our 
friends will oblige by calling attention to 
any oversight or omission relating to 

Death of the Father of Photo-EngravJns. 
This widely known photo-engraver tlie.l 
dt his home in New York City, April H. 
aged 56 years. He wa^ one of the first of 
those who made a practical success of 
photo engraving, among many who 
entered the field about the same time. 
He first worked at the printer's trade, 
afterward becoming a photograplier, and 
at twenty years of age commenced ex- 
perimenting on the etching of platet. In 
1M71 he was interested in the Actinic 
Company, and subsequently in the Photo- 
Engraving Company, which he left ui 
IKKO to form the Moss Engraving Com- 
pany, which has made a great buuiness 
success of 'he photoengraving process. 
The first " pr<x:ess " pictures, us they 
were called, were very faulty, principally 
from the \i>v relief obtained, which made 


them especially difficult tu print in ordi- 
nary type forms, but by years of experi- 
ment and hard work this method of mak- 
ing pictures has been brought to such a 
degreir of perfection as to practically 
supercede the more lalx>riouB hand enjfrav- 
ing for quite a number of purposes. Mr. 
Moss was married when be was 19 years 
of age. and hia wife fully sympathized 
with him in Ids artistic tastes, actively 
aiding him in all his long course of ex- 

John D. Williams. 
Dear Mu. Ames : 

In looking over my papers I came across 
two excerpts from the pen of John D. 
Williams, I send them to you as fair 
examples of what he did in his most care- 
less and unpremeditated way. (See cuts 
on page 75.) These designs were executed 
at white heat during the American Insti- 
tute Fair, while people were crowding 
about his table and taking from his hands 
the little mementos as they were thrown 
off. You may not think them worthy of 
reproduction, and still, in view of what 
ie being done at the pr 
great body of ink-slingers who disport 
themselves in the penmen's papers, they 
may have a little local interest. I have 
thought that at some future time when I 
had more leisure I would prepare a some- 
what careful sketch of Mr. Williams for 
your columns, for although much has 
been said about him. and most of vour 
readers have a more or less correct im- 
pression of his personality, there are some 
■things which I know of him that would 

his own JM'count of the 
mth Ihe Prince of Wales, or rather with 
his represi-ntative. General Bnice. I dn 
not believe that he was very favorably 
impressed with royalty. He went to 
Cambridge, where the Prince was an 
undergraduate, hoping to get a personal 
interview : but I think failed. He did, 
however, get som»- recognition, but found 
it an inadequate basis to work upon in 
the great metropolis. So, after seeing 
the sights of London, he shook the dust 
ot the " tight little island "" from his feet, 
and came home a more pronounced 
American than before. 

While crossing the ocean he met with 
an accident, which forever disabled the 
thumb of his right hand, and made it im- 
possible for him to use it thereafter inde- 
pendently in writing. This necessitated his 
more thorough use of the whole arm and 
forearm movement, and threw him into 
the alternative of off-hand work. The 
same limitation made it impossible for 
him to write copies for hi^ students, ;is lie 
had pi ■ ■ - ■ - 



■ Sim 

fore the student the i 

iship. th; 


Death of W. D. Jacobs. 

Ot'R New CATALnor 


m their circiilitv an. I m 
band and t^i)l In-' vv:\A\ 
thiuk of niiikiii- ij|. -.■• 
seeing it. It i- hir- th,' 

uuia bu distinct], 
taught from the blackboard, the size o_ 
the writing could be easily suggested by taacbei- 
the space it was to occupy. From the " *^"" 
fact that to day most of the writing that 
is taught in the schools is from the black- 
board alone, there seems to be no quee- 
tion as to the soundness of this view. But 

e desigos, will be 
5 cents, which amount may be de- 
idrst order of IH or more. Name 

; Art .Iournal, 202 

The Journal's Friends. 

Our clubbing list show^ -^nrl ronf 

cm many schools ami muiii n 
ived durir 


-muutba'-old college 
sent by F. E Cook 
aolTBK JorRNAi.'s 

^U5T/N // SM/TH. 
t:/? BALLARD. 

2>/c/a/ec/ />u 

?^.9^^.s .^^^i^€^^^^&^^^^.€^a^?^c 

' Employment Positively Quaran- 

learn of the death of W. 
ccurred on March 25 at 
lie wa.s engaged in rnm- 
{. Mr. JsL-nbs was a buc- 
penmansbip and general 
dbranches. Hisexperienceexlended 

Red Haw, ().. his 

The Oood News which dear old Farmtr 
Oreengrass is read'tig teUs him about the 
wonderful Peanut Ha'l of Weltavsart, O., 
and he forthwith determlni^s to aell two pigx 
anrf a prindte cow in order to provide trie 
whi^rewithft!, that his iiou'hful prodigy, N 
Bonaparte Grrr;.r-.-i .,, ,, ,,} .,.,, ?„. denied 
ffte mconipar,'.'. - '■ • ->.■ ■ '■ „ /, ,fto Hall 

offers. mat ,,., , ,, ,, (ft. o,^ 

7nans fancij •- "■ ,„ colAsnal 

type: " Empln., / r.. .,1 ,, ■ i,, ' ; iniranteed 

•■IPupilt." .s„ A. iu>»nfmrr.',shundledup 

nnd dnhi 

(Continufd c 

, Kan..B. C, 
. Miilereville, 
I B.C., Toledo, 

Gem Uity B. C, Quiocy, III.; E. F. Cuiley, 
R.„i,n»*^n vt . ^_ c. Goodman "--- ^' 
J. Maclean, Alk 
~ H. MfCool, SppricHi 

BurlinBtoo. Vt. ; C. 

Ohio, B, 

Belleville. Out. 

B. C, PhiJadelphift 

Inii., Normal Coll.; S. D \V..< 

Conn., B. C; L. B. Lawson ; 

Public Schools, Los Angel. ;., i 

Pratt Inst., Brooklyn; J. K 

hooi, Miilerevilie, 
■"- " C, Toledo, 
B. Shanks, 
. . F. Cuiley, 
Goodman, Fiodlay, 

shaU B. C. Marshallto 

Itt ; Ii^ 

. .y.ii 


The reader of the above c«u draw his own 
conclusion as to what extent The Journal is 
appreciated by penmanship teachers and busi- 
ness college proprietois. These represent 
elubs for only a few weeks. Scores of other 
leadrng institutions are represented in the club- 
bing announcements published s" 

u, the sender of t 

his appreciatio 
NAL is doing, and i _ 
1 experience that the paper U 

only of great assistance to the teacher, by af- 
fording new ideas and a medium for inter- 
esperiences among teachers, but 

awakens and maintains 

that the 

among the pupils lightens labor and 

practical results. 


make interesting reading. For the pres- 
ent I will simply say that my acquaint- 
ance with Mr. Williams extended over a 
good many years. I knew him intimately 
and loved him most sincerely. He wa.-i 
one of the most candid, truthful, un- 
seltish men I have ever met ; a man wlii> 
combined the qnalities ot modesty and 
self-assertion in such remarkable equi- 
piiise as to make him an interesting study. 
r known a teacher who could 

Mr. Williams will always live in the esti- 
mation of penmen and pen artiste through 
*"i off-handwork, which is plainly indi- 
"'' 'n the specimens sent you herewith. 
S. S. Packard. 

cated i 

ingh that when the 
d and is really in eai 
tCi-eut difHcuHy I 

A Note from Mr. Packard about the 
World's Fair Exhibit. 

New York. May 3. i(<n^». 

My Dear Ames 

..„ „... it yow should inclme to publish any ger, Pr 

hold a class of pupils to their work and Z^} c,^L^Z?'}% to Business College have a 

1 ,. , ., *^"" 'commercial Teachers touching the scribers — ti 

keep them so constantly filled with en- World's Fair exhibit, I trust you will ">»« i"-"'"' 

thnsiosmashe. He whs contemporaneous eniphasize the fact that the plan presented a°" '°'''™" 

with R. P, Spencer and James W. Lnsk, 'f "'"P'J' » suggestion, and that the TOnfe" 1?om 

and with all his love and reverence tor ne'cessa^vlt SD°ac'eTs'Y„\^''«' ""^^ ^Tf^ "t?""''' «■ 

hoth of these ^eat teachers he was their tteS&fshSVe,'™! whefter oTn^l ""iS^",", 

constant and persistent competitor. He Hi™e shall be any exhibit, will depend 

was a horn artist, and If he had had the fJi'u''''5'."P'>'> 'V" teachers themselves, as 

oiiportunities of study in his vmmser I?^!!.;:?K''A''S_ *?"•'''?» «"e convention 
days, would have succeeded 
partment of art. Many of the design! 


little e 

-- el's wi.. 

the club from that s 
'o have received, 
of the UticB. 
jorous installajHiii 

Frnm T .1, RiMri- 


July ; and my 

his younger to be held at Saratoga _ 

prominence in the matter coinesfrom 
my selection as chairman of the commit- en 
tee. and from the additional fact that if W 

I practiced by the off-hand penmen of 
the country were his own. In fact, he 
was original in most that he did, one 
reason being that it was difficult tor him '""y •>«■ to out of the way. 

lo copy anybody or anything. He 
unique individuality. 

In 1859 or IMO he took it into his head 
suddenly to cross the ocean, thinking pos- 
sibly he might open a business for him- 
self among the conservative Englishmen. 
He had e.\ecuted a memorial for the 
' of Wales, embodying the resolu 

? naturally felt that this would open a 
iiy for him to royal patronage. Fro 

anything is done, somebody must do it 

The plan that I have suggested seemed ""'' 

the only feasible plan, and yet I &"? 

- - - ' • ■■ I will 

inly say that it 

couiniittee. and is heartily 'indorsed "bot'ii 
by Dr. Peabody and President Bonnev 

I have received but a few answers so 
far from teachers, but they have been 
generally of acquiescence. As tothesug- 
gested amount of money necessary to 
carry out the plan. I would say that it is 


Of the Common Council of the City byftoT^^hotiverti^cl'nf^St'Sst'iu 

if New York, which had been sent to the exhibit, and a sufficient faithfn its ""'• '" ■ ' 

{lace Windsor Palace, or whatever other ?»cces8. There seems to be a strong feel" ,™""k- '" 

pository might be deemed proper, and |!,'i™""rri;,'l'''/'"°i,"''' ^ '^'"'^- """l" Ont.. V": 

■ naturally felt that this would one,, „ '" '°' ™'n«""-<-"" teachers to say a.;,a(. lloi.o,. K 

b. b, Packard, from E. 

[The gi-cater portion of the circular re- R''™^''' J.' 

■ded by H. Falardeau, C. C, Montreal. 


(For other Advs. see Pages 76-80). 

ll/"ANTEO.-A tcucln^ror Uook keeping and 
•» Pt-nriuio-<!ilp Must be a tiovO Kairlish 
li.wi '"' *'-''Pe''iei;ced. Will pay from $81)0 to 
S'WiiPper jear. -'K-.'-care Penman's Art Jouk- 


o UK Illy c 

t salary will be purd to si 
aan with superior quahflca 
I,!^S.i^9??jA?I^ coaHden- 



.;<r^ Broadway, N. V. 
rniil's Emploj-ment 



i; teaoliers 

I Employment 

- '"^heappli. 


c. If he desires, the i 
iiv jusl as well suited. If he 
into correspondence with 

I.. . ;upp|y,njf 


the approval of^thJ cU^^nSaLe^nts^'SrSeu ' 

rtilv mH.r..,7 v„*,. j.o..pectiv6ly are credited to J. P. Amspoker 

Queen City B.C.. Seattle, Wash., and W' -,',,-( n, ' 

H. Shrewder, Richmood, lad., B, C. Other Ulki? 

elub.s between twelve and eighteen, avei-agine sitlon I 

about sixteen, are credited to D. L " - "■»">- ♦' 

Stockton, Cal., B. C; I. N Ins!.-^ 

Auceles. Cal., B. C; P O 

eastlo. Pa,, B. V.; W. L. .M. > 

B C, Seranton, Pa : F, -I 

III., ku.; J. K. Barnh^u, 

O.; E. H Barrows Wmu 

Schools. Butt.. \U.„t' : T I 

it I 

I creditedjo p. L. Hunt, i&kest 

'iitlu) UDlesa po- 

ruutfh the busy 
u next fall. Pull 

. 203 Broadway. 



I IncHtcd In h proaper ous city, 

College, espc- 
country. "BaK- 

FOK SAtK.-Half 
Business Cullewc Ic 

ftteturlogcity. Good territory. Lm 
muut, Uood ri — *-*' — • --• ■ 
r the rlftht 

Business L 

Uood reputation 
__ ._er ■ ■ 

I thriving 
spleadia cbance 




UmtUat fry K. L. Sratm.] 

HEN 18 tbe bwt 

tlm« to look for cm- 

plojmmit u a tcacb- 

«■ lA pmnMnMhipaOiJ romtDerc-l&l 

• tTAiwfers bix i>rof(iHional 

wtMt is known as ■ " hustler." 

— ThkJoi'RXal was mistaken locoonecling 
G. W. Dix. Prin. of tbe Provo. Utah. B. C. 
rith tbe Brigbmtn Voune Academy*. Mr. f)ix 

*y money for bad <• 

U8t about tbe poorest in- 
[) make is to exchaoge good 

■wini; ** what there !■ in nlKhl." but usiiially 
hold thrlr i-oDtractA uutil later la the t<eaKni. 
Htlll othiTn put off everything until tbe ^ 
ere of oiKTiInK and then are In a grMt atew 
unially nave to •••lect to dlMid vantage. An in 
all, probably more ivimnivrcia] teacbeni are 
cneagrd from the middle of May to th« middle 
of Juno than at any other corresponding pe- 
riod. One fact may be net down for a surety. 
The teacher or the acbool proprietor who l»e- 
ifiuB early, lookii around carefully and glve^ 
blmielf plenty of time, gn-atly increaM^* hia 
chancvo of making arrangi-monta that will 
prove mutually satTttfactory. 

- F. J. Toland has nold the Ottawa. Ill, Bus. 
Uot. and purchaaed the Ijt. Croate, Wia. B. C . 
which he baa renamed tbe WiaconMn Busintw 
Uolversity. Mr. Tolaod Is a capable, aggrea- 

of the Ottawa Uni. are Metwrs. of Taylor & Sons" B. C, Rocb«ster, N. Y. 

Orant Conard and N. L. Ricbmond. both 
pprionciid tcachera. Mr. Ricbmond for 
time pant hoa bod charge of the 

monly tlioruugb and HiiccAiHrul teacher. 

— The Waverly. N. Y.. Buniness School !» a 
well -patronf zed institution in charge of Mtss 
Ulla Dullivan. How many bright women are 
conducting bunineRs schools f We cno easily 
call a dou-n. 

— J. P. Ani-uiokcr in winning golden opin- 
ion! In the far Went oa a penman and a teacher 
of buxinew branches. He ia connected with 
the Queen City B. C, Seattle, Waah. 

— The Colo. Spring* B. C. i» o well-equipped 
injititiition in charge of N. S. Oundy. 

— We are pleased to know that O. Bixler, 

Sropri(»tor of the Ptn Art Institute, Woostcr, 
., Ik doing well with bin Hchool and publica- 
tionH. particularly with " Physical Training in 
Ponmantihlp." a work containing many valu- 
able suggeKtions. 

— C. h. Wise of the faculty of tbe Steadman 
B. C, Toledo, C, ia an alert arid competent 


vll.-iit )>i>nmen ond 

' . "nLin.-of VV. H. 

■i .! r. r., Strat 

t by regular staff contribu- 
iiit find other high-class 
i>niniiK'l)'H intellectual gift« 

— II ^ 11 > ml 1 . J- 1 ~'>iiiegoodpoint« about . II. Mhii ^..iMrtisiugforBusinesBCol- 
logw uKl-™ .. sUimj. u. VV C. Shott, Prin. of 

new imi'li. .iti-u ■ lv-.---L.'U.- lu i:.nuil Writing." 
by HowanI A Iliuwii of th- K.-oklaud Col- 
lege. Thin work is expecKd from prees in the 
courw of a few weeks and its prospectus indi* 
cnt<-ti it to be one of the most comprehensive 
of the kind io print. We shall be glad to 
Kueak more definitely of its merits when we 
suaU have had the opportunity of examining a 

— The Kingston. Ont.. B. C. enjoys the 
services of at least two accomplished jienmeu, 
Prin. J. B. McKay is one of the best in tbe 
buiiurat, and therw are few belter e<iuiiii>wl 
busincRi writers than E. T. Overend i>f the 

— II HI III' I I niiiidian who is gifted 

Willi "' ' ' ' ! 1 il«'i>artment you may 

taW. I '^ I i> ot the Ont. B C, 

B*'II. . I ■ N' t i nt^lc appreciates tbe 
vnlui- "I I ■; -I 1 iiiuaiiship jmirna] in the 
hands. .( lu, (iiij.ih. mill we are Indebted to him 
for uiauy fnvurs in this direction. He has. by 
the way, recently acuutrrd an interest in the 
St. John B. C. and that institntion will have 
the Wnellt of his wrviceHafter the 1st of July. 

— K. L. Dickensheets, tbe young man whose 
good work with a pen has t>t«n frequently no- 
ticed in these coluDins, bcondurting a class iu 
tvamsnshipat Loaisvill*, Col. 

— Mns. M. C. Wise of Sioux City, Io., has 
been wUv^M for the important p>«ition of su- 
perintendent of the sborthaDd depL of the new 
\Vest«m Normal College, Lincoln, Neb. 

— The NntlonM B. C. Indianapolis, Ind.. 
issues an attractive etght-pogv Journal with a 
Une oruamealal beading. 

— A well-priDt«<d and well-illustnt«d cata- 
logue comes to us from Mr. Edmund C Atkin- 
son's SAcrameulo, Cal.. B. C. The illuslra- 

— T. T. Wilson, Prin. of the Princeton, 111., 
B. C, is a strong and vigorous writer and suc- 
cessful teacber with experience in managing 
successful iuatitulions. 

— J. O. Gordon, a progressive young toacber, 
is having gratifying success in his professional 
work in tue public schools of Rocky Kiver, 

— P. P. WildUhof Richmond. Ind., who had 
a Hue exainple of tlourished work m a late 
numberof THE JouBNAL, is taking some Qnisb- 
ing touches at tbe Zauerian College, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 


advantage of an excellent collegiate training. 
— We have already referred to the new 
Scotia Normal and Htiv Uni, Smtia, Neb., ol 
which W. H. Miirri'tt i^ tl.,'h.....i ^f^, Barrett 
takes with him PA U . ,i i-in [ii. ^sLll-known 

petiR-an who wa- n .i i mi i Iowa. 

Mr. Westrope is 111 .miatlrst- 

class'-floHrishfr. , . ., i. uncus at 

s principal of tbe Com. Dept. of tbe N. 
mal 8cb( ' " ' 

ing the post ye 

— We have received from Mikj S. M. Hen- 
ley's Shorthand College, Syracuse, N. Y. , 
Btoresting data relating to a speed type- 

t recently held under tbe auspices 

Miss Catharine V. 

The title of "Cbanipion of tbe 

World" is claimed in her behalf, and Miss 

Henley is justly proud of the remarkable 

ncblevement of her protegfe. 

— The press of Utica, N. Y., contains many 

1 full fledged ( 

ciual Murfee of the Institute uus 

Glnu & Co., the well known publishers, a new 

work on bookkeeping. 

— We regret to learn that our fi-ieud C. H. 
McCargnr, proprietor of the National Bus. 
Coll., Ottawa, Uat., bas been compelled to dis- 
pone of his scluiol on account oi ill health. 
S rowing out of a virulent attack of "grip." 
e is now i-ecuperating at Denver, and we 
wish him a speetly and permanent restoration. 
The new proprietor-* of the Ottawa Coll. are 
Johu Keith, priucioal. and George McLaurin, 
both tjood men and deserving of success. L. 
U. Teter. the "Penman's Ledger'' man, for 
some time {wist connected with this institution. 
goe« to tbe Riwhestcr Bus. Uni. for a special 

t tbes 

r school. 

Pittsburgh; W. (J. Curtis. Sbaw^ B. C, Port- 
land. Me.; E. B. ITtterback, Columbus, O.: 
C. A. Sonstegard. Belgrade, Minn.; W. M. 

Blake. Keene. N. H.; WiU k Loomls. Ann 
Arbor. Mich.; W. C. Brewster. Elmira. N. 
Y.; W. A. Rich, Yadkin Coll.. N. C; C. C. 
Goodman, Pindlay. O. B. C. 

— The Jocrnal makes its best t>ow and 
extends congratulations to Mr. and Mrs. E. 
W. BiJser. Columbu.s. O. Mrs. Blosir was 
Miss Rebei-ca Sayers of WayncMburg, Pa. . the 
event which occa^oned this congratulatory 
notice having occurred recently at that place. 
We acknowledge also with pleasure receipt of 
photographs. Mr. Bloeer is one of the partners 
of the £anenan Coll. 


[initial by. f. M H'arfr.) 

- O. A. Brown has been conducting Pen- 
manship classes with success in various Ohio 
towns. His headquarters are at Cbarclon. 

asaociated with the teaching force of the Mans- 
Held, C. B.C. 

— The new Lincoln, Neb., Normal Uni. will 
number among it^i teaching force W. G. Bishop, 

ising scbei 
glad to 
creditable specin 
I>en work from wbomso- 
r they may > 
— In the line of flour- 
iNhes ne have a particu- 
larly f ree-and-eosy design 
by Harold C Spencer, the brilliant young pen- 
man of Providence. R. I. W. K. Beatty, one 
of tbe inuiiiL'ii of iln- Ldlkce of Com- 

mensi'n ilu- i,... ,' ■■, : / i ■■■ -■ .uni' card 
work, nil ■ If . I ii;\ ■■■ ' _ ; -■ i mIi , . x.vuted. 

Others |i |.i r ; ' I i I, ..f good 

I I '<■-'■ ! t'lr iu New Jersey public 

I ' If of many campaigns has 

'I "I 11 1 ii • ' ye nor impaireahis touch. 

ULliti kikhI L-Ai.iupltsof card work are from 
M. H. Bdldwiii, Poraeroy, Wash. 

— We have a set of ornate capitals and an- 
other of plain busi - ■- ■ ' ^ T, 

Lt tbe Zii 

iiiibus. Hiswork 
A well-made set 
iiiiT. T. Wilson. 

\- C. 
J., sends thefol- 

tbat adds gi-eat 

men of my every-day handwriting, acquired 
entirely by the aid of your vabifihre ■ Guide to 
Practical Penmanship " nn.i l.v iv.Ii..wihk the 
uctive lessons wimii ti..iri Inn.' (.1 time 
! furnished by 'tun,. I, ' ilmcol- 

'"-N, II I. K Black. Washington, la.; 
l-uueue 11. Uoitl. Uoanoke, Va. ; T. D. Gra- 
ham, Sulphur Springs. Tex. ; Henry G. Hub- 
bard, Belleville, N. Y.; Austin fi. TyrreU, 
AVaterville, Minn.; J. P. Feaster, Astoria, 
Greg. : J. L. Williams, Newton, Kan.; Chos. 
B. HaU, Sacramento, Cal.; T. A. White, 
Wliitesiao, Tenn. ; H. E. Rose, Com. la. ; W 
J. Lillv. Perrv. So. Dak.; Geo. Russell. Mary- 
ville. Mo.; W. s. Paulson, Council Bluffs, la.; 
Leon Htiehl, Charleston, S. C. : W. W. Pbipps, 

Duluth, Minn.; Geo. W. BuU. HoulUm, Me.; 

Prin- R. O. Laird, Colunibu*, O. 

B. C, Portioud, Me. The' aistiuguisbing feat- 
ures ore au easy, fluent moveiiieut and i<leal 
legibility. We take pleasure iu giving indi- 
-■"--*-•"•" ■■ Schoflcld, Kote L. SI* 

■r, H. W. Fifleld 

J.J. Mansfleld. P. _ 

and Fred. A. Handy. Mr. MerriU also 

us a taste of bis quality ' 

Smith. Ted Echart, CUrence Sniith.'F.'E. L 
Kcbmuecke, Tillie Raab. The work is uni- 

de|iartment of the Pater- 
>ol. In charge of W. L. 
Starkey. By way of showing practical results 
Mr. Starkey forwards for our examination tbe 
work of a lor^ numt>er of pupils. Mr. 8, is 
iDotfaer of the advocates of a free and speedy 

• with little or no shade, and we are 

e the evidences uf success under his 
Among the Lit.-<t of the v 

- Mias Anna M. HaU, Spev-ial Teacher of Pen- 
manship and Drawing in the Publtc Schools of 
Malta.O., permits u?i to judge of tbe wi.>rk that is 
being done under hor supervisioa by specimens 
from various pupils. We are pleased to tw 
[id the work, and particularly 

«ms. C. C. Kennt^on. J. T. Hendcra>n. J. R, 
Soaright, O, J. Poumiv. B. H. Suencvr. L. L. 
Gntowood. tbo Rickett Bros, and C. L. Stubbs; 
to which nlaxy Thk Joih-nai. takes the lib- 
ertrof adding Anna M. Hall, whot^e work as 
writer and teacber justly entitles her to the 

— H. A. Hull, author of the popular series 
of |>aperson "Free-hand Drawing" now ap- 
itenrmg in Tub Joi-rnal. sends us specimens 
from the pupils of the public schools of Shel- 
ton. Neb., of which ho is suneriotendent The 
work is chiefly by pupils in tne primary nvdes, 
youngsters from tea to twelve yoan oM, and 
with a due regard for this fact may bo pro- 
nounced first clajB. Myrtle Switier. Llllie 
Smith, Mamie B. McDermott and Fannta 
Allen, among others, writ* well enough to 
earn having tnelr names appear in a penman- 
ship paper. 

— M. L. Miner, who has been conducting 
large evening classes in penmanship at Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn, sends us a Iwitdi of si»eci- 
iiu-ns repreM>ntlng the regular class work of 
probably a bundriyl piipik It is ii..t m-ces- 
wary to remind Joins m i. i 1. i iluit Mr. 
Minor is a well i'<|ui|< i .<> '. i : _tr.sivi> 
teacher, as tbeyhav.' ii- i iiini in- 
formation from com nK . ( .; I r,i n Incli 
have appeared in ttj'"' l i im ll. i -liitifc; 
good work at Pratt litslitnt.-, ami «>■ «!.■ t:]nd 
to know that bis services are appreciatetl by 
the management. Among tbe uest writers 
John I. Sttnvarl " ""'''"'' '^ "■■ 

writer ; J. W. Jones-, Osmans. O. 

— A dainty little bird di'sign, reinforced 
with script specimens of tine quality, bears the 
imprint of Renn Vaiinah, Winslow^s Mills, 
Me. , an ambitious young penman who is reach- 
ing out for mail business and deserves to sue- 

well to tiie front with varion 
kinds, including ladies' cards, imitations o 
Mr Pre»tou manages ti 

. Elmer ». Hal- 
rude Bundrick, 
I" following of 
aviiard, Phoebe 

T E 
Kurtz. H, 
Blocher, .'- 
graph of I 
joying au i 

Too Progressive for Him. 

I am somethin' of a vet'ran, just o-tumin' 

eighty year— 
A man tuat's hale an' hearty an' a stranger 

But Tve heard 'some news this momin' that 

has made my old bead spin. 
An' I'm goin' tew ease my conshuna if I never 

speaK ag'in. 

I've lived my four-score years of life, an' never 

till tew-day 
Wuz I taken for a jackass or on ign'rant kind 

o' jay, 
Tew be stuffed with »uchdume«l nonsense 'bout 

them crawliu' bugs an' worm^ 
That's killio' human bein's with their "uiikro- 

skopic germs." 

They say there's " mikrobes" all about a-look- 

m' fer their prey. 
There's nothin' pure tew eat nor drink, an' no 

safe place tew stay; 
There's " miasmy " In tbedewfalt an' " raalary " 

lere's '• boctei-y " lu the water an' " trikeeny " 
"meeby" in the atmosphere, "calory" in 

Terbacker*" full o* " nickertecn," whatever that 

may be; 
An' your mouth'll all get puckered with tbe 

An- things (a gittio' wus an' wus from what 
tbey I>e Just now. 

Tbom bugs i* all about us, just u-wailin' fer a 

Tew navigate our vitals an' tew new us off 

like plants. 
There's men that spends a lifetime huntln' 

worms just like a goose, 
An' takin' Latin names to 'em an' lettln' on 

No. I don't believe t 

a-goin' tew try; 
If things has come tew such a paw I'm satisfled 

tew die- 
ril go hang me id the sullar, fer I won't be 

such a fo'il 
As to wait unlit I'm pixened by a "anuymul- 

—Lurana W. Shtldon in The Jfntrr. 

In some rburches a preacher Is called a rec- 
)r, but all tbo world over a school teacher is 
-Ham's Horn. 

'tlyc/imanA (2^ytiCCLyjat/i{i(P 


>OfllTION wsDtM 1 

\N KXTBLLBNT PfCnnAKftorla nm- 


rvham SUDiJard Fbonoirrapbr>i>n<l 

tjpnvrllinir witb ftpcrWnce 

the covaltj. Tlioroucbi: 

ii'j'Ifiir. H 

Itwii wforeiic 

PRtTMAK's Art Joi 

•bortbind and typrwiitlDir. w 
«-tc«llEnt ■un'4-v In chirK** of luriro 

>OniTlUN waDtPd by n U^e^cl 

aborthand. iyp«*wfl 

con (« po nd f* n o 

nnd commerplol 

c bni) and has bad < 
I bu«tD< 


r practical c 

" ■ rat 

llwi had fome espertcm ■ 
jilhorouRhljr ramlitsr with ' 
roqiilrenifDt*, alxo il pnctlcat mochnnl 


pert »t«oo0rapher and i 
ppwillcre. ItM had : 
lacbtnK ■o'* >" IhorouRhljr famiit 
~t*, alNO II pnctlcat mv. 
innnuBl tramintr and tnechoi 

' 1 V;,'l'5™An 

wliuul. 'COM- 


Ml 1. ,.i..T or ,, 

^nniHnshlp hd<1 

UN i4L'iiCIALi»T. 

MNBSx brani-liespeti- 

wll-kiioivti 8(!liootB nnd 

• iirtfi- fducation. 



I'lmrnc-tiT and ability. " It. I, 

corrvniHiDdoaoe, busii 
who has film, p(.>r>ev*.-nini; 
iiliy ror harJ work, wlshps 

CO*1«lt--|t4-| II T|{&CHEBwithudoien 
'I III < III Ilusloe«« ColloiTf work 
> fall. Hlftb School and 
I' iiito. fla» nornuil iralu- 


ARTjorKNAU_ _ 

' — ' '-i.-hpror Ave ^ 

Pr«fcr piMltiun when 
ed. Soor« ol 


SEND me joar name uid addrew and 
rrrcivc hy return mail a bandsninc 
rlniirinh wJtlt my '«iguaturr ullarhrd. 


Boi 44, WlAarow'S HtlU. Malnt. 


near futuit.- (hf M>rvi( 
trber of peotnanshlp w 

1 who -au iirodui-et«tliDuDfa>»lhat 

c time will be itcTot^^ 


— K^eiclualv 


■ led with rcfcri __ 

lelly coofldrntlal. Addn 

njcationo noticed UDle»i 













mi?. F 

.r aalF 



NN ':';"; 


Huir Interest with thn most thorou^fb i 
experienced teaclicr, in tbv Best known, U 
located and Dest paylnir Collette In the West 

^3;5 TgFr,>VA.TgT>: 

his whcreabouta, t 



FonLm&n and X3eslBn©r, 




?-vo j-5pera.onTh. 

■ lut^ ... .ITU. ,.<i'> .luiit^ Quefiliuos answf 
ntin n.-r> iiiriii>bi-d upon applloatton. 
» •■ ElU'CATtlU." Vttxx lOfl. tidtwa. Mu 

TMBBcrs. an> ;ou tulns (;iPF-*RI>*'t R\> 

Send me your nddre^sand & twt 
to pay pue rki% and I will »cad you 

n )>OOk of lUTi puMvv. frof. («. W. 
renowned Penman of Dviawarv. O 
wa* ^lently surpriwd when I r 
man rrly Lttlorr." and tTof. E. 
Flndlny. Ohio, a man who knows 
flpcakit. najv : " It has no eqwal." 


Is in ihc field for new subscribers. Your 
name on a postal card will get you a free 
sample copy and introductory terms that 
will make 1( worth your while to subscribe 
right now. even if you don't read the 
papers before the new school year opens. 
Invest one cent and be convinced. 
5 1 Mt. Washington. Ohio, 

Tri-State School-News, 

Kh Oradt K.lucational Tournai (monthly) 
(o-- teachers and school cffice s. Send (or 
ample copy and Unrn how to obtain a year's 


.our address Ag.-nts wanted to canv.iss ihc 
county institutes the coni-ng season i A 
liberal cash commission paid 


should not (ail to send your name. Mention 
the Penman's Art Journal. Address 
TRI-STATE SCHOOL-NEWS, Evansville, Inil. 


soil underluid with cohI, 

Well artapiert tor I'd 
80,0OO acr<.s lands 
Addr*S3. Cuniljerliu 

5-1 RonllnP. O. 

Hulberl Pnrk, ■l.iiii. 




\^ AGENTS codic^ 

■"■ ' ^;;^;|,p;u;,j.Jl(),po 

rDvr I rhuu's call, 
riUuj! aoiQc^.iUi. 





(iood posillonsurf always upt.-n for all ihat art- |ir'iiluit.'ul In peti drawing ami ( 
Uyou wisb to become a jieu artist. Nearly all of the vountr pennen that are comi 
lo the front bave taken •( or aie now pursuiotf It. Tomlst^ofao lewuna covering every oeuaii 
meot from a simple line to 4 Qmslicd i>en portrait. Price iS. 


) decidedly lhelM>et publliihed. More alphabets und tinting (ban In all 
itmliine<l. Is e<|imlly nilapted to atiiomutic >)iadliiir. Miirklnir. D 

Polutod I 

I for bol 

H uf Shading Ink 



The tiesi place to become an all-cound Henmau. Artl»t nnd Teacbi 

Tuition and board 

Title Pages. Diplomas, Ac., Ac, execute and 
I HpeeUlly. Wr " 

. Triple and liioitd 

Course ts most comprebemi 
Book. Mairasi 

Pen Porirallu 

rorclrculara. AddrcMa 

ighl hour« per day. 
engravi-d In superior 

The Secret out! 


(to to the CapilMl Titv ('ummerciai Cull«ce, 
thp lendin* in-iitiicn o( thi? fountry as teacher*. 


rfci.*. rni. enrer at ann I 


jlSines^ shorthand and telegraphv 




Send mo your iitiinu wrIlleD In full, and 96 centa 

>vrltJng It. with tustruotlons ; or send me a iNjenl 
«tamp, and I will send you addressed lo mr own 
hand, price list deaorintfre of Leaaons by Ifall, Ex- 
tended Moremen(«. Traoing Exercises, Capitals, 
Cards, Fluurisblng. «to. AddrHos. 

A. 1-: I'AllStlNS. Crestuii. Uiwii 
P. S— No postal cards T)e<'daiii>ly, :!-IS 



I Pen-V 

lo ( 



Is the designing of Ornameutul Pen-Work, flea 
olutlons, TestlmonlulH, Ace., executed in a Unt- 
clas* luauner. Lnige pieces of Plourleblng. 
Lettering and Pen-DrHwIngH done In the best 
possible manner. Correspondence solicited and 

It is fad 

A. E. DEWHURST, Utica. N.Y. 



training si-li 





Adapted for use willi or without Text-Book, 

and ibc only set rwommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 




TaTorable arrangcmenta made with BnslneM 
Colleges and Public and Private Hchoola for Intro- 
duction and u»e. bescrlptlra List now ready. 
"■kjrPBopondeDce lnvlt«.-d. 

I~uebe«t Pen In the L'S. and bent penmen oae them. 


Thl9 pen, known by the above title, la manii/ac- 
tnred of the brat steel, and carefully KJe 'ted. They 
are purtk-uiarly adapted for Public and Private 
s.-hoiila and Bwi It keeper's unc. Put up in Boiea, 
>'onlalning aS Fens, sent Post-paid, on receipt of 

"""Idaniel SLOTE & CO., 

119ii2I William St.. N, Y. 

"tyen/ncui^ Oytil^ d/ouyZAolO 



signed primarily for i^ajturs of the Commercial branches, an 
engage in Ihe delightful and remunerative work of leaching the 
:s. but open to anybody. Thorough inslru " 
leal English branches, and shorthand and typen 

tiled t 



CooD Writing is Capital 




Ulxler'H Rustness ('ollrge, Wuostor, Ohio- 





mtlc Ithe oilKloal " Doultl^lilasl k 



These are fine pointed, very 
elastic and are specially adapted 
for professional use and orna- 
mental penmanship. Writin<r 
masters and experts should not 
he without these pens. , ,., 


The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co,, 

w..rk«, c«m(tPM.N..i. 26 John St.. New York. 



mid Class tJiie. 

f I Cl I tiXM ^^t 


« HiDt9 

HOWARD & BROWN Com 1 College, Rockland Maine 

season is coming around. Don't wait until the last moment and take your chances of ^ettmy piompt de- 
livery with hundreds of others who rush in then, to be disappointed perhaps about ^ettmg them m time for 
use. It costs no more to attend to this now ; in fact, we are in shape to give moie work foi the money if 
ordered before the "rush season " sets in. 


(/) What kind of a Scliool ? 

ory oxtliuaCf^ can be made on « ■pedal dl|>lomn wl 
y elvlntrtliemlii yoar llrwl letter of Inquiry. 

{2) Holo many Diplomas 

We are constantly improving our processes and are now handling a line of diplomas, certificates, etc.. that we believe to be 
lie richest, most varied and in all respects the best that are olTered in this country. Get all th^ samples and estimates you can ; 
ompare them with our work and prices and judge for yourself. It isn't at all necessary to take anybody's word for it; still, it 
;im do no harm to Rive a few extracts from letters received from people for whom we have recently made diplomas after they had 
■arefully looked over the entire field with a view to makinor the best bargain possible : 

From James P. Lonna, t'arbondale Hl^lt School, [From W. A. Grnnvllle. See'y Betlianr College, LIndaborff, 
Ciirbondali-, Pa. Kiiii 
Tbe diplomiis (n-derpfi n O1..1 t tim. -i ,, :,[ |,,,imI T. - .» Tli. .ii|.li-.iMii- w .- m .l.i . .If mhi h i Im .1 i..-.1-i > t.\ . \|>i. --. Allow 

ur (pot'h. ami ao tiaveall tlie professors who havi 
inclusion. I wish to thank you fur the tlrst-c 

ni A. A JoliiiKou, Preitldent CnlvrrKl 
Laraiu(e« Wro. 

I um biebly ji'eascd with the artistic workmansb 
lioihos to desliiti aact L-hni'acteror work. 

en the diploi 

\ biiihly jileasied with the artistic design nm 

Wo are highly pleased with the dtplomaa you made for us. The work 
is really better tnan any we have ever had. 

Prom Temple A IlamtUon, Proii*« Temple 9l Hamlltoii'M 
BiiRtneNH Collcce, San Antonio, Tex. 

made for us three eleaant diplomas— fine fur our Business 

you make for us 

;h as to artist 
ly similar dipli 


otUces, la c: 
aua oi'Domcntal pcDm 
attested by the mt^losed 

&. ITIoore, Prop^a I 

highly satlflfacttoi-y ; 

rVcB. We have also hi 
onnectlon with sevat 
iDShip, wbieli met wl 

lome Bna. Unl., 


L' diplomas ordered ti 

duly received, a'ld '1 

9 putting it mildly 
uxquls'te and tbe 
jjrice Is much be- 

ij !.';; .; liundied moronichrtfcrcnceHif 
Chooao Irom for Twcuty-flve 

bemitlfully done by litbogrnpbic 

t. prices for high 

lo i'»-i . ■..>-. ml ,ni.i ii..'.i 111. HI > n. i-M.ii, Il u in'ii \ oil i> I it.- iii'i M'li \i ill !..■ i'i Mm ptiy attended 

"or date and nniiifnTuidclnatr. ' Ui-iurmtipi' I hi-. ; In nothne out a si evifti ucsigii Ihe iwnf ii!>h •ml. r tlif fi\« M>i7( tUm 0^1 pr. 
y wrapped up and put way flat will remain for years as good as new. 

Partial List of Diplomas etc., that we Carry in Stock. — Size about i8 x 2J Inches. 


would be 
e. except 

r bv lined for 

V IhcsubRtitutiOi 

Kind of an hducational Institu- 

ii'iiii! iiiri.iii 1 1 .1 -. 1 1 1.1 ..I - Im. it hand and Typewriting -Dtp. 1. 

■■^luiriliaiin iini) Typcwrlllng Depurlmenl of Itiisl- 

lerlnl Uusiness CyllCKe Dip1omu(!)ookkeeping and AccountlngCourf^e) 
graving from your copy or ours. 

We also do every kind of plati 
inps. etc.. in line and lialMone, V 

:iSl t 

IliiiloniiL. UrileriiH II1i>Iuiiih O. 

.Ml l*nBC 71. t Ortlor aNCeriiacni*)^ 

hiitia M, and It the basis of diplonina 1 
iiuiiy Publio, Gradei ur Private Sct.ot 

■ Diploma (Any Detartmeuti— Dip. F 
-Dip. O 
-Dip. H 

nkle. In 
aljed In a 

Dip. 0. 

Dip. H. 
(Ilookkceping and Accounting Course) 

II) Kit ADyPeamanshlpScbooD-Dlp. x. 

r ours. PortrailM. btilhliiig^. cummencfment curds. Journal hi-K'liiigs, 1< 
Ml spoclftlty. 

D. T. AMES, Penman's Art Journal. 202 Broadway, New York. 


■^ii$gf^ r^en/naA^QS^VLtyOycii,tAa.C) 

Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of thc-m, make books which they try to palm off as superior to 
the nrijjinnls. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

Because it is the best text-book on the subject ever published, as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books [)receding it, all of which arc now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from it. 

What evidence is there that it is a standard work ? 

li has been published 33 years without change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
the country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of Ai.i, AiioiiT Phonookaphv, the 
largest and bandsoniist shorthand circular ever published. 


and Publisher, 


744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting, 

744 Broadway, New York. 


TYPEV2ITEB Hi Broodway, New T. 
HEATQUABTEBS, {SdOWabosb Ave., chit 

''SHORTHAND';;;::;'?:;: ',;:: 



BACK NltnBBBS of T Hit 
tiilninir Mrs. Pnckarrt's Com 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 

The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 2^ years' experience, author of " Aid to Graham," 
" Shorthand Copy-Book." &c., President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
Sy.stem in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
lis interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unequaled in the history 
of shorthand teachers. The publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will be sent 
by mail post-paid to anv address on recei])! of the price. $i 50 



THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., Publishers, ,.^ 
23 to 27 Euclid Avenue, - Cleveland, Ohio. 

1 he Henn 1 itman System of Phonography 


American System of Shorthand. 

To ^upi^T thp inrrpaiilDit tlomtnd for ittriu>Kni|iti<-r<t. FotiooU 
or shorthnua iind i>iM^writiDir hii*- brcn r^tablL-hed in VHrlinis purls 

Of Benn Pttn 

generally used 

iHyf-.n. r>. CX for the j, 

I Pbooovniphr now. I ihnuld avt 
-Itooks. and follow them. -Dmnbi 

\^tfUl^-.^t»■it. \mi.) 

has since 18.>5 been the staodnni t' xt-book of shorihand instruction in America. It 
hH.x been twice reviaed nod rr writ on (in 1H«0 and in I»85) — the liutt time by B. no 
Pitman and Jerome B. Howard in colin^mrotion— and it is now inoro larijely u9od in 
Americnn sch lolsof •'Iiortlmnd. business colleges, seminaries. Hcademii-s, public schools 
Hod eo'leecft, iban nrc all other rborthand text books combined. It has rniched its 
"iTOth thousand and is now issued at the rate of over 25.000 copies a jear. U contains 
144 duodecimo pages and retails «> $1.00 a copy, in rloth cover?, cr $.80 a copy in 

.Jerome B. Howard, i- the only (s-^cntinl ttxt-book besides the Mnnuat, and eonduct^ 
the.ttidtnl to the briefest atjle of writint,' used by profes^Nioaiil reporters. ISnio, 
187 payes. Price in cloth. $1.25; in boards, $1.00. 

THE PHONOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, edited by .leronu- 

B. Howard. Large 8vo, 44 nr more puges monthly, among which nr eight pages of 
l)eautifullf Iithogni])hcd phonetic shorthand. A periodical complement to the text' 
books and the authentic organ of the Benn Pitman sjstem of Phonograpliy. Sub- 
scription price. $1.50 a year. Now in its sixth volun^c. Vols. I-V in cloth eovir!>, 
$3.50 each. 

Send for complete cntalo;.' and specimen pages of all phoD<igrtii)liic 

A liberal discount will be made to all schools and to teachers 
of Phonography, and special prices will be quoted for introduc- 
tion and exchange. 




loformntlon. Capita Ts, Punctuiitlon. Letter- Writ I UK, Pormnor Ailrlreu, At)brDVlntlonB. Hli 
■ .- — Exercises for Pni«ticc, 21 nagv* of fair-sliulle lypewrltlDg. Clotli; w 

> color;). Prepaid to any adorers. (1. spelling and 1.,4'tter-WrltlDir. 2)J4 

fruphere. Exercises for Practice, 21 pui 
- ■" ' vo colore. Prepaid to any aoai 
Specimen pngres free. Spencer 



Better made, 

Runs easier, does 

Better Work, and 

IVIore of it, than any other 

Constantly improved. 


Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, 

327 Broadway, New Vork. 


Learn Shorthand? 

I have applications continually for 
young men which I cannot 611. I could 
have located two or three times ae many 
young men the liu*t year if 1 had the 

There is no better field for Kmart young 
iF.rn than Shorthand Writing. Let it »K' 
,. -t.-piinik' f^tone for eomething higher. 

SPANISH taught by mail and pcrwin- 
.illy. Spuuiarda taught Engliwh. Bu*- 
ine^ii men fumiahed competent Sten- 
ugraphers witboot charge for i 

OSWEGO, N. Y. 1- 

^^ <lJenma/U QS^iCoJ'oiLtAM3 


The ORIGINAL, tnd tor 64 years the STANDARD. 

' Employment Positively Guaranteed.' 

(Continued from page 73.) 

«Dd cspnDlr or lei-orilDg ihe mont rapid speakon ■'— 

OVER 2.0 00.000 TEXT BO OKS SOLD. 

Send for book cootflliilnir alphnbot, and cRtR' 
logue of works by Isoiic Fitman, the Invtntoi 
of I'bonoprBpliy. A discount ot *0S i)|luwi.'d Ic 
echoole and X- iitbers. AilOiess: 


The Phonographic Depot. 3 East Mlh St., New Yorl< 

Quickly 1 
body »'o 

ular. Machines rcntcii on trial. 

day. No arilh- 
A short, simple, practical 
methodby E.C.ATKINSON, Principal of 
Sacramento Business College, Sacramento, 
Cal. By mail, 50 cents. Address as above. 


ForvacKiJClesot .11 kmJa lu nearly ever.v «. 
/■."•nTOMifturwell'ima" """ "" 

iik/rrf, «goni. w.ulcl 

147 Throop St , CH1CA60, ILL 


Lock Box 338, Cellar flapldt, Iowa. 




Ever Pnblished, 

s learned i 

hnDdsome style at home, with no other iotitructor than 
hip from Palmer'a Guide to Muscular Movemeiit Writing, 


MANY TEAGHEnO und''bTvebecorae^eadtnlT"proVesViODal penmen with oo other teacher. 


Palmer's Guide to Hu.-*cular Movement Wrltinit bus hccume tho leading publication on practical writing, and it has be*-!! ; 

,,,,,^ i,, u I ii. .1 :_-..'. I I. , III I ■.' Ill n -'Ml til .11- L^iveii In the Guide are frtithfiilly 

I ^ I lopment of muscular movement i 

the civilized world. 


EVERY STEP ;;;,ir;;,";: 


ft to the imaglna- 

S? k>«°lt. "ll'°°«8hl M 




Mention the I....... An, Jo,,n..u. CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA. 




ner; teaches "Reporters' Kulo of Position" 
from beginning, and discards all that whicb 
will not be of actun) use to the stenographer 

LIGHTED with It anil pronounco U the 
EA!slE!ST. HAND!|iOME9Tnnd UE!«T Text 

Eicgant pai 
ing. Special ehnpter^ 
punctuation. Practice letters for students. 

Retail Price, ... «|.80. 
Sample Copy to Teachers, - I.OO. 


llie Bryant and Stratton Poblislilng Co., 

l-li 461 MAIN ST., BUFFALO. N. y. 


LISTEN i^hi/e we tell you some- 
thing about that paper. 

1 April l3*ue 1 
will be a fairly i 


page lesson in' 
writing by Kd 
drawing by I). 

nple eopy will besi 


Cedar Rapids Iowa. 



/if ^£amaf'^ 

In (INRof WILLIAMS ABOOKBS'aunrpnpnlarroDimerctel Publloatlotu. Althounh but 
lhr«riBontharroiD ih^pimll bMbe<>oadopto<) hy many of Ihr leadlni buslnm eot- 
lM[f«Bn<l C(i(omprctal<lp|«rtm<>nlaorthr coiiDiry. and tcHcben and Muilpnts of pfiu- 
nunahlpurr •1'-)l|tbt<4 wllb fC. It Isorlftlnil. iiDl<|ue>and b.-«utlful, ami il« iKcullnrUlevcom- 
mfnd It iiiBUntly to nil who cxttnlnc it. Amonir It* atroiiB <|iiallttw arv : 

FiHjrr— Tb*- llnpn an- exact reprodactluna of ttte aotual poD-wrltiog of rtoe ol tho best 
|ir«ctk-«l wiiti^ In th« c-auntry. raeU-ad of accurate cngniTlnicii from pvDcll drawings. 

Kmnxn— Thi< ruplcn art- printed on ruled paper, whfub coDirtbutcaao mucb (o their natural- 
DfM thai th«- avf-rain' pupil doai not Busptn;! that the llDMait* ooKravlom. 

TillKi>-Thf> m-\ rontnin* an larre a number of ccploa, £U in all, tbtt the pupil floda ample 
variety, which Kcun-* and holds hia Intorwt. 

KoraTM-The noOK (iF INSTItCCTIONS, which accompanlc« every wt, affords the |>tii.f I 
jiitt thoM.- hlnlx. ■usTT'tlnQiiand dlrrcilonaaa to bow to pnctlce to iDSUtv impiovrnmnt that 
ibe ino>t caimblf' ti-acber uf trrltinir would irH'c him. 

Tb^rt-tad prlc4>of Ihlawl. vhloh Ucnited tbeCoMPLBTX Kdition, Id $1.00. and one will be 
inallM to any addrm on rfOClDt of that amount ID postal note or postaac ataiops. A 9t?x will 
ifx mailed to any toacher, with a view to Introduction, tor TiOc. 

AN ABRIDGED EDITION of Pen-Written Copies (Reproduced). 

CntiiiDinu iiljout IDi) copius and a liouk of luMructiuus, ailaptud to public ami 
]irivHlc KchoolB, has just been issued. The retail price is 50c. and a set will be 
niafled to any teacher, with a view to introduction, on receipt of 25c. in postnl 
lint, or |M,«liiyc -.taiiips. Altcnlloii is nisu calUd to the following: 

NEW COMPLETE BOOKKEEPING. 275 Pages. Retail Price, $2.50. 

NEW INTRODUCTIVE BOOKKEEPING. 125 Pages. Retail Price, $1.25 
FIRST LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING. 75'pages Retail Price, 75c. 

COMMERCIAL LAW. 310 Pages Retail Price, $2.00. 

BOSINESS LAW (*??."ff7.r"). 200 Pages. Retail Price, $1.25. 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 275 Pages. Retail Price, $2.00. 

I nr .III I u.1 f;.yr» f.H,. /( 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC < 'rJ-AfsV.^"). 225 Pages. 
Retail Price, $1.25. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 235 Pages. Retail Price, $1.50. 

Retail Price, 75c. 

SEVENTY LESSONS IN SPELLING. 130 Pages. Retail Price, 30c 

THREE WEEKS IN BUSINESS PRACTICE. Method ,*' Outfit, $35.00 


r I'tiulralitm Burineio'. It 


NEW BOOKKEEPING. 250 Pages. Retail Price, $2.00, 

We also carry a line of Diplomas for both Commercial and Shorthand Departments, which may be 

adapted to any school; also Blank Books and Business Forms for Bookkeeping, Stationery. 

College Currency, &c., &c. Correspondence Solicited. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Educational Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 

m slso. thi'iv ttrln^ lirfi?en ebeets 


ifintlit ivritUn (•o;>i/-Jt. frr^li frtim the pen. <m heavy, ii 

J Iirt4?en ebeets packed in h sulistanfial case and M-n 

poatturc «t«mps Address 

W. H. PATRICK. 643 N. Fulton Ave., Baltin 


The De 

Incorporaled Ian. 21. 1890. 

i College. Cor. B'l 

Paid up Capital Stock. $100,000. 

/and Wills, 

arland Ch _ - . _ _ 

/ Tribune Bids , Detroit. Ml, 
- Block, Norwalk. r 

Sts., Buffalt 

wn prIntloK Htid blndinK 


M. J. CATON, Cleveland, Ohio. 


' IlllA 

h'I I'r 

THK NATIONAL LKAUTIi biu ii nuroilu III 

^^^ =Afy encli si&lc In the Union which concontnito thulr wholi, 

lATE ; inHui'ncc and skill upon the ONB POI.MT olsolfctlnKufiii 


'.^Lj ^A-'/K... 


Tin- l«..l pill,,. l„ l,ii-,,ui,- a P.iiman. Arli»l ...n.! Tra.h.r. M.«Urti. Prnctkal .Mcth.,,!*. S, nsil.I,.. P^n^^l■^MVe Thi...rii.>. S,i|,Tif, 
Uallins Pinmrii Hiiil Anisls uiviiig folin. Iiii«. I., school anil «.,rk. Si\ hours in.slniclion cliiilv. Chiw Diill-. |.,.cliir<.» iinil Tnclivi,l,i,.l In cheap. More applicaliiins (or Graduate.! Ihau we cao lill. Kineal Penman's Supplii.9 I.<.».s„n9 l.v Hail .. .lei iileil «ini ,->. Ilii;li , la-s .!,,!, n,,rk <l„ii, 
shot! nmiee. Ma){ll<lict'UtK Illustratetl CalalOKilc, showing workof GruduaU.^. eU-., sent for 10 lents in silver or ilaiiips. ( ir. iilsrs (ni . 


" " -ZANER'S MASTERPIECE, A Floiirisliwl Eagle, enlilled " Progress. " '2'2 x -JS, worth »100, mailed in luhe. | for .50 cenn. 

, N, Y. the Henowne<t Penman, aaya: " I Itelieve it waa engraved from the finest specimcD of Ftoiirishinp ever exMriiliHl." 

I'nif. A. W. n«kin, Ainslerdai 


NEW YORK, JUNE. 1892. 

Vol. 16. No, 6. 

B. E. A. Program. 

Outline nf thp W»rk lo he I>niie nl tlio 
8ai-atoi[a Meetlnii. 

Secretary Osborn has just issued the 
subjoined prospectus for the fourteenth 
annual convention of the Business Edu- 
cators' Association of America, to be held 
in connection with the National Educa- 
tional Association's meeting at Saratoga 
from the 7th to the 14tli of next month, 


In accordance with the instructions of 
the convention of the Business Educators' 

manifested, the Executive Committee 
confidently predicts tbat tbe Saratoga 
meeting of the B. E. A. will be the most 
successful one in the history of the as- 

The opportunity of becoming a recog- 
nized part of the great educational body 
of America, and the manifold direct and 
indirect advantage of such connection to 
business education and business educat- 
ors, should lead every commercial teacher 
in America to become enrolled as a regu- 
lar member of the Business Educators' 
Association and to attend the meetings of 
that body. The advantages of the con- 

without dates at this time saves much 
unnecessary labor, Those wbose names 
appear on the program are requested 
to be present at the opening of the con- 
vention and to remain throughout the 
several sessions, as this will enable the 
Executive Committee to better arrange 
the work. Those on the program who 
cannot be present at the opening or can- 
not remain till the close of the conven- 
tion, or who for any reason are unable to 
attend, are also requested to so inform 
the chairman of the Executive Commit- 
tee as early as possible before the meeting. 
Considering the amount of work to be 

Tbe Scope of Business Colleee Instruction. 
— G. W. Brown, Jacksonville, III. 

Educators — K. C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Disciplinary Value of the Commercial 
Biaochea.— w. E, McCord, Peoria, lU. 

The Relotion of the Business College to the 
Public School. — F. W. Crossfiold, Jamestown, 
N. Y., and C. C. Cochran. Chicago. 111. 

The Business College Teacher. -—J. W, Warr, 
Moline, III., and J. H. Atwood, Springfleld, 

The Business A 
Tbe Position We Occupy, 

\. D. Wilt, Dayton, 

5a ^^"^-j 

Example of Ornate Catatogue Cover or Title Page for Btmn^ss College, made in The Jour 
Protected by Copyriglif. 

Association held at Chautauqua in 1891. 
arrangements have been effected for hold- 
ing the convention for the current year at 
Saratoga in connection with the "Na- 
tional Educational Association." 

Through the courtesy of the officers of 
that association, the spacious and beauti- 
ful Sunday school room of the Methodist 
Church has been secured forour meeting, 
which will be called Thursday. July 7, at 
1 p.m.. and continue for one week. 

The Executive Committee of the as- 
sociation takes especial pleasure in pre- 
senting at this date the program of tbe 
exercises as arranged for the Saratoga 
convention. It will be readily seen that 
the cominc nieetiu'^ will be one of un- 

nection with the National Association 
can hai'dly be overrated, especially in 
view of the coming World's Exposition, 
wherein the claims of bnsiness education 
are to have the fullest recniiniti'm as an 
important part of the ednciitionat system 
of America. Onr members will also be 
members of the national body, with the 
full privileges of all its meetings, and it is 
but fair to presume that this considera- 
tion alone will be an attraction of unusual 
force. The National Association, as is 
well known, is the largest body of teach- 
ers in the world, and commands the best 
talent from every field of education. 

The new auspices and circumstances 
under which the association meets have 
rendered it necessary to issue the pro- 
gram without dates. The exercises for 
each session will be arranged at the meet- 
ing, and. as this is usually done in any 
event, the printing of the jirogram 

done, the time is short, and those prepar- 
ing papers and exercises are earnestly re- 
quested to keep them within the fwcnfi/- 
miniife limit, and then, by keeping dis- 
cussion to the point, much can be accom- 
plished. Repetitions and want of time 
have compelled the Executive Committee 
to omit some names from the program 
of those who kindly offered to take part. 
The sessions will begin promptly on 
Thursday. July 7. at 1 p.m., ami will 
continue without interruption until the 
following Tuesday, after which time it 
cannot now be said how many sessions 
will be held, on account of the meetings 
of the National Educational Association. 


'ill be of 

M- nil. 1.1. in 

..1. 1, 

iual interest. It 
■r. that a 
■lings will 
li will be 

What Should We Do fur the World's Fair of 
18H3 ?-S. S. Packard. New York. 

Reciprocitv in Idyas. — R. E. Gallagher, 
Hamilton, Out. 

How Shall we As^iit Our Students to Make 
the Most of tht'ir Opjio 
num. Hartford " 

Money and 
Scranton, Pa. 

The Teaching of Mann. 

. Spencer, Washington, 

-W. H. Sadler, Bal- 



ImiirovMl HKhncUof TwchiDg SborthaiKl.— 
inac H Dement, Chic«K'>. HI. 

Mborlhsnd in Thn* Munths.-H. O. Bem- 
hurlt. Harrinbunr. !*•. 

TacbaKnphy, or IJUrmry ab'>rthand.— S. M. 
*Jr»wdT. McKwwport. Pa. 

loitiatonr W<>rk in P"fnruao»hip-— J H. 
Luckfy, IxwiKvllle, Kt. 

Bi»>in«m Pmauiiwbip.— J. F. Kish Ltev* 
lanil. Ohio ; A. N. Palmar, O^ar Uapidn. 
Iowa, and A P. Koot. PbtlAilcl|)b)a, Pa. 

Habit fo Writing.— J. P. Byrne. JamewWwn. 

of Prnm(in<chlp in Public 

I ii,.,tpiis ( iiiiij, sMth Ulustra- 

,1. I ' I << '• iiiiiaDahlp. — 

!a"l'"^i."m '\\ritmK.-C. B. 

LaDg««Kc Work in Bu*iiie» Colleges. — R. W. 
Kinht-r. C'linton. Iowa. 

Rapid CalcnlatiooB.— J. B, Luckey. L-juls- 
villv, Ky , and Col. «oo. H(iul<5. Now OrlvaoK, 


apphed to thv 

Farley. Tr..i 
Peoria, hT.. 

in PublicScbooIs.— D. H. 

nollroarf Announctmentm. 

\Frnm HuUetin of N. K. A.) 

(Membei-8 ehould consult local ticket agents 

fi)i' fuller iiurllculars.] 

The Trunk Line ARiociation of railrootLt bait 
Krant«d a rat« of one, tben lowest, first cla&s, 
limited fare one way for tbe round trip, from 
I>oiut8 100 milcK or more distant from Sara- 
toga : and in addition will odd a (2 coupon, as 
a membership fee, an<l collect the same at tbe 
time of i^ellinK the tii'ket, and pay the fee to 
the treasurer of the N. K. A. The ro-md trip 
tickets will be on nale at all principal stations 
of the Trunk Line AsMociafion, and will be 
i;ixmI, Koi<>K> Jul/ ^ ^ 14< Z^oA returning until 
July 10, subject to on extension of time, upon 
dejKX-iit with the agent of the terminal line nt 
Haratoga, until Heptembcr 15. Tickets bo 
de)i(wited are to be culled for when tbe return 
trip i8 to l>e made. If so requested at time of 
di'positiog ticket, it will be forwarded to and 
limy be called for at tbe ofSce of the agent of 
the railroad in Albauy. 

The Bo«ton Passenger Committee hasauthor- 
ired one limited Qret-cluu fore for the round 
trip for the meeting of the N. E. A., ptutt mem- 
lierehip fee of $2, to be reported to the N. E. 
A., provided strict neutrality is observed by 
its ufflcers in naming rates and routes from 
this territory. Ticket* to be good for contin- 
uous paeiiage in both directions: to be sold and 
good going July 7 to 18, inclusive, and return- 
ing until July Dl, Inclusive. 

The Central Trafflc A^wcfation of Chicago 
hFui granted n rate of one lowest flrst-cluss 
limited fore for the round trip, with a 13 
coupou uildiHl to each ticket as a membership 
fee, A round-trip ticket is to be on sale July 
4 and amtinnn ou sale until July IS. Tickets 
to bo g'Mxl I'eturning, on Ituin/ stamped by tbe 
ngeut of the terminal lincA at Saratoga, until 
July li), said return limit to be extended to 
September IS if tbe orUiual pui-chsMjr de- 
{K>sitn the ticket with the agent of the terminal 
lines at Saratoga, to be called for whi^n the 
return trip i>< to be made. As in the ca«e of 
Trunk Line tickets, ticket^ will be forwanled, 
if so requested at the time of depositing, t«i the 
oflU'o of the mllniad in Albany. 

The Western Passenger AfMociation of Chi- 
cago has adoptetl a resolution waking a rate 
of one lowest flrst-class fare for the round trip, 
p1u.« 1^-, for National Educational Association 
meeting. Details of arrangements as to dates 
of sales, etc., are to Iw determined wilhiu the 
next lif teen days. 

The Trann-Mit^niri Pa{««.<nger Association 
hasodoptiil for the N. B. A. meeting at Sam- 
toga a rate ol one lowest flrst-class fare, phis 
f2, from all territory, except Montana, con- 
tingent upon nclioD of iut<>rmediat« osocia- 
lioD>; datcbof !.ale and other conditions to be 
vubsMiuently agreed upon, it l>eiDg understood 
that tbe %'i is not a niemltership ft-e and that 
lines m this asMviation wiU retain same in 
their own enrnings. It is hoped that tbe 
nlxi\-e w)U be modified before tbe meeting, and 
that this a.ssoctalioa will grant us a rate simi- 
lar to tbatot the Trunk Line and others 

The Trans-CoutineoCal Aisociation of St. 
L<.>uis, Mo., dediDes to make any lower rate 
than its regular eastbouodexcurfiioDrateof M> 

froiD Piciflc Coa*t points lo Ufawnuri River 
poiota, ^U FanI, MinneApolisand rrtum. Tick- 
rli> M>ld at this rate allow (10 days for tbe east- 
bound p«*^Mge and six months from date of 
tale for the return |«MBge, with stopovers *» 
rou(« within tbe going and returning limits. 
Tickets are good going one route and ntuming 
anotbt!*'. and can be purchas«l at any lime. 

Tbe Southern Paiwengpr Aaioclatioo bas ar- 
ranged rotes for the N. E. A. meeting of one 
and one-third fare from points within their 
territory, plus the rate named by tbe Trunk 
Line and Central Traffic AsMwiattona. From 
Ohio and Potomac River points tickets will 
be subject to conditions named by tbe Trunk 
Lines, except as to dates. 

Other information regarding "side trips" 
from Saratoga ran be found in the bulletin of 
the National Educational Association : sent 
to any address by C. W. Bardeen, Syi-ncuse, 
N. Y. Every B. E. A. menil»er should see this 

fiolef and Itoardtng Housr Jrrotnmotla- 

[Tfae following regarding accommodations is 
taken from the National Educational Associa- 
tion Bulletin, and these rates are guuianteed.] 

Ample accommodations have I een provided 
at the numerous hotels and bi)arding houses of 
Saratoga for the entertainment of members of 
the association. Tbe rates of the largest and 
best hotels will not exceed $3 per day, while 
good board can be had at private boarding 
houses at from tl to *2 per day. No place of 
entertaiimient is more than eight or ten minut«s 
distant from tbe places of meeting, and the 
majority of the places are les than five minutes 

A complete list of hotels and boarding houses 
has been prepared, so that persons applying a 
sufficient time in advance of their arrival in 
Saratoga will be assigned to their stopping 
places, and notices of the same mailed to them, 
so that they may go direct from the trains to 
their places of entertainment. 

It is rcry imporlant to persons intending to 
lie present at the meetings, as well as to the 
Entertainment Committee i() B. Kipp. chair- 
man, Saratoga, N. Y.), tbut applications for 
boarding places should be made, when possible, 
in advance, stating definitely tbe kind of 
accommodalioo desired, at what rate, and for 
how long Persons who observe this request 
cuu have their baggage delivered promptly 
upon their arrival by giving their checks to 
agents of the Saratoga Baggage Express Com- 
pany, who will meet all incoming trains some 
distance out of the city. 

Persons having been assigned places of enter, 
ment are requested to make no change without 
notifying the committee. 

In applying for entertainment slate clearly 
how much you wish to pay per day, and 
whether you prefer o hotel or a boarding 

Letter Writing in America. 

AtiUTicans are the greatest letter-writ- 
ing people on the globe. Of the fifty odd 
billion pieces of mail which are posted in 
the world every year nearly three billion 
go through the post offices of the United 
States. We spend every year more than 
$.>2,000.000 for postage, and during the 
year 1801 American tongues licked the 
backs of t;J7,00(1.000 worth of sticky 

The postage stamps sold every year the 
world over far surpass iu value the 
riches of Jay Gould or the Rothschilds. 
and the postage stamp industry of the 
world is one of the greatest factors in the 
machinery which moves the universe 
to-day. And yet postage stamps are of 
comparatively recent origin. It is barely 
fifty years ago since they were first used 
in England, and in I«47 Congress first 
authorized their use in the United States. 
— I^iiiisrilleConrirr Journal. 

An I and a Jay. 

Johnny was writing a letter and Willie was 
looking over his shoulder. 

" You're not making that ' I ' right," said 

" \\*hat's tbe matter with it. Pd like to 
kuow f" replied Johnny. 

" You're running it below tbe line ; that's 
what's the matter with it." 

" I guess I'm writing Ibis letter, ain't If If 
I want to make it that way itV my business, 

■* Coarse. If you want to make a J of your- 
self, go ahead." — Chicayo Titbun'. 

Pen - Lettering and Engrossing. 

|AW half-tone cut. next /MiJ/f-l 
Outline and shade as in second line. It 
is well to nse wiiter-proof ink, as it will 
not soften so easily as the common India 
ink washing on the white. Put the white 
on with a stub pen or brush, and have it 
thick close to the letters and where it 
breaks over them. Use a bntsh and thin 
white for the outside or final touches. 
Water-color white, the same as used by 
artists in water-color painting, is the ma- 
terial to use. (iray bristnl board is n^vd. 

Free-Hand Drawing. 

An important element in drawing is 
what may be called bi-lateral symmetry. 
One side balances the other, as it were. 
In tracing the development of animals 
from the lowest to the highest fortns of 
organization we notice that the bi-lateral 
symmetry is an important factor in 
classifying the different orders. The 
moi-e perfect the double organization, 
the higher the rank. This fact must be 
kept in mind if we desire to imitate 
nature in mir sketclie** and designs. 
In the vegetable kingdom, although not 
an important element in clnssification, 
yet the fact is obvious that bi-lateral 
symmetry exists. Notice how one 
side of a leaf balances the other, the 
mid-vein separating the 
two parts. In fruit also 
we notice the same exhib- 
ited, as apple, pear or 
peach. Observe how the 
left side of the acorn 
balances the right, the 
basis being an ellipse, i 

figure we have the 
same principle illus- 
trated introducing 
straight lines. In tie 

bucket a greater nuni- 

troduccd. The handle 
is the half ellipse in 
an obliqtie position. 
The top the horizontal 
ellipse. The left and right sides, oblique 
lines having the same angle of slant and 
so drawn as to produce symmetry. The 
hoops are all parallel to the lower t-ide of 
the ellipse. Draw this object entirely 
free-hand, producing the handle in dif- 
ferent positions lo develop skill in draw- 
ing the ellipse at different angles. Also 
draw the object with tlie top elliitse on a 
slant, giving the appearance of the bucket 
tipping over. At the same time, fruit, 
such as apples or pears, may be drawn as 
if falling to the ground from the bucket. 
In figure of the 
brush the slant- 
ing clliiwe is il- 
ated. one 
side of the brush 
being also sym- 
metrica! with tbe 
other. Fine lines 
are introduced to 
represent the 
bristles and sligbty curved lines to illus- 
trate shading. The curved lines to repre- 
sent shading in upper part of brush should 
be heaviest near the edge, decreasing in 

shade and aizv toward tin- ccnterof brush 
and many more should be introduced 
than apiH-ar in the picture alwve. The 
lines to represent hriatletf may also 
be dra ^n to indicate shading, by 
making the heaviest and darkest lines 
very nearly at edge of brush, and con- 
tinue each the same width and color 
the entire length. The next lines should 
be slightly narrower and lighter as the 
" center of brush is approached until they 
finally blend from each side into the 
white at center of brush. In drawing 
uiKin paiwr with jh-u or pencil, l>ear in 
miud that you are representing^ shade by 
your strokes, while on the other hand, 
working upon the blackboard with chalk 
you are representing light. The condi- 
tions are exactly reversed : thus the 
hea\'iest lines with chalk are made at the 
center, the lightest near the edge. The 
blackboard to begin with is all shade. 
The paper is all light. UiKin one you 
supply light, upon the other, shade. Care 
should also be taken in the selection of 
jiencils, pens and ink. Do not attempt to 
use the pen upon unsized paper, nor with 
a coarse pen. Gillott No. SOS is a good 
pen. Dixon's are good pencils. C. A. 
Aitkin, Cincinnati, mauufact\ires good 
ink. Do not rely upon anything except 
free-hand movement. If yon have do 
veloped a cramped inovcmi 

Initials and End Pieces. 


KJHT. Shade. Shadow and Ef- 
fect are four most important 
/ values to be considered 
in the composition of 

Light and Shade 
have to do with tbe 
light and dark por- 
tions of the surface of 
objects as revealed by 
the presence o*- ab- 
sence of light 

An object is rarely seen the sides of 
which are equally light, and that portion 
which is darkest is said to be shaded. 

Shadow and Effi-ct are conditions some- 
what detached from the object, the first 
of which is that caused by the object 
being between the light and surface on 
which it is reflected, and is not a part of 
the object but the result of it. 

EflEect is that which producea piich a 
combination of lights and shades and 
shadows as to [ilcase or startle the eye. 
It frequently- consiMts of a dark back- 
ground. It is the reault of placing a light 
object in front of a dark surface or a dark 
object in front of a light one. 

Thus, by placing an object where it re- 
ceives a strong light and where a suiface 
is near enough on which it niay ( ast ita 
shadow' and the background of which is 
apposite in value, we may say that the 
drawing ia made up o lights and shades. 



shadow and effect. 

{To Ift conlu.ufd\ 

tains V*i choice pii 

the old and new (avoniM. I De vojume in run 
■if mnterial for many an evt'ning'a entertain- 
ment at tbe fln-side or in social gatheringH, 
and gives tbe wonls ai.d mu.'-ic, all the paita 
complete, arranKcd by ' barles P Blake, for 
tbe very low price of fW cents. F. Trifet is 
the publisher, 408 U ashingtoD street. Boston. 
Mass.. by whom the book will b^ st-nt po«t- 
paid on receipt of the price to any p«irt of ihe 

^"^^^ CJe/i//icmA d/tity oJ^a/ZAa:CP 

Fate of the Pennies. 

WHAT becomes of all the pennies? 
It seems to be with them very 
much as it is with pins— nobody 
knows where and how they disappear. 
Yet they vanish in some fashion. Last 
year the Philadelphia Mint coined 04,- 
000.000 pennies. It would take a good- 
.sized biiilding to hold so many, but they 
did not bejfin to supply the never- satisfied 
demand for more. Just now the estab- 
lishment referred to is hard at work 
manufacturing further supplies, and so it 
will continue. 

Bronze cents are subject to more acci- 
dents than hippen to any other United 
States coins. It said that a penny changes 
hands in trade ten times for once that a 
dime passes from one pocket to another. 
Being of small value, these little pieces 
are not taken much care of. There are a 
thousand ways in which they get out of 
circulation, and thus the minting of them 
has tfl he kept up continually. The metal 
blanks from which they are made by the 
simple process of stamping are turned out 
for Uncle Sam by contract by a factory in 
Connecticut at the rate of a thousand for 
$1. As the)' come from the machines, 
fresh and new, they look like glittering 

One may get a notion of the number 
of pennies lost from the history of the 
old half cents. Of these, 800.000 were 
issued a few years ago. Where are they 
now ? A few are in the cabinets of coin 
collectors. None have been returned to 
the mint for recoinage or are held by the 
Treasury. Nobody sees them in circula- 
tion. All of them except some hundreds 
saved out by curio hunters have absolutely 
disappeared. Of the old copper pennies, 
119,000,000 still remain unaccounted for. 
siive that once in a long while one sees a 
specimen. There are more than 3,000,000 
bronze two-cent pieces somewhere out of 
4.300,000 of them that the Government 
issued. Of nickel three-cent pieces, nearly 
2,000,000 are yet outstanding, although it 
is seldom that one of them is come across. 
Speaking of the redemption of paper 
money, a very novel and interesting ap- 
plication was made the other day to the 
division of the Treasury which has this 
business in hand. The story as it came 
out was as follows : 

An ingenious youth employed to sweep 
out a New York bank devoted attention 
for a considerable period to gathering up 
the crumbs from the tills in the shape of 
corners and other bits of notes such as 
t^et torn off and fall about in any place 
where dollars are counted. In the course 
of time he got together a quantity of 
scraps of the sort suflBcient to fill a pint 
measure, and he sent them on to the 
Redemption Bureau at Washington in a 

they will poke over a few charred frag- 
ments of notes and set an accurate valua- 
tion upon them. The other day a poor 
woman in Ohio sent a wee comer of a 
120 bill, with a pitiful story about her 
baby's having burnt it. Hardly more 
was left than a fragment big enough to 
show the figures of the denomination, 
but she will get the money back. Mice 
are great destroyers of paper currency, 
and some of the most hopeless specimens 
that come in have been chewed up for 
beds by those little rodents. Sometimes 
a pill box full of indistinguishable a^hes 
will arrive, accompanied by a certificate 

the brown back for snch bills on the 

ground that it could not be washed off, 
as the green back can be. It was in- 
tended in this way to prevent counter- 
feiters from procuring Treasury paper by 
rendering not«s of small denominations 
blank with acids and printing big ones 
on them. This is the first time that con- 
fidence in the indelibility of the brown 
ink has been disturbed. Even the seal 
on the front, which is done in the same 
ink. has entii-ely disappeared in the bill 
described. Whether the thing was done 
for a jest or by accident the authorities 
do not pretend to say. 

stating the amount represented. Of 
course, such a case is hopeless. It is usu- 
ally a kitchen-stove catastrophe. 

Kitchen stoves burn up more cash every 
year than is lost in any other one way. 
People will confide their hoards to them 
for hiding, and when they are lighted the 
greenbacks go up in smoke. The greatest 
sum ever consumed by fire in this coun- 
try was $1,000,000. That amount went 
up in smoke at the Sub-Treasury, but the 
Government was able to replace it at the 
cost of paper ami printing. It has been 
estimated that one per cent, of all the 
paper money issued is lost or destroyed. 
Of the old fractional currency it is reck- 
oned that $8,000,000 has been totally lost. 

A few days ago an old colored man 
from across the Potomac in Virginia 
brought to the Treasury an extraordinary 
looking lump of metal. He said that it 
was a lot of silver dollars, halves and 
quarters, which he had put in a tin can 
some years back and bidden in the stone 
wall of a bam by removing a stone and 
plastering up the orifice. When recently 
be took out the box he found that trick- 

, /Vecprfi»(/ Page. 

The new designs soon to be made for 
the entire series of silver certificates, 
except the one for $2 already completed, 
will furnish a big job to the Bureau of 
Engiaving. Only the backs are to be 
changed, but the making of a single one 
of these money plates, with all the letter- 
ing and geometric lathe work involved, 
is a formidable task. It is not on this 
account that Chief Engraver Casilear 
thinks the proposed alterations unwise. 
His opinion is that it is a mistake to 
change the appearance of currency more 
often than is absolutely necessary. The 
people do not readily accept paper cash 
that has a strange look. 

To illustrate this. Mr. Casilear yester- 
day told how he happened to be in New 
York at one time during the war looking 
out for a gang of counterfeitei-s. To avoid 
making his presence in the city conspicu- 
ous he put up at a second-rate hotel, 
where he was unknown. For some pur- 
pose he handed to the clerk at the desk a 
brand-new 50-cent note. It was an issue 
just out. with General Spinner's portrait 
on it. the likeness having been substituted 

wA-'J ;a1J 



liiix. with the explmation that they had 
hovu eaten by mice. He stated the 
amount at $200. and asked for new bills 
in exchange. His little game was be- 
trayed on the face of it by the fact that 
the pieces forwarded represented, if any- 
thing, not less than $1000. The usual 
affidavit was demanded from him, sweai'- 
ing to his loss, hut he iiad not thought of 
tliat requirement and lacked the nerve to 
give it, luckily for himself. 

Undoubtedly the redemption division 
does sometimes get swindled, though not 
often. The women experts employed to 
examine the money sent in are wonder- 
fully skillful. It is marvelous how deftly 

ting Mr. Kibbe's Instructions Frpceding Page. 

ling water had rusted it almost away, 
covering the coins with oxide of iron and 
sticking them together in a mass. As- 
sistant Treasurer Whelpleyhad the lump 
put into acid and treated with lye and 
sawdust, so that the silver pieces came 
out as pretty and bright as when they 
were minted, and the old man carried 
them away delighted. 

One day this week a $5 note on the 
National Bank of Rhode Island at New- 
port came in for redemption. On the 
face it looked quite new, but the back 
was washed perfectly clean, so that not 
a mark was left on it. The joke of it is 
that the Bureau of Engraving adopted 

for a picture of Justice with her scales, 
which the forgers bad imitated very sue- 

The clerk looked at the note with 
evident suspicion, and handed it back. 

"I never saw anything like that be- 
fore." he said. 

"It is good, I assure you," replied Mr. 

'* I don't believe it." said the clerk. 

"Very well," rejoined Mr. Casilear. 
•' It doesn't matter, though 1 know it is 
good, because I made it myself." 

The clerk smiled sardonically. 

"That is juflt what occurred to me," 
he said, "Therefore I refused to accept 

Mr. Casilear felt that the joke was on 
himself, so he treated himself to a bottle 
of soda water and left for Washington 
that evening, — Washingtoti Cor. N. Y. 

Smoke Turned into Money. 
In his inaugural address to the North- 
east Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders the other day. Mr. Wigham 
Richardson referred to the chemical treat- 
ment of smoke. He said : " We know 
how the heated nitrogen and the carbon 
oxides, which used to be belched forth 
from the blast furnaces, are now used to 
raise steam in the boilers which supply 
the blowing engines ; but Mr. Ludwig 
Mond, of the firm of Brunner, Mond & 
Co. — the same who has introduced the 
Solway process for making soda, and in 
so doing has hit many of our friends so 
hard — has, as I undei-stand, gone much 
further. He burns his coal with artificial 
draft, and. conveying the gases into a 
chamber, he washes them with water 
spray, which causes every particle of soot 
or smoke to be deposited, and at the same 
time Cftndenses and recovei-s the ammonia 
(a product of nitrogen and hydrogen), as 
well as the sulphurous fumes. I trust 
I have not misunderstood Mr. Mond's 
figures ; but I gather that to get an equal 
efficiency of steam-raising power he has 
to bum 125 tons of coal in place of 100 
tons, and for every 125 tons of coal burned 
he recovers four tons of sulphate of am- 
monia. The fuel, if cheap (say $l.2.'i a 
ton), will cost $155. and the sulphate of 
ammonia at $60 a ton is worth $240. If 
results such as these can be attained the 
doom of smoke is sealed." 

Boys and Tobacco. 

Science gives the following significant 
facts concerning the results of smoking 
by boys : "In an experimental observa- 
tion of thirty -eight boys of all classes of 
society, and of average health, who had 
been using tobacco for a period ranging 
from two months to two years, twenty- 
seven showed severe injury to the consti- 
tution and insufficient growth : thirty- 
two showed the existence of irregularity 
of the heart's action, disordered stomach, 
cough, and a craving for alcohol : thir- 
teen had intermittency of the pulse, and 
one had consumption. After they had 
abandoned the use of tobacco, in six 
months' time one-half were free from all 
their foi-mer symptoms, and the remain- 
der had recovered by the end of the year. 
— American Youth. 

A Schoolmaster's Penal Diary. 

After teaching school for fifty-one years, 
Johann Jakob Haberle of Germany died 
some years ago, and his diary has just 
been published, in which the punishments 
he administered are all noted down." He 
gave 911,517 strokes with a stick, 240,100 
■' smites" with a birch rod, 10.980 hits 
with a ruler, 130,715 hand smacks, 10,3^5 
slaps on the face, 7,905 boxes on the ears, 
115,800 blows on the head. 12,763 tasks 
from the Bible, Catechism, the poets and 
grammar — every two years he had to buy 
a Bible, to replace the one so roughly 
handled by his scholars, 777 times he 
made his pupils kneel on peas and 5001 
scholars had to do penance with a ruler 
held over their heads. As to his abusive 
words, not a third of them were to be 
found in any dictionary. 

Some Wise Old Saws. 

Birtb's good ; but breeding's l>e*t« 

A gude word is as soou said as au 

Take a pict aad grue ; the 

He is worth no weal that cau bide no woe. 

Every man at forty is a fool ur u physician. 

A dog wiuna growl if ye fell hliu wi' a bone. 

Far sought and dear Wught is good for 

Be the suiue thing that ye would be called. 

l-'iddlers' dogs uuil lleo-s fome to a feast un- 

He that winua when be may, ishunna when 
he wad. 

Pair words break never a bone, foul words 
many a om.—Scotvh Proverbs. 

^ ^ C^en/fum^ O^tC oJotctnali) 

Neatness of Manuscript an Ewential 

A*. 1 have iH-t-n r-niK-str-l to contribute 
an article for this (lepartraent, will nay 
by mti of preamble that while I may not 
Im" able to pr««ent anything new, fan cer- 
tainly excuse rnvBcIf and apologize to the 
public for same, on the ground that if I 

Now. do not think that one should 
teach neatness to the exclusion of every- 
thing else, for at the same time the pupils 
must l>e taught iwsition of body, pen, 
etc.. and efforts be made to develop move- 
ment. But I consider this method to be 
the »im'd\f»^i and best way to get them 

did. I would l)e disjiuting the wisdom of interested and to obtain good results, 

of "ye olden time." tbey then see by their own efforts how 

the great Solomoi 

However, how to teach iM-umam-hip t.»i:- 
cessfoUy. and the f.nindation to be laid 
in order to have one's efforts crowned 
with success, is a question of great mo- 
ment, and certainly interesting to all 
teachers of the art. whether our wise an- 
cestor gave it due consideration, orother- 

Those fitting themselves, and those who 
have not long l>een of the profession, may 
bo greatly assisted by the advice of those 
who have succeeded, and while this may 
he a difficult thing to do. it is said, " He 
in wise who gains by the exi>erience of 
others." andthereadersof TuePknman's 
Akt Journal certJiinly have this oppor- 
tunity of gaining wisdom, as we are 
treated each month to so many such ex- 
(H-Uent (ipiiiiotiM mid methods, from the 
bcNt of tlif jirofis-sion. that if one were to 
follow the advice of any one of these, he 
could not go far wrong. Of course, this 
would not at all times be the best to do, 
as the methods of one teacher are not 
always adapted to the wants of another, 
and if one were to try, those which had 
been most successful with others possibly 
might prove total failures with him. 
However, we should not be afraid to try 
them, as personal exiwrience must in the 
I'lid guide ns. 

The worthy and competent editor of 
this department has asked for some " ex- 
perience' or "suggestions." and I have 
something to say which in my experience 
(and I hope it may prove a suggestion to 
other striving teachers) I have regarded 
as one, if not the most essential, element 
in securing the desired results— f. «.. get- 
ting the work improvement, and in the 
end good writing, from your pupils. This 
is to insist and to have nvnim'm in all writ- 
ten work. To succeed in this it requires 
unlimited perseverance and patience on 
the part of the teacher. If you can once 
pet the ambition or pride of the pupil 
aroused in this direction — and this is an 
excellent thing to do— and a spirit of 
enmlation, the rest of the inBtrnction 
may be made comparatively easy. 

In teaching in public schools where one 
has pupils of different ages, minds and 
habits with which to deal. I hold that 
cleanliness and neatness of specimen 
books, copybooks, practice paper and 
manuscript of all kinds must be the foun- 
dation upon which to bnild good writing. 
Too much imiiortance cannot lie thus at- 
tached, and when it comes to scribbling, 
blotting and titherwise soiling paper, or 
writing with different kinds of ink on the 
same page. I make it a rule to take off a 
large percentiuie in grading. 

When I first commenced teaching I 
found many very careless in this resjiect. 
but since the rule was established am 
happy to say that it has occurred but few 
times that I have occasion, because 
of this, to lower any grades. 

When they see their manuscripts look- 
ing neat and clean, they are impressed 
with the appearani'e and are proud of 
them: then simultaneously comes the 
desire to have the penmanship therein 
as gortii as they can ix»ssibly nmke it, and 
are then n-ady and eagi-r for any kni>wl- 
e<lge x»ertaininK thereunto, and will en- 
deavor to d^. in the right nmuner. 

they have made their work appear nice 
and attractive. 

Ansa M. Hall. 

Special Teacher of retimaimhip and 
Drawing. Malta, ()., Ptiblic Schools. 

If we had chosen a subject for Mies 
Hall, the above is the one which we would 
have preferred that she write upon. It is 
a subject of the very greatent imiwrtance. 
and yet the one about which the least has 
been written. Miss Hall has handled it 
ably, and we hope that she will favor us 
with more of her contributions, and that 
we may hear from others on this subject 
of "neatness in all written work." No 
one thing will tend more to make the 
"rising generation" better writers than 
their predecessors. We have been very 
firm on this point in Bridgeport, and the 
good results are becoming more apparent 
every day. 

Grading Pupils' Daily Work in Penmanship. 

I was convinced that in order to bring 
about the best results from pupils' prac- 
tice from week to week, there ought to be 
some simple plan of inspection or exam- 
ination on the part of the supervisor to 
see what was done in his absence and how 
it was done. I therefore invented a sim- 
ple system of marking, which has worked 
so well for me that I now recommend it 
to others. Here it is : The ancients sup- 
posed that a vertical line represented the 
Deity, because it neither leans to the 
right nor left. Upon this idea I formed 
this system of marking, which is very 

week, but whatever is done must be well 
and neatly done, and W up to the pupils' 
higheet and t>eet effort. They know that 
the supervisor is going to examine their 
daily work, therefore, they are on their 
guard and prepare accordingly. 

Like we soldiers in the army: every 
Saturday morning, at nine o'clock, in- 
spection was held, and that meant a great 
deal of careful preparation on the part of 
the soldier. Many yonng men. and older 
ones. t<xj. for that matter, learned then 
for the first time in their lives, what dis- 
cipline meant. It is an excellent thing to 
teach our boys and girls in a kind but 
firm way, this idea of discipline; self-con- 
trol, neatness, accuracy, thoroughness, 
to impress upon the pupils mind that 
this strict treatment, as it may seem to 
him. is not for the teacher's sake, but for 
his own sake, in order that he may be 
able to battle with the world, for he will 
find giants on every hand that he musi 
meet and compete with; how can he hope 
to do this if he is not carefully trained 
while in school 'i 

This grading that I do has nothing 
whatever to do with the room teacher's 
monthly grading or the superintendent's 
term grading. It is simply my own 
stamp or mark for the pupil's daily work. 
If he does as I tell him I mark him a 
hundred, if he is careless he is dis- 
counted. But the sentiment of a room 
can be soon raised to such a point that 
nearly every pupil in it will receive a 
hundred. When good writing becomes 
fashionable, so to speak, you are on the 
right track. While I am grading the 
work in a room the pupils are practicing 
exercises, so no time is lost. I can grade 
forty pupils' work in three or four min- 
utes. Now hear what Supt. Davidson 
has to say at the close of three months' 
practice of this kind i 

" I never examined better manuscripts 
than those we have had the last term." 

And this manuscript work, fellow- 
teachers, is a real test of our teaching. 
If it is poor, or illegible, we may decide 
at ouce that there is something radically 
wrong in the teaching that needs correc- 

In conclusion. I would say that this 
plan works well for us and is earnestly 
recommended by the superintendent and 
teachers. It is shorter and simpler than 
anything we have yet seen, but some 
other method may work equally well for 

formation : but do not allow any one to 
instruct yon on penmanship. 

Lucy E. Kbu.rk. 
Special H'ri7iii3 Teacher. Dtdnth, Minn. 

We have been trying to secure an ar- 
ticle or series of articles on this subject, 
and two or three able teachers have pn>m- 
iwd. but nothing in the same number of 
words conld be better than the above by 
Miss Keller. Now let us hear from others. 

Formation of Letters. 

Writing is not an accomplishment 
which few possess and all must not hoi>e 
for. It is an essential in the education of 
all persons, and ranks with arithmetic 
and reading in its imjiortance and useful- 
ness in every-day life. All cannot hope 
to l>e expert penmen, any more than all 
can expect to be brilliant mathematicians 
or professional elocutionists : but all can 
be taught to write a legible and graceful 
hand. It is surprising to see so many 
brilliantly educated and competent on all 
other branches totally unacquainted 
with the scientific teaching of writing. 
This scientific teaching commences in the 
very first grades, where formation of let- 
ters is taught in its early stages. The po- 
sition of pencil is given first, then move- 
ment or the use of it. Then we place 
before the pupil the letter we wish to 
have copied. To the young minds it is a 
picture which they must reproduce, and 
care must be taken to have it a correct 
picture in all it« details. When we wish 
to copy a landscape we first study it in 
parts, noticing the points of interest and 
using them for our frame work. Just so 
must we draw the attention of our pupils 
to the most important parts of the letters. 



simple and easily understood by the pu- 
pils. It requires at least Jive strokes to 
write a hundred ; by this means only one. 
We use no copvbooks in our schools : 
nothing but good foolscap paper. We 
will suppose that the pupils have been 
practicing a week at different times on 
the lessons assigned, and that I now enter 
the room to inspect and grade up their 
work. Great interest is excited among 
the pupils because they are anxious to see 
how they will come out. I pass around 
with a blue lead pencil and place their 
grades in the upper right-hand comer of 
the page. They have been told that if the 
page is in any way soiled, blotted or 
marred they will have to suffer a dis- 
count. This makes them careful and 
stimulates the highest effort on the part 
of teacher and pnpils, because thev want 
their room to compare well with the 
others, as we encouraste healthy and 
pleasant competition between the differ- 
ent rooms and buildings. 

Some one will K:)y that this kind of 
tea>-hing will produce cramped writers. 
Oh. no: we practice easy exercises every 

Wm. H. Beltz, 
Supervisor of Writing and Drawing, 
Public Schools. Alliance, Ohio. 

To the Special Teacher. 
Do not "my dear " the children, nor 
caress them. 

Wear a clean white apron, collar, and 
something bright on rainy days. 

Do not find fault l>efore the pupils. A 
word to the teacher in private concerning 
the order is sufficient. 

Do not havf otli.-r .luti--s outside of 
school. Give vmut wlml.- i-jK-rji>' to the 
school and rest v,]\\h' y-u ar. ••nt of it. 

Do not talk ti> th.- t.-n(liei- during the 
lesson. Have vour teachers' meeting be- 
fore and after school. 

Do not run to the superintendent for 
help except as a last resort. 

Insist on a room ready and waiting for 
you. Don't stay while a room is in con- 

Every room, good or bad, is entitled to 
twenty minutes, no more or less. Don't 
give half an hour here and five minutes 
there. "I will give them extra time. 
l)ecause they are ba<'kward." Ymi will 
get intotronble if you do. 

Don't talk over the heads of the chil- 
dren. Study thy words when they turn 
to the teacher for interpretation. How- 
ever, avoid " baby talk " in the tsth grade. 
Require the attention of the regular 
traehfr. Slie mtixt not make out regittterx. 


/ IMiiH' 

■leave the 

1 all things that the chil- 
Aak questions and receive in- 

Ajialysis, then, being the basis of the 
study of form, is of great importance in 
the lower grades. For instance, in t^cb- 
ing the d, call attention to the pointed 
oval in the center, the left curve leading 
up to the oval, the slanting line and right 
curve leading away from it. Draw a lit- 
tle chair on top to show its flatness. 
Take away the two first curves and the 
letter t remains. Take it apart and see 
how each part looks separately. Now the 
letter is understood and can be made 
readily. This analysis is continued as the 
pupil advances, is unfolded leaf by leaf 
until, finally, almost without an effort, 
the pupil is able to study letters singly 
and in gi-oups. 

After conceiving the idea, the next is 
the execution. Imperfect at first, by con- 
stant practice and criticism they soon 
arrive at a fair degree of perfection. 
Good formation is the foundation of 
writing, and is certainly very necessary 
in the study of penmanship, for no mat- 
ter how free the movement, if the writ- 
ing be not legible, of what use is it? 
Combining next form with movement in 
practice, they develop facility, ease and 
grace. Thus pupils are taught not only 
to write rapidly and gracefully, but un- 
derstandingly. E. A. MacDonnkll, 
Teacher of Penmanship in the Holyoke, 
MaitH.. Public Schools. 

Choose Your Subject. 

This list of topics for discussion in this 
department w«8 made out by Professor 
Huff while he had charge, but it has not 
appeared in THE Journal to onr knowl- 
edge, and it will be a great assistance in 
enabling our contributors to choose a sub- 
ject. Let U8 hear from yon on any one or 
more of these pfiints : 

A short. . crisp statement from yon 
touching any distincrive feature of your 
plan ; any device or method found to be 
efficient or any difficulty encountered 
which affects your work directly or indi- 
rectly, would be most welcome. If in the 
past others have expressed your views or 
if they shall coincide with you in the 
future, say so. In the one case you re- 
..jK-n a subject, and in either caw you give 
imi>etus thereto. 

~CycMmaM QylzCoJl'o 


Method of illustrating positions— move- 

Haw to teach form in primary grades- 
intermediate — adva nee. 

How to criticiHe, (a) c/twses, (b) individ- 
ual, (c) aelf-criticism by pupil. 

How to regulate speed during concert 
drilln in moxvment exercises. 

The use and abune of n'luaical c 

The use and misuse of slates. Leadpen- 
cil writing. 

Effects of care or carelessness in niat- 
ters of position, movement andform ivhilf 
doing general work. 

The effect of slate or lead pencil hold- 
ing upon penholding. 

Best time of day for, length and fre- 
quency of recitations by grades. 

Penmanship in high schools. Examina- 

Preservation, exhibition, exchange (with 
other scJioois) and inspection of specimens 
of daily work. 

Relation and co-benefits of wi'iting and 

Fine Penmen vs. Good Teachers. 

The setting of h good copy is but a 
small part of really successful teaching. 
We have known many really excellent 
teachers of writing who could not write 
a creditable copy, while, upon the other 
hand, we have known penmen who could 
write a most excellent copy, yet were 
utter failures as teachers. The former 
had good judgment, a correct eye, and on 
looking at a pupil's practice could at once 
discern wherein he had failed, and so 
clearly illustrate the fault and make such 
helpful suggestions for its con-ection as 
to lead the pupil on to snccess : while the 
more artistic penman may have acquired 
his excellence of writing by sheer force of 
long practice from imitation, and be en- 
tirely wanting in thesharp discrimination 
that detects and properly characterizes 
faults, and makes clear and telling sug- 
gestions to the pupil for their correction. 
It is only when the skill for setting agood 
copy is united with a sharp, clear dis- 
crimination that detects faults, and a re- 
source in expedients for assisting the 
pupil 1o overcome them, that writing is 
well and successfully taught. It is an in- 
disputable fact that some of our superior 
teachers are but ordinary penmen, while 
some of our must skillful penmen are but 
ordinary teachers ; but our best teachers 
are, and ever will be, those who combine 
these powei-s in the highest degree. 

The English lauguage— how to read it 
nnderstandingly. how to wnte it accu- 
rately and gracefully ; this is the theme 
of the coming generation of schoolmas- 

Supt. J. L. Hulluwav. I'nrt Smith. Ark.: 
One of tlir \ > M ' --. ht!,,l (iualifications of 
a teacher is x\>-- ;iIm]u\ t.- uiakeher /;H</cr.s- 

talk -JiB Wi-n ns h-V tnlJ^Mir, 

In the good school of to-day there is an 
absence of the elegant drawing of letters 
once called writing ; but there is a good, 
rapid and intelligible hand that has in- 
dividuality.— r/ie American Teacher. 

Have letters written at least once a 
week, in the school. It is a disgrace for 
boys and girls to leave school and be un- 
able to write a neat and properly worded 
letter, free from errors in spelling and 

There is never any excuse for the dowdy 
teacher. Personal neatness is one of the 
absolute requisites for every teacher. 
There is no place in a schoolroom for a 
teacher who is slovenly in her dress, un- 
tidy iu appearance and indifferent to the 
fashion and form of habiliment. 

If you wash with sponge and water 
your blackboards you will quickly destroy 
the fine finish on them and so ruin them 
for good work. Boards are easily cleaned 
by using good erasers. The eraser should 
always be need by rubbing the blackboard 
from the top down in one continuous 
movement. There is then, by this verti- 
cal and unbroken rubbing, no dust and 
th*- blackboards are nearly as clean as 
when first made. — The Teacher's World. 

Teaching Children to 


Practice making slanting straight lint-, 
right curve, left curve, lower turn and 

1 Grndrd Coura*- of Ktudy 
tuaiiMliIii for Public Nch 


Id Pen- 

upper turn. Bring them to see that the 
curves slant or '-lean over" more than 
the slanting straight line. 





Exercise 57, about half across slate or 



paper. Make it " in the air" first, count- 

Hand Drill, Exercises 

57 and 61, counting for 

^ — '^y~^ each stroke. Write 

^Y Fig. C4. making the 

forms about one inch 
apart (children) and one, slide ; two, 

slide ; or one (interval), two one 

two, etc. Write no, on. Fig. 65. 

Hand drill, Exercise 35. Brief review 
of last week's work. Write i, n, m and 
(( in this order. Write Figs. 50 and 51. 
See that none of the 
children have pen- 
cils too short to 
reach the hand— 
- "^^ that is, so short 

that the fingers 

must be bent 

too much in or- ^^^/^/^ 

der that the up- ^^\ry 

per end of the 

pencil may rest against the upper joint. 
Whether you use slate or lead pencils, 
keep them well sharpened. I ofteu find 
children writing with pencils so blunt 
that they cannot see the stroke being 
made until after the pencil has been 
raised, which would make even a grown 
person discouraged and indifferent. Long, 
well-sharpened pencils are an effectual 
incentive to good, neat work. There are 
tin tubes for lengthening pencils by slip- 
ping over the end, which are a good thing, 
as they enable the pupil to use all of the 
pencil. And good pencils are much more 
economical than poor ones, as the lead 
wears so much better and does not break 
so easily. A child will break more off a 
brittle, worthless lead in a moment than 
would wear off a good lead in a week. 
For this reason I use only Dixon's. 

Hand drill, Exercise 41, practice lower 

turn, have pupils tell you how to make a 

letter n. make n. then w (Fig. 52). Ask 

if they are 

alike. "Why 

"^"^ the first?' 

" Because it has a little curve." " Where 
is the little curve?" "Top of the last 
stroke," or "right curve." "Can any one 
see any other difference?" Bring them to 
see that the second space is not as wide 
as the second space in the u ; teach name ; 
may call tho finishing stroke a short lower 
turn ; erase, make u. " Can any one tell 
me how I can make w of the u >"' " Join 
a short lower turn to the last line." Do 
so. "Is this a good H-f " (Fig. 53). Perhaps 
they will not see the 
difference at first. If 
not, make the w cor- ^^V^/"^^ 

rect again, near the ~ \J} ' 

other, and have the 

children look at them carefully. Practice 

making the u\ counting four. Question 

^^ r ^>.^v^ 

them as to the number of right curves, 
straight lines, sharp points, lower turns. 

. ^e way (fig. 

54). What 
s wrong with it ? " Write Figs. 55 and 56. 

Hand drill. Exercise 36. practice w, re 
viewing its construction : wi-ite ih, win. 
Watch their position. " 

Hand drill. Exercise 46, half across 
slate or paper. " I see many little boys 
and girls turning their hands over on the 
side, like this, the top of the pencil point- 
ing toward the window. Look ! We 
want our pencils pointing right toward 
our body, like this, so that if it were a 
gun and should shoot it would hit us in 
the shoulder." 


ing 1, 2, ;i. 4, arm moving from the elbow 
forward. Practice i, h, m, in. Remem- 
ber that it is intelligent, painstaking repe- 
tition that brings skill. Select the best 
efforts for special commend.ition. 
JClglUh ITeek-Mondai/. 
Hand drill, practice all exercises of last 
week. Practice lower turn, u and iv. re- 
viewing construction. Have some little 
pieces of ribbon and fasten to the pencil 
of those who have best position. Take it 
off if they cease trying. 


Practice making the left and right 
curves alternately, counting 1, 3, 3. 4. 
Join them (Fig. 58) two to three 

inches in bight on the board. 

"Look, children! ^ Who cau tell 
me what this looks J^ like?" " An 
egg." Have an egg. and if they do 

not think of the resemblance, show them. 
* ' Who will tell me what kind of curves are 
in this picture of an egg?" Eraseoneside 
and ask what is left. Erase the other 
side of a new one and repeat. Have chil- 
dren make it. See that they begin at the 
top instead of the bottom. 

" Now, look, children ! We will put a 
little tail on it and see how it looks (Fig. 59). 
Does it look so much like an egg 
now? Who can tell me a letter 
that has a little curve on it like ^^ 
this one ? What did we call it ? " ^4' 
Practice (Fig. 60) counting one 

{dwelling on it), /(ro. The one for 
the oval and two for the finish- 
//}z ing stroke. It is better to count 
~^' — one drawn out on small oval 
forms, as counting two tends to 
cause the child to form angles where there 
should be a turn. Teach the name. I believe 
that we should teach the letters to little 
children in as simple forms as possible. 
It is much easier for pupil and teacher, and 
why should we attempt to teach a little 
child that which is not really a part of the 
letter and does not add to its legibility? 
It is diflicult enough to teach them the 
plain forms without adding unnecessary 
strokes. The preliminary curves attached 
to the oval letters are in the nature 
of flourishes added to cajUtals. They 
make the letter more ornamental, but 
are not necessary and are rarely used by 
len who must save every stroke 
We should teach the essentials 
before adding ornament, and I would 
leave all such unnecessary lines until the 
child has learned to make the plain let- 
ters well, then I would teach those 
strokes, not as necessary parts of the let- 
ters, but as a means of adding grace and 

Hand Drill, Exercise 41. made vertically 
instead of horizontally about the size of 
a half dollar. Practice Fig. 58 a few 
miuutes. then the complete letter. Write 
Figs. 61 and 62— 

/7-/^/y ^ru-T 


"Ttie Slate Must Go." 

This emblem of primitive education is 
perhaps the most formidable obstacle en- 
countered in primary schools. When 
wilt it take its place among the log 
schoolhouse, slab, bench and quill pen? — 
D. W. Hoff. 


LContributlons for this Depnrtnient mBy be 
ndilressedto B. F. Kbllbv, offl^^e of Thb Prn- 
man's Art Joukkai.. Hrief educational it«ma 

of colored childn 

The first v 
lawyer in Connecticut is Miss Mary Hull. 

The city of New York pays out annually foi' 
education as aiuch as four of the less populous 

sold for their passagu money at Pbiladelpbio 
and Baltimore, — Journal of Eaucation. 

Rev. James Ferguson of Warrick County, 
Ind,, aged ninety-tn-o, has taught school every 
wmtei- without break since 1847. 

The Royal Holloway College in England, 
founded and endowed by Mr. Holloway io the 
hope that it will one day become a university 
for women, covers more ground than any 
other college in the world. 

Tho teachers and school board of Woou- 
aocket, R. I., evidently believe iu corporal pun- 
ishment. Dining the past year 1132 pupils were 
enrolled and there were G(j7 cases of corporal 

There are '2^2^^,Q7l pupils enrolled in the pub- 
lic schools of Arkansas. In 1880 the number 
was lOb.SJtj, whicti shows au increase of 114,- 
S3.5, or 106.10 pyr cent. 

New York Citv bas S41l teachers who have 
been employed I'niui t«u to twenty years, 590 


> fifty. 

ifty to 

W.i thirty to forty, ^ti 

Florence : " Is her husband a college gradu- 

Alice: "Not exactly; but he Uved m Bos- 
ca four years.''— /-Kofr. 

" I don't suppose," said the teacher, "that 
my little bov here has uver seen a whale." 
■ No, sir," eaiiie the answer, " but I felt one." 

Mrs. Bullion to thepiiucipalof the school at- 

uled b^ her daughter 

Please do i 

lappen again. If my dear child must study 
ractions, let tbem be as refined as possible." 
Teacher : " What gender is promise *" 
Bright Boy: "Masculine; you of ten hear of 
ts breaches." — Biiiohainton Hfpublican, 
Tfaeher : Suppose forty-eight apples, thirty 
' ■ ■ " iixteeu melons be dividud 

vhat will each one get 1" 
i morbus," 
iH" (■■iv tvlf> -in-prised his 

eight peaches and 
among eight boys. 

"There i= a vw.t u. ,l.„i^l.i.uL , li^.nl uu him 1 " 

Teacher: "Tommy, will you giveau ex- 
ample of tautology f " 

Tommy : " Saw one iu our paper tbismoni- 
ing. It spoke of a 'brainless dude.'"' — Indian- 
apolis ./ournai. 

Ptijnl (in class in puuctuotiou, reading); 

;- Alic 

Pupil : " Make a dash afler Alice." 

Teaiher : " Right."— /'(icfr. 

'■ Now. Jolinuy, c , _ 
tell the committee w^ere 
the cradle of the huainn 


f|-;NERAL/y\l3CELlAMX (d 
';-^ Jei^ UR£ RgADlNG.. 

The Mail Carrier's Mishap. 


Three hniulri'd roilew ]«r wci-k luttride 
H NtublKHTi. Btiif-guiU*(l mule, with a pair 
of r»juKl> f"»<l wrinkled luuil ba({s betwetn 
myself and a Texao sa^ldle. That'e a slice 
of ('Xiiericnce I taattd for thirty coiisecn- 
tive weeks uTer the R»ndy hiUn and 
through some of the mo»t dismal and 
lonely Bwamps of Miwdwsippi. 

My dear reader, close yonr eyes and tr>* 
t^. pi. [ur.- iD your mind what a WMKI-mile 
\t\\*-~U'T that iH what it amounted to in 
nil -thrunxh all kinds of weather. alKiard 
1111 inllexible. hard-mouthed mule means. 
Perha[)H yon have noticed that bin most 
i-VL-u walk iH like the hobblinR gait of a 
(rij>ijled camel, but when he's spurred 
and cloblMMl intu one of his jostlinK jogs- 
well. try to ride liini a mile or two in that 
Kait and you'll long for a comparatively 
smooth spin over a turnpike of saw-logs 
in a coal cart. Every time- he diffs his 
hard hoofs straight down mto the earth 
you will feel your brain lobes thump 
against each other and see a shower of 
stars in the landscape. 

As dear as this animal is to me by as- 
sociation, if I were going to cross the 
continent and had to choose my mode of 
conveyance between a saddled mule and 
a vestibule trnio. I really think now I 
should take the train. My conscience 
might bother me a bit as 1 looked from 
the rear platform of tho moving train back 
fit the meek and lowly mule, flourishing 
his stumpy whisk-broom-of-a-tail in the 
air and meditatively munching a last 
year's circus jiOBter ; nevertheless, not 
wishing to wear longer trousers in Cali- 
fornia than I do in the East. I think I 
would leave him to liis thoughts and take 
the train. 

Constantly in the saddle, with no one 
hot a mule to converse with, grew not 
only tiresome, but very monotonous and 
lonely as well, and when I would come to 
a stretch of even road I would frequently 
drop the bridle reins over the horn of the 
siidfUe and while away some of the lonely 
hours by reading a book or newspaper, 
out' of which I always stuffed into my 
pockets before starting. One warm spring 
afternoon I found I could reach the 
terminus of my route on schedule time 
by letting the mule take his own gait, 
so I gave hiin the reins and began read- 
ing the two last chapters of a very thrill- 
ing story which I had commenced the day 
before. Tho erstwhile faithful mule 
ambled along at a wabbly walk without 
my guidance or prodding, because in- 
stinct aud a sharp appetite were attract- 
ing him toward a heaping manger of oats 
at the end of our journey. He gained 
my contidence and trust completely and 
I soon liecttme buried in the closing 
chapters of the story. The plot was get- 
ting 80 thick 1 could scarcely unravel it 
as 1 read. I was thrilled to the very finger 
tips by the heroic deeds of the strong and 
noble chiuacters. I was fuming with furv 
over the viUainous acts of the necessary 
evil onee. The scenes were shifting 
rapidly. Wrongs were being righted ; 
the oppressed were rising. My senses 
were whirling with rapidly varying emo- 
tions when ^uddenly from out a thick 
clump of scrul>ortks, close by the roadside, 
came the sudden flutter and roar of a big 
flock of partridges, and as quick as a 
wink the mule gave a lunge, broke the 
girth and slid out from under saddle, 
mail bags aud myself as slick as an eel. 
There I sat on the saddle in the middle of 
the dust>- nwd, with my legs spraddled 
out and my feet still in the stirrujis, gaz- 
ing like one dazed over my |>aiHT at the 
galloping mule, t was not hurt in t he 

leant, but was completely liaralyzed 
with surprise for the moment. I mn^t 
have remained in this fooli£h position 
twenty seconds, staring blankly over 
my paper at the vanishing brute. An 
acute stnse of the ridiculousness of the 
situation came over me as I looked 
around and saw saddle, blanket aud 
mail bags all intact, and I. like a big 
baby, sitting astride them. I laughed 
until I rolled off the saddle, but then 
when the fact began to dawn on me that 
I had to make ten miles more, minus 
mule, plus a heavy Texas saddle and a 
pair of mail bags bulging with Con- 
gressional Records, the thing didn't look 
so funny after all. and I corked up my 
mirth very suddenly. If one of my 
ah-julders sag» a little at the conii-r now 
it's on account of that ten-mile tramp 
with a load which an ungrateful mule 
wiis conied to carrv. .Tf.p S(.'ARBORf>. 

The Famous Death Valley of California. 

The most fatally famous part of the 
Great American Desert is Death Valley, 
in California. There is on all the globe 
no other spot more forbidding, more deso- 
late, more deadly. It is a concentration 
of the horrors of that whole hideous area. 
and it has a bitter history. 

One of the most interesting and graphic 
stories I ever listened to was that related 
to me several years ago by one of the sur- 
vivors of the famous Death Valley party 
of 1849— the Rev. J. W. Brier, an aged 
Methodist clergyman now living in Cali- 
fornia. A party of 500 emigrants started 
on the last day of September, 1849, from 
the southern end of Utah to cross the 
desert to the then new mines of Cali- 
fornia. There were 10.5 canvas-topped 
wagons, drawn by sturdy oien, beside 
which trudged the shaggy men, rifle in 
hand, while imder the canvas awnings 
rode the women and children. In a short 
time there was division uf opinion as to 
the proper route across that pathless 
waste in front, aud next day five wagons 
and their people went east to reach Santa 
F^, whence there were dim Mexican trails 
to Los Angeles, and the rest plunged 
boldly into the desert. The party which 
went by way of Santa F^ reached Cali- 
fornia in December, after vast sufferings. 
The larger company traveled in comfort 
for a few days until they reached about 
where Pioche now is Then they entered 
the Land of Thirst, and for more than 
three months wandered lost in that realm 
of horror. It was almost impossible to 
get wagons through a country furrowed 
with canons, so they soon abandoned 
their vehicles, packing what they could 
upon the backs of the oxen. They strug- 
gled on to glittering lakes, only to find 
them deadly poison, or but a mirage on 
barren sands. Now and then a wee spring 
in the mountains gave them new life. 
One by one the oxen dropped, day by day 
the scanty flour ran lower. Nine young 
men who separated from the rest, being 
stalwart and unencumbered with famil- 
ies, reached Death Valley ahead of the 
others, and were lost. Their bones were 
found many years later by Goveraor 
Blaisdell and his surveyors, who gave 
Death Valley its name. 

The valley lies in Inyo County, and is 
alKiut 150 miles long, in width it tapers 
from three miles at its southern end to 
thirty at the northern. It is over 200 feet 
below the level of the sea. The main 
party crowtd it at alwut the middle, 
where it is but a few miles wide, but suf- 
fered! frightfully there. Day by day some 
of their number sank upon the burning 
sands never to rise. The survivors were 
too weak to help the fallen. 

The strongest of the whole party was 
little Mrs. Brier, who had come 
Colorado an invalid, and who shared 

with her Ik\vs »)f four, st-ven and nine 
years of age that indescrildable tramp of 
tX^l miles. For the last three weeks she 
had to lift her athletic huj^ltaiid from the 
ground ever>- morning, and steady him 
a few momenta before he conld stand. 
She gave help to wasted giants, any one 
of whom, a few months before, could have 
lifted her with one hand. 

At last the few survivors crtwaed the 
range which shuts off that most dreadful 
of deserts from the garden of the world, 
and were tenderly nursed to health at the 
hacienda, or ranch house, of a courtly 
Spaniard. Mr. Brier had loet one hnn. 
dred pounds in weight, and the others 
were thin in proportion. When I saw 
him last he was a hale old nan of 
seventy- five, cheerful and active, but with 
strange furrows in his face to tell of those 
bygone sufferings. His heroic little wife 
was still living, and the boys, who had 
had such a bitter experience aa perhaiis 
no other boys ever survived, are now 
stalwart men.— C. F. Lummiif, in St. 

America's Material Development. 

We clipped the subjoined extract some 
time since from a newspaper article by 
Henry George, Erastus Wiman, Andrew 
Carnegie, or some other prominent man 
who has made a special study of economic 
conditions. We have forgotten just who 
it was. but there is a good deal of meat 
in what he says : 

The essayist contrasted the America 
of to-day with the America of bygone 
times, and certainly the result is the ex- 
hibition of a mighty progress. But I 
think he a little overrated the college cult- 
ure share in the production of that 
result. It can no doubt be easily shown 
that the colleges have contributed the in- 
tellectual part of this ])rogres8, and that 
that part is vast, but that the material 
progi'ess has been immeasurably vaster I 
think you will concede. Now, I have been 
looking over a list of inventors — the crea- 
tors of this amazing material develop- 
ment—and I find that they were not col- 
lege-bred men. Of course there are ex- 
ceptions — like Prof . Henry of Princeton, 
the inventor of Mr. Morse's system of 
telegraphy— but these exceptions are few. 
It is not overstatement to say that the 
imagination-stunning material develop- 
ment of this century, the only century 
worth living in since time itself was in- 
vented, is the creation of men not college 
bred; We think we see what these in- 
ventors have done ; no, we see only the 
visible vast frontage of their work ; be- 
hind it is their far vaster work, and it is 
invisible to the careless glance. They 
have reconstructed this nation — made it 
over, that is — and. metaphorically speak- 
ing, have multiplied its numbers almost 
beyond the power of figures to express. I 
will explain what I mean. What consti- 
tutes the population of a land 't Merely 
the numerable packages of meat and 
bones in it called t^y courtesy men and 
women ? Shall a million ounces of brass 
and a million ounces of gold be held to be 
of the same value f Take a truer standard 
—the measure of a man's contributing 
capacity to his time and his people — the 
work he can do — and then number the 
population of thif country to-day, as mul- 
tiplied by what a man can do now more 
than his grandfather could do. By this 
standard of measurement this nation two 
or three generations ago consisted of mere 
cripples, paralytics, dead men, as com- 
pared with the men of to-day. In 1840 
our population was 17.onn,0MO, By way 
of rude but stiikirv.' il!n^f^;^^iftlt Int n-< 
consider, for ;if-'-iini. M -- ~il.-. ih i 
of these milll'tn ■ ■ :'■■!■■! i... i ;■■ ■ ]'h', 

little children. .>■ ■' ..!li. i m. .|. iM l 

that the i-.'iii. L' 1.1 ni.i v,,-i,. 

divided and employed as follows : 

Gnnersof cotton 2,000,000 

Stocking knitters (women) ft.tiOO.riOO 

Thread spiunei-s (women) 2,000,000 

Screw makers : 500,i 00 

Reapers, binders, &c 400.000 

Com shellers 1 ,0(10.000 

Weavers 40 000 

Stitchers of shoe soles l.COO 

Now, the deductions which I am gomg 
to append to these figures may sound ex- 
travagant, but they are not. I take thf^m 
from Miscellaneous Documents No. 50. 
second session, Forty-fifth Congress, and 
they are official and trustworthy. To-day 
the work of those 2.000,000 cotton ginners 
is done by 2000 men ; that of the 8,000.*HH) 
stocking knitters is done by 3D0O boys ; 
that of the 2,0lK).000 thread spinners is 
done by 1000 girls; that of the 500.000 
screw makers is done by 500 girls : that 
of the 400.000 reapers, binders, Ac. is 
done by 4000 boys: that of the 1,000,000 

com sbellers is done by T5il0 ineu : that 
of the 40,000 we«Tere is done by 1300 mt«n, 
and that of the 1000 stitchers of shoe soleci 
is done by six men. To Imnch the figures, 
IT.IMKI persons to-day do the above work, 
whereas tiftv vears ago it would have 
taken l3.(W0*(KHi persons to do it. Now 
then, how manv of that ignorant race — 
our fathers ami giandfathers— with their 
ignorant methods, would it take to do our 
work to-drtv: It would take 40.0«H1,IHX>.- 
000—100 times the swarming (Kipulntion 
of (^hina — twenty times the present popu- 
lation of the globe. You look around you 
and sec a notion of tJO.lHHl.oiiO apparently, 
but secreted in their hands and brains 
nnd invisible to your eyes is the true iK)p- 
ulation of this republic, and it numbers 
40.1XH).000.(H)0 ! It is the stupendous crea- 
tion of those humble, unlettered, uncol- 
lege<bred inventors — all honor to their i 

The World's Grealest Rivers. 

(Geographers claim that there 
twenty-five rivers on the globe which ' 
have a total Itnglh of over 1000 miles. 
says the St. Louis Uijuihlic. Ot these, 
two— the Mississippi, from the source of 
the Missouri in the Rocky Mountains to 
the Eads jetties, and the Amazon, frt>m 
the source of the Beni to the Isle of 
Marajt)— are over 4000 miles in length, to 
be exact the former is riOii and the latter 
4029 miles from the source to the places 
where their waters are mingled with 
those of the ocean. Four claim a total 
length of over aOOO and under 4000. They 
are the Yenesei in Asia, length a580 
miles: the Kiang. also in Asia, :l»00 
miles ; the Nile, in Africa, JiOUI. and 
the Hoang-Ho, the third monster Asian 
stream, which is ^040 miles from soui 
to mouth. Seven rivers on the globe i 
over 2000 and under 3000 miles in length 
—the Volga, in Russia, and the Amoor, j 
in Asia, each being 2500 miles in length ; i 
twc are 2800 miles long, viz., the Mac- ] 
kenzie, in British America, and 
Platte, in South America. The Rio i 
Bravo, in North America ; the Rio , 
Maderia, in South America, and thei 
Niger, in Africa, are each 2800 railes^ 
from end to end. The Arkansas River | 
just comes inside this 2000 mile limit, 
with a length of 2030 miles. 

Ten of the great rivers of the world i 
over 1000 and under 2000 miles in length. 
Three of these are in North America, 
viz., the Red river, 1520: the Ohio, 
1480. and the St. Lawrence, 1450. South 
America has also three in this list — the 
Rio Negro, 1U5I) ; the Orinoco. 11(00, and 
the Uruguay, 1100 miles long. Asia has 
three in the same list— the Euphrates, 1900 
miles in length, and the Tigi'is and the 
Ganges, each of which is about 1300 miles 
in length. In the group of great rivers 
the St. Lawrence is the most remarkable. 
It constitutes by far the largest boily of 
fresh water in the world. Including 
lakes and streams, the St. Lawre: 
covers about li^OOO square miles: 
aggregate, it is estimated, represents not 
less than 9000 solid miles of water. The 
unthinkable size of this mass may be 
better comprehended, if not fully realized, 
when we consider the figures of Prof. 
Cyrus C. Dinwiddle, who says that it 
would take over forty years for the 
aggregate of this entire mass to pour 
over Niagara at the computed rate of 
1. 1100.000 cubic feet per second. 

The Ethics of Story Telling. 

It seems to us that in good fiction evil 
must appear as a foil for good, that it 
must be set over against righteousne 
as to make black black inderd and white 
purely white. The story teller need have 
no express moral hobby to ride iKJsthaste. 
his tale will be all the better if told with 
the pure love of --tory telling, but we may 
be quite sure that his taste is unsound if 
he chooses a salacious story to tell and 
gives it the unction of personal rehearsal. 
Here, indeed, is where we would draw 
the line. Evil can be nsed by the artist 1 
with clean bands and with wholesome J 
effect by contrasting it with a healthy, 
solid protection of good. The chief 
trouble with current realism is that it 
does not do this, but chooses to set hope- 
less evil and ner\'eless conimonpla<-e 


by side without any triamphaiit moral 
liLToism to dominate or neutralize it. 
Tlie ethics of fiction shines in the charac- 
ter, the moral nature of the story, more 
than in the ostensible or even the actual 
moral purpose of the author. It is the 
general effect that the work is likely to 
pnicluce when read by the aggregate of 
readers which must be a large element of 
the test.— Tfte Chantaiiqiian. 

' tt llviDK for 

always ask him to have somo patent 
nectar.'" Perhaps the most striking 
break in his rounded rhymes is his rhyme 
of "Marehal Niel" with "feel."— /«(er- 
nati07ial Bookseller 


PS, where tfaey taki- 

s /-. Arthur, Fh<ladel}ihia,.Jun 

Ink recipes, all warranted Al, are as thick 
ai biirkleberries iu August. But the best ad- 
vice we can give you is to go to the tttationer 
aud invent five or ten cents in n liottle of ink 
already mixed. It will save you trouble and 
money, and you can get your choice of twenty 
kinds— Barnes', Maynard & Noyes', David's, 
Caw's, etc , etc., the poorest of which is prol)- 
ably ten times as good as any you would be 
likely to manufacture on a small scale, and 
presumably with no particular facilities. If 
you want India ink you can buy a stick and 
grind it to suit, or buy it in liquid form ready 
fui- use. The French liquid India ink and Hig- 
giu's American ink are probably the best. 
The Otdeat Kualne'H CuUege. 

Which is the oldest business college in tbe 
United States i-R. W. S., Stamford, Conn. 

The question has been often answered and 
variously nnswered. We are under tbe im- 
pression that the longest established businei^s 
college in America is Comer's, Boston. We 



engraved from the arcDitect's drawing of the i 

■ ^le of architecture. Its dimensions are 5i oy loa leec, nve swries uigu, unu j 

„-. red pressed brick, terra cotta, iron and copper. It is furnished with steam heating, water, gas, 
s also supplied with .spBakiag tubes and an electrical clock, which automatically rings the opening 
irnin>3 of recibations for the day'and week. 
■I, and the fumishinE and appointaients throughout this mugmficent building are models for 

a proposal." 

Sairito : "' Your wife doetiu't look a minute 
older thnn she did ten year» ago." 

Hicks: "According to her stnlistics, she 
isn't."— ri7-Bit». 

"Good morning, Willie," !>aid the pastor, 
saluting the boy affectinnately. " I suppose 
tbe folks are all well at home ! ''' 

" Pretty well," returned W'illie; " the cook's 
drunk, sister Sal's got the measles and ma 
jawed the old man sick last night"— briected. 

"How do you like the city btistlef" she 
said to tbe visitor from tbe country. 

" Idon'tknow,"beauswere<l, ral her abashed. 
" It's kinder struck me that they wani't 
wearin' 'em any more. — Washington Star. 

Hicks' Mkak Insinuation.— A/r*. Hicka: 
"That girl I hired this morning is a secret to 

Hicks : " That's too bad " 

Mrs. Hicks : " Why is it too bad t " 

flicks; " You won't he able to keep her."— 

N. y. Herald. 
Johnny (on the New Jersey Central R. R.) : 

"Say, pa, what made the train start up so 

suddenly i " 
Fii : '"I don't know, Johnny, unk'ss it was 

because a mosquito bit it." 

Diploma Season " Rush." 

Thb Journal is a little late this mouth, 
partly because we are still more or less unset- 
tled after reQtting and extending our offices, 
and partly by reason of several hundred 
schools rushing in at tbe last minute to get 
their diplomas mode in time for commence- 
ment. For six weeks past our entire force has 
had about all it could attend to handling 
diploma business. We have perfected our 
processes year by year uutil now we claim to 
turn out precisely the most artistic diploma 
work being made to-day at half what is usually 
charged for bigh-grade work. Here are a few 
boded-dowQ extracts from recent letters: 

Tbe diplomas you made for us reached us in 
good condition, and are entirely satisfactory. 
Accept thanks for attention and promptness. 

David A. Harman, 
Supt. of Schools, Hazletun, I'a.. June 10, '92. 

The special diplomas made to our order came 
all right. I am very well pleased with them. 
The design is one of the ntatest I have ever seen. 
For your grade of work the price is certainly 
reasonable. I shall want some for my other de- 
partments next year. 

iVin. A'ora Springs. la., Sem.,June H, '92. 

The diplomas reached us in good order. 
They arc all we could dfsire. The taste, 
workmanship and paper are till excellent. 
C. W Harrison, M.A., 

Prin. Mt Allison Wesleyan Aca., liaclevilte, 
N. H., June 7, '»a. 

Tbe diplomas you made for us have been 
received. They are wholly satisfactory, and 
we have no hesitancy in recommending your 
work. Conard & Richmond, 

Proprietors Ottawa, III., It. C, June 7, '92. 

The diplomas furnished by you for St. 
Mary's High School are very good and give 
general satisfaction. For the class of work 
executed your terms are reasonable, whde 
yonr promptness iu getting our diplomas bus 
been very gratifying. 

fine, and the price more reasonable than we 
have seen. Willis & Williams, 

hroprietoTS of Ihn Iowa City B. C, Aca. 
and :ichoul of Shorthand, June 2, '92. 

We like the diplomas you have just made 

1 from a nucleus of three students to an annual attendance of 

, this maguitlcent structure, built for this institution and owned 
? grounds and furnishings, cost *10U,O0&, aud is one of the largest 

and 1 hope my c 

■ - '-, having a naru nme. i maac iusl 
id tbe week previous $m.l4. Any- 

uly who l9 having a hard 

eek SI- and the week pre , 

Kly can KCt circulars by wriilng 

Poet, Penman and Printer. 

Auil ibo Greatetii of Tliem la tbe Printer. 

The Tribune writeth thus : ' Even Mr. 
Aldrich, with all hie dainty perfection of 
handwriting, has suffered from printers' 
blunders. The Boston Qlnbe says that he 
once 'in a moment of ecstatic inspiration 
began a stanza thus : 

Ob, thou potent nectar nhich the gods them- 

"'Well. the proofs of it duly came; 
the poet carefully trimmed his effusions, 
smoothed his verses, rounded his rhjines, 
and in due time they appeared in a dainty 
volume. But. to his utter amazement, 
his heroic line read : 

Ob, thou patent nectar, etc. 

""And it has come to pass that ever 
since that day, whensoever the poet goeth 
out to dine that the men of the household 

(1.1 We bear of no such contests, except as 
they may be developed among advanced 
pupll^ in I 1,1-'^ pruitKLe. We never heard of 
such 11 1 iiili 1 i"'i\Mi-ii professional penmen. 
Perhii) - I 111' \\ I' A, would incorporate it 
initstn'Ai pnimiiDiMit:- as a novelty, giving all 
contests timely advance notice of the formula 
to be written, also giving new matter. 

(3.) Respectfully referred to " speed " 

(3.) 'Thirty words a minute suijtaiued work 
is " a mighty good gait. ' We have seen 
telegraphers who could do about forty by 
slightly abbreviating. There arc doubtless 
some who can exceed this, go as high as fifty, 
perhaps, on simple matter, but we doubt it there 
is a penman alive who cau write new matter 
legibly at the rate of forty-five words a 
minute continuously for an hour. In spite o^ 
all the wonderful claims made for tbe type- 
writer expert, our observation has been that 
the usual run of office amanuenses rarely 
average above thirty words a minute in actual 
business work. Perhaps some of our readers 
can answer Mr. Arthur's question as to tbe top 
speed of penmen more definitely. 

^ (?M« Hon About Ink. 

think it has been running for Sfty-two years- 
Are we right i 
Venmanahip Ex.ibUs atthe World's Fair. 

I suppose most of our leading professional 
penmen will have exhibits at the W orld's Fair. 
Am I right f— W. S. S., Ishpeming, Mich. 

The B. E. A. plan for a penmanship exhibit, 
as we understand it, is for the penmen to pool 
their issues and get up one large exhibit that 
would not be individual In character. No in- 
dividual competitions for mediils or premiums 
are to be allowed. Of course there is nothiut; 
to debar any penman from piakiug a private 
exhibit of his work apart from the B. E. A. 
exhibit, provided he can get tbe space. We 
have heard that space connot be secured for 
private penmanship exbibitii. We don't know 
that our information is correct. 



"The Czar's guards have been doubled 
flgnin." , 

" Been eating cucumbers, I suppose," said 
Mrs. Partmgton. 

" I am unmarried, sir." 

" Divorced, I see." 

" I was never married, sir." 

" Then how could you he unmarried i " 

i,t. Pet 
The diploi 

, May 28, Vi. 

) satisfactory in every i 

house for doing tbe best ■ 
tbe lowest rates. Wm. A. Bamks, 

Supt. Bryan, Tex., Public Schools, May 1 


' posses- 

„ , M. Hewley, 

Prin. Henleil Shorthand VuUegf, Syracuse, 
N. 1'.. June 18. '93. 

We ere highly pleased with the artistic ef- 
fect of tbe special diplomas you have just made 
for us. They are indeed beautiful. Expected 
a nice iob and was not disappointed. 

•" G W. Snavklv, 

Prin. .Ivniata Bus. Coll.. Huntington, Pa., 
April 12, '92. 

Tbe special diplomas you made for us are at 
baud. We are all delighted with the design 
add mechanical execution. The price Is cer- 
tainly very low considermg the quality of the 
work. It will give me plea-sure to recommend 
your estabUshment to any of my acquamtaoces 
who may be In need of anylhinK in your line. 

yi^ -jj" ''Zycm/i iiM Qyttf CL^tcZnaCP 

'ENMAN's Art Journal 

ninhtJl on applicatim 
takm for Umm than Vi. 

Huharription : On* yrar %l ; otu numbn- 10 
i-f^tM. No frt* mmplfM excml to bona fldr 
ni/mlM uf/to art ntbtcribern, to aid thrm in 
taking wubaeriptiorut. 

Forrign wttbueriptions Ho eountriea in ftM- 
tat r'nton) $1 .Oi per u^ar. 

Cjitl lint of rff/uiur and tptrtai premiumM, 
alfo Annual Inder, in Decrmbrr Jodhnal, 
for wkirh itrnd 10 centJi. 

New York, June, 1803. 

!„', ^ 


Ml About 

".'"n^jSc'KS^^v'X^-^- * ^"**°"<"' •• 

All Eye* 

I W. o. Snoit) i Tbt ftMCAla UuBi oo. 

Id-B Fair 

!. B»ynop-SkotcJi by E. S. Hawklna. 

pror ul iLr l'rofc-i.«l«n 


hilt i«*i»"';''i-'"?v" c''"''ii''''c V 7^' **■ ^'**'*"'** 

Tub JorKNAL has kept pace with the dr- 
mands of thf duj/ and now stnnds without 
an ei/ual (ii itv line of work.—F. J. Toland, 
I'lioi'uiKTOR Ottawa, 111., Bus. Uni. 

I read your ej:ce>len( Journal id 
rtatesi intrrfnt and tietieve it is impi 
would not do without it for ten tin\ 
}ft of a aubserip' ' 


Thr Appronrhiug it. K. A. Conrenlion. 

IN a fi'w wwks the members of the 
BnsiueKs Educators' Associntitm of 
America will Ik* gathered together at 
Saratoffa for their fourlecnth annnnl 
uufting. Mr. A. S. Osboni. who has 
ohargeof the arraneemeiits as rhnirman 
of the Executive Committer, informs us 
that the inilications are for the largest 
meeting in the history of the nRsociation. 
We Kivv elsewhere the prugrniime and 
Jill the particulars of the meeting that 
were obtainable up to the time of our go- 
ing to press. We sincerely trust that the 
meeting will be indeed the best attended 
and most sucoessful in the history of the 
ftwiKiation. TnE Jovrsals attitude to 
the B. E. A. is perfectly well-known. It 
hel|»><1 to build npthe organization in the 

beginoing and has stood by it steadfastly 
siDce its conception, contributing of its 
substance toward ita maintenance with- 
out stint. Occasionally it has seen fit to 
criticise — as la?t year — when in a manner 
that has been »<ufBcientIy indicate*! the 
cxmvention took snap judgment and con- 
tributed a valuable franchise to n gentle- 
man who felt the need of au official 
]>eriodical to promote his private business 
of selling cnt« and circulars to business 
colleges. We thought that a mistake 
then ; we think so now. We have re- 
ceived a hnudred letters (unsolicited and 
unsnggested by us) from business college 
men who take the same view. Some 
thought it would seriously cripple Thb 
Journal, but we have never had the 
slightest idea that the convention had 
any such purpose in view, though we do 
think the "scheme" originated with one 
or two men who would have been very 
happy to be able to effect that end. As a 
matter of fact The Journal has to-day 
more than a thousand sul>scriber8 in ex- 
ce.^g of its list this time last year. Its 
;iilv< rtisiim business is a third larger. 
it iv -Iniii- pretty well, thank you. and 
f.'i-K lirM r;il.-. 

Li_t iiu fritiid uf The Journal think for 
a moment that it has any other feeling 
for the B. E. A. but that of the warmest 
regard. Such au association is of incal- 
culable benefit to the profession. It should 
be encouraged by every possible means by 
every person who has at heart the inter- 
ests of practical education. The first 
contact with the National Teachers' As- 
sociation this year makes the meeting of 
more importance, perhaps, than any pre- 
viously held, and there is need for every 
commercial school proprietor and teacher 
to be in Saratoga in July. 

Alt Eyea on .Taeh»onvltle. 

Our bright contemporary, the Wentern 
Penman, recently announced as a special 
future attraction a pen flourish from the 
pen of Mr. C. E. Nettleton. local princi- 
pal of Mr. George Washington Brown's 
Business College, Jacksonville, 111. Natur- 
ally the eyes of an undivided and highly 
expectant profession have ever since been 
trained Jackson villeward to see what 
manner of bird, beast or reptile would 
take form from the nest of the mighty di- 
recting genius of the great and only Illi- 
nois five-gabled business college " Trian- 
gle." Those who have attended recent 
B. E. A. conventions and in whose ears 
are still reverberating the thunders of 
Jacksonville anti-flourish eloquence; those 
who still remember with awe the majes- 
tic trip-hammer gyrations and the eye's 
proud flash of triumph as the mighty feet 
of Illinois hammered the life out of 
writhing " eels, lizards, bnzzards " and 
other hapless fauna— are holding their 
breath and with eye-halls bulging are 
awaiting the incubation of the supreme 
effort of the Jacksonville Business Col- 

Our friend is nothing if not brilliant, 
less if not versatile. But who can fathom 
ill fti'- pH-sriit imperfect state of knowl- 
I '!:;■ Ill' 111. luing of this new maueuvre 
-flii^ ni.iiriuus intrigue with the giddy 
t ■uriiriu- .In iiiity in the very heart of the 
Browu sanctuary? Imagination opens 
up a vista of truly dazzling possibili- 
ties. Can it mean a subtle differentiation 
by which each head of the five-faced 
triangle is to charm our cousin Rusticus 
with a different quality of smile, each 
voice attuned to a different note? For 
tmly-good business penmanship go to 
Peoria; for "rainbow automatics "in 
forty-nine colors try Galesbnrg : the 
"eel. lizard and buzzard" department 
will be found at Jacksonville. "Yon 
pays your money and you takes your 

The MetToi)olitan School of Isaac Pitman 
Sborthaod and Typeu-riting is a new institu- 
tion located at '.tt Fifth aveoue. New York. 
Those who desire to learo shorthand as the 
"Father of Phonography" writes it, could 
select no belter place as this <icbool dispenses 
the pare Isaac Pitman arUcIe and none other. 
We believe it is the only such school in the 
m>>Uor«lis and wish it sutceeK. 



CoOTHtfrefaf C'otl^fe Work at the Vartd'm 

In recanl to the Commercial College works 
at the World's Fair. I would suggest thai for 
the bookkeeping work a routine of oRIcps he 
conslructeti for the carrying on of an " Actual 
Business Practice C'ouree," these otKces to be 
in charge of teachers and students selected 
from the various colleger. I think it would 
be A good plan to select the best studeuts from 
our colleges, who, at the time of the fair, have 
just completed the college theory course, to 
take up the busiuL-ss practice course at the 
exposition, giving them, on the completion of 
thecourM-. a final examination, the passing of 
which shall entitle them to graduation from 
the college which they may have attended, 
and also a certificate of honor from the com 
mercial manugers of the fair. 

Fortbe offices to be used I would suggest a 
hank, commission office, wholesale office, real 
estate, insurance, railroad and post office; also 
a commercial exchange, to l>e the center of 
trade. To do this a regular course of instruc- 
tion would have to he mapped out for the 
students to follow, in harmouy with the pro- 
posed working offices. A committee of the 
leading busiues educators should t>e selec'ed 
to arrange this feature of the work. 

I will not Venture any suggestions in reganl 
to the other parts of the work, as they will 
not be so difficult to arrange, and I am axious 
for the committee to inaugurate a good com- 
mercial course above anything else. 

W. C. Sbott. 

PHn. Netv PhUadrlphia, O., B. C. 

Tff JtaaeaU JUwf Oo! A Suggeation far 
Iht! n. E. A, 

I have been interested, sometimes amurted. 
at your occasional slaps at frauds who maii- 
querade as guides for young people in man- 
ners and morals of busiuess. The pity of it is 
that you don^t always give names, and how 
are we to spot the black sheep if we don't know 
who they are, unleas the range is so cloee that 
thei-e is uo escaping the color ^ Names ! 
uame.s 1 (Par parenthuscs, I don't intend to 
give you mine for publication just now, so I 
ought to stop scolding.) 

Seriously, is there no way to run down the 
rascals who ore ninuiug down our profe»~sion 
by pretending to represent it f No way to 
exterminate them rout and braucbes. or at least 
put ujwn them the brand of the scorn of honest 
commercial teachers so plainly that he who 
runs may read/ What is the B. E. A. for 
anyway — to meet every summer in order to 
swap offices and hear each other "Are off" 
the same old speeches on the same old topics > 
What better work could a representative body 
of American commercial teachers put it's hand 
to than weeding out the tares which have 
nearly choked the life out of the practical edu- 
cation idea, so far as n respectable part of the 
public is concerned f 

Take the advertisemL'uts that Col. Soult^ 
quoted in a recent number of The Journal. 
Will any one say that those who attract busi- 
ness by such methods are to be treated with 
tender consideration aud granted the privi- 
legi-s of fellowship with reputable school pro- 
prietors, lest, forsooth, some one should cry ; 
" Jealousy ! jealousy ; " I am perfectly aware 
that affection between business college pro- 
prietorx, unlike Kepler's laws, increases ac- 
cording to the squares of the intervening dis- 
tance; but there ought to be a way to handle 
this fraud question, and if the B. E. A. are 
not equal to it they ought to get out of bust- 
Take a case— oue of several that I have i>er- 
sonully known of within a year. A man starts 
a "business college" in a large Eastern city 
with a ereat flourish of trumpets. He is un- 
educated, uncultured, hut with a certain 
genius for lying that fools some of the people 
all the time. He gets everything on credit — 
rent, furniture, typewriters, advertising— col- 
lects in advance to the last penny, and -skips 
between suns. I^ipils and creditor*; gnash 
their teeth in vain. The papers write him up 
for what he is — an unadulterated fraud. Now 
vbat do you think that i 

Business College, best equipprd in the c 
etc.e" ""^ ■ "- -"^' " 

repeat — assuming that it is worth while 
for the business community to respect the 
work of business educators— if cases like the 
above are not flt matters for the alteutioa <if 
tbe B. E, A., the time is ripe for the birth of 
an organization that will help tbe practical 
education ship along a Httle by pumping out 
the bilge-water. V^r, 

>rt whose title 
paragraph. Uost of us who ore'interecsled in 
jienmansbip matters have known for a long 

i the caption to this 

liable of nr>it-clrisN v 
anddrouii -i 

U.Ik, of which the pro- 
1 1 ill - ripl, flourished 
1 I-II..I uiThe Joi-K- 
- ^^ ntiug" can only 
1 .w. bnpttwillbe 
II,.-. x.iiliirv. It 

add toll., n , 
e,i«mlh ...III 

copy shi-.r I ■ ...i i. 

\':}::'^' '::}'!:''£ 

the lean... . 
valuable hinr- ., i r 

', _ ,;,..;. .j'!:z 

poinlsof valu," to the umitmte. The pr 
Typewkiting.— This 


G. C. Raynor. 

G. C. Raynor, superintendent of pen- 
manship in the Millersville State Normal 
School. Pennsylvania, although a yoting 
man, has won a reputation as a penman 
and teacher. 

He was born in Suffolk County, New 
York. February 10, 18R8. At an eariy 


f where, -/ii, 

age he completed the regular course of 
study in the public school, and then re- 
ceived instruction in a private school for 
one year. In 1Hh6 he entered the State 
Normal School at Albany. N. Y. After 
completing the course, he accepted the 
pincipalship of the Shelter Island Acad- 
emy, Shelter Island, N. Y., which i>o»i- 
tion he held for two years. During hia 
stay at Albany and Shelter Island, when- 
ever opportunity presented itaelf, he 
studied and practiced tbe art of which he 
is now muHter. Mr. Raynor attributes 
his success as a penman largely to a 
course of lessons taken from that inimit- 
able master of the art. A. W. Dakin. 

In the fall of im) Mr. Raynor was 
elected professor of penmanship in the 
State Normal School at Millerwville. Pa., 
which position he now occnpiea. During 

„. of 1891 he attended the 

Zaneriau Art College at Columbus. Ohio, 
and worked hard i>erfecfcing himself in 
hit* chosen profession. 

To his persistent study and acknowl- 
edged skill ia due the offprnf ^ hnlf in- 
terest in the Wilkc; Pnrrr- Pn-in.-- Cnl- 
lege. Mr. Raynor li.-t- i.i .'liii'i il"' i"i-ii- 

ability and previous : . i. |]^•I• 

of both Engli><h lir.nM h.- uiH in- -ik- 
cialty. will aid in plaeiiif: ini already 
thriving school amonp the foremost of 
its kind. E. S. Hawkins. 

Prin. East Mip {N. Y.) High School. 


Thk -T __. 

ate. flis advent 

rurr^d ;ir ZmtivviUe, Ind., a trifle less 
tli;ni tliiitv viajsa'^o. His parents moved 
tn Inwa. wlifif h-- remained on the farm 
until be had attained his majority. Subse- 
quently he had some exjierience as a ship- 
ping clerk for a large nifrcantile house in 
De.s Moines, la. He entered the West- 
ern Normal College at Shenandoah, la., 
in the fall of !«««. completed the com- 

\V. G. Bishop. 

raercial and special penmanship courses, 
and supplementary courses m other 
studies gave him a useful foundation 
fur other work and helped to win for 
him a place in the faculty of the college 
in 1890. This position he occupied up to 
the time of the fire which destroyed the 
buildings of that institution last Decem- 

Mr. Bishop is one of the teachers se- 
leeted tor the new Lincoln, Neb., Normal 
Uni., the large institution that lias been 
already described in these columns. It 
will be opened next fall. 

An earnest and successful teacher, an 
intelligent and companionable man, it 
goes without saying thar Mr. Bishop en- 
joys the confidence and comradeship of a 
large circle of friends. 

New Cut Calalogne. 

Our New Catai.oouk of Cuts for Ad- 
I Commercial Schools, etc, bolL 
lewspapers, i» 

'Ml.' ii.-w 1 lit ri]lii)ii;^ue, iiicluding our cata- 
|iii;iiL' oi unmineiitHl initials, end pieces aud 
ntber decorative designs, will be sent to any 
si-buol for li.'j ceuts, whii-b amount may be de- 
ducted from firet order of $1 or more. 

"tyen/nafCi Q^^C 0^00.1 Aa:C9 

/(t .iiiKirrriiiu M\V(v1i>i(meniti mtml by n lUHn- I QITVATION WAN'rKD by n Icut^irr ot 
U-i>him.-.>\.lini^ ^,nit ,„M"l.r-'iirrnr.-(,lfntij,!vn1- K5 iicnmuiiplitit. hnnjtlf-- ping, writ hmetir and 

It^""V"'''V^\''.'"'. '.''/,' ''-'.' ',!'''' ''..',',V',","'f '"!!""' I K',''-^^''!^".^",'^ ..MM",',!',-,.'"weIirrtnSat"fl. Si'V- 

teneher. A ifood 
1 adilress. 

nnd Kood adili 


SITUATION wnuted a 

pid calculstions. 

praHlce. arithroetic, 
lud business writer. 

proved methods are required. Fii 

pEACHBR of pcnma' »b\i 


devoted a it 
Uood higa ; 

: otiligiuer youni; 


POSITION WAMXG0 as teacher of the 

dal braaches, 

malfe biuisell 

hns had chnikJi' 

A <"r«VE YOrtMti TICAOHEB of book- 

dcsire^'Viuplo^^u™ m! "'\vHl'^"t'^nhH"l, '1^^^^ 
" IKAlNEU.'caie Penman's AiiT.Ioi'hnal; 

AVOVNG TKACHGU of biiokbeepliiff. 
ar tlinicti nml T>eiimansh>p wliu has tad a 

"I'l"' '^ ■' iiiwsniary to begin with 



xi.iTi', Iff. jr. 

(Son and suocessor lo A. McL.'cs, EnK'H'cr ut Spencerian Copy nooks.) 

Copy-lines on steel, copper or zinc for photo- 
engraving. Engraving flourished signatures 
on steel for penmen a specialty. Correspond- 
ence solicited. "'- 



arithmetic, comoiercml iti^^, hi.huiii.h .m 
spelliotr. WibinmaS Hogers' text nooks HihiI 
for work at any time. Hecommendat i^ns upn 
iipplicatlon. "STEAi Y," care P^s^lMA^•s Ait 

keeping, In/' 

AIiEi-RODND teacher of penmanship f 
commercial braucheji, with five yei 
teaching experience, is open for immediate 
gagement. Can also handle all the comn 
school brunches and isa shorthand writer (Ui 




ESmiVING, lettciinir 

the Hai^iflc Coast in 


r opening iu September. 

full part 

mid anply at once by letter. 
I advantages, ftimily If any. 


and pro!!pi.rous Business ColieBC in Central In 
dian>i. Tt^e largest railroad ceniei' in the Man 
and the best (.ollegt- City in the C.S. "J-L U. ' 


xperienced and thnr- 
it teacher ot bookkeep- 
i position in a Husiness 
iry will be paid to secure 
ivlth superior qualiltca 
be considered conUden- 
• TKACHER," care fBN- 

/ teachers in position! 

mied at this writing (June U 
I roULd commercial teaci 
iriian j^alary, $nm. 
CKist. t'Uj/.-Two flrst-L-l 
lanehip and bnokhecpii 
■ isively. to tt 
lip Ucpaitae 

iitendent for well ] 

otbiT penmiiiisbip exclusively. 

i large Literary In- 
8 (different places) for 

I'lirh ('((j/.— Two commercial teachers. 
-All-i ouQd teacher. 

<i/li.'i(tH'a.— Firs t-ctai=3 commercial teacher, 
tilli edged 

Literary lustitUti 

3 take charge of c 

clal branches or tienn I 

-Experienced lady i 

jrganize uixht 
of penmanship aud 

yew Jcmey.— Ali-rouod commercial teacher. 
Kniu-tis -Al penman, capable of teaching 
bookkeeping and English branches if requiied. 
Mfc'ifo'i".— All-round teacher. 




partrer. who understands LiuBlneiS Col- 

' 7 hundred doHarf, 

kine Opening by 

lege instructing, hav 
cuu learn of a rao 
Hddreeaiug "I'USH, 

^aS^OTE'Vr A.K.I> ! 

To anyone who will locat« Prof. C. 
Crandlo, the penman, or tilve information a 
his whereabouts, eo he can be loeaf ed Add 

Fenman s-nd IDeslgnor 

The Secret out! 





I. ^^^ PATTON. Prln., 




and I will send you one dozen or more ways ol 
writing It, wlf:h histnictlonB ; or send me a D-oeat 
stamp, and I will send you addressed In my own 
hand, price list descriptive of Lessons by Mall. Ex- 
tendea Movement*, Tracing Exercises, Capitals, 
Cards, Flourishing, etc. Address, 

A. E, PAIl(>()NS. Creston, Iowa, 
P- S —No postal cards need apply. -t-lS 



Execu es all Kinds ol Ornamenlal Pen-Work 

To Order. 

Our Fnurosslng, Pen-Drawing. Lettering and 

Flourishing have received the highest com- 

12-12 A. E. OEWHURST, Utica. N.Y. 


Penmen. (2.) lior Teatiiie 
Anting in the Public Sc 


nely eciulup 



J. 11. DILLE. Principal. 

0. W. WALLACK, Instructor. 1-tr 


tj/enrnxuid CL^ttt ^^jj^tttn aCo 


I-., and as tho work 
lall)- light 
tviicbt>r an opport 


jalt(> bin vaoaiibn pruflUble, 
while not lnt«<rferlng with bis plf^sure. Sum- 
mer •cbcMjli) in pennianKbi)), an special ffntims 
iit n-iular bnMUcwt colleges are also gH*'"- 
lo youni{ I 

ilurinK tJif> I 

the 1 

— J. C Wilt<rof Bridgeport, tbf al.lP Huper- 
^Dtendent of TOE Jouiikal'S Public Sch(x>I 
Department, hnN been engaged to look after 
the peamanjibip ond of the Hartha'H Vineyard 

alito tbu Nntiunul luNtituto of Cbicaen. 

— Tbi- fourth annual suoinier session of the 
Allen County Normal will be held at the 
roornxof the Inturnntional B. C, Foft Wayne, 
Ind , from June a? to July SO. T. L. Staples, 
principal of the bun. coll., will have charge of 

- WlUinmi & RoK 

An, iViLtiiviiKr \s<\\\\ pill TiiK-rs are thoroughly 
ut liouio \i illi a i>uu, iiiiil umpiring students can 
make no mistake by committing themselves to 
Iheh- cure. 

W . 1!. E'ltkin.n Muccessful young comnier- 
1 iiii '- !■ ii' ' 111 ' ii-ii^iKi to teach ut the Free- 

iv'i I I. ■ . ■ 1 .. 1, ,i,i.N. J. 

. II I nl HucceedCIark& Muzxy 

i. I " Northern B. C. Water- 

l''^^ i< < Ml I Ink having dispoHed ot his 

■>r WajthiuKtun bad loug 
- W. J. Ives and C. E. Bigelo' 

> redound to the tid- 

I. C. Indiaaola, la., c 

B. C. Thf data wa-s June a. 

— P. B. S. Peters has dispot«i of bis interest 
in the St. Joseph. Mo.. Bus. Uor. Mr. Ppters 
ban the reputation of being a good teacher. 


3 kno«r bim t 

n excellent * 

— W. I, SUlev, who for some time past has 
bc-eu the principal of the Capitol City B. C, 
8alem. Ore., has bought that institution from 
itA former proprietor, A. P. Armstrong, and 
proposes to hold the noule squarely to the 

- for that city. 
— The }ioTihu>t*tisrr\ Monlhly, Fargo, N.D., 
ii the title of a neat and attractive publication 
imued by the College of Commerce of that 


— We learn tliniii;:li (tir 
oorr/rr.that n Ihw < l.i"-. ;;( 
KaUPRVille Cmn ''•■\' ■■n Hi 

20. Prin. F. E ^ i-li .!.■ 

that won him iii(iri\ i pin 

— Clark's B. ( ., KrJ ■. Pf, 
IP, and we juiUe 

— We leam with pleasure that the Decatur, 
III., Bus. Uni , of which Goshei t & Owen are 
proprietors, has enjoyed a good season. The 
school has recently been moved into handsome 
new quartei-s. Though in ita infancy, the De- 
catur Evening Bulletin informs us that more 
thau one hundred scholarships have already 
been issued. 

— We learn from the Daveupcrt, la., Daily 
Times that H. 8. Blancbard, who is connected 
with the la. Com Coll., is prepaHug some pen- 
manship work for exhibition at the World's 
Fair. The designs include a series of portraits 
of American Pre^iilents, and thern is much 

Blancbard estimates tht value of the collection 
he will exhibit ut ^.'iOOO. 

— An attractive catalogue comes to us from 
the la. City <"ou). CoH . Aca. and School of 
Shorthand. Messrs. Willis & Williams, pro- 
prietors of this institution, have every reason 
to be satisfied with it« patrouaiie One of the 
handsomest special diplomas that any schoil 
in this country can boast was re<*ently made 
for this school iu Thk Journ&l otBc?. 

ally handsome invitation lo be present at the 
of the Davis School, Winston, 

— A card Inviting us to Ite present at the 
}meut of the Southern Female Uni., 
Ala., on the occasion of their annual 
tb the complr- 

i put 

year teaching penmanship iu tlie public schitols 
of Bocky Klver, O., has been engaged for next 
year at a gratifying increase of salary, 

— H. A. Spencer of New York City, twin 
l)rolher to the late Henry C, Spencer, recently 
returne<t from a successful tour of organieing 
nud iastructmg clut<s in the South and West. 
He opened a bu)doe«s speed-writing club in the 
Spencerlan B. C, W'a*mngton. on June I. We 

well worthy of world-wide attention. 

— We have received the catalo^e of the 
State Normal School, Bloomsburg. Pa., one of 
the best patronized institutions uf learning in 
the Keystone State. 

— A handsome little card announce.^ the 
fourth annual commencement of the Com- 
mercial class of McPberson College, HcPber- 
son, Ean. S. B. Fahnestock is in diarge. 

— Ooldey's Wilmington, Del.. Com. Coll. 
sustains its reputation for handsome souvenirs 
and announce Jient cards. A particularly fine 
ot» invites the friends of that '- --• -' - ■ 

of the sixth annual 

ion of the S|»n- 

_ commenced with 

formal reception to the stulent^s who have 
been in attendance within the yi-ar, utter 
which musical selections were reuacred. The 

- A well printed and attractive illus- *Be made 
Irated circular comes to us from the Washing- monial w 
ton, Fa., B. C, of which W. J. Musser is pro- appi.-. i.t, 
prietor. ''^'■"' ' " 

— We acknowledge with pleasure receipt of ac""i^'^i'^ 
an invitation to be present at the commence- 
ment exercises of the Merrill B. C, Stamford, 
Conn., on the evening of June U. 

— T. L. Harden, a young penman of promise 
who has conducted elates successfully at 
several points, dates his letters at present from 
Norton. O. 

— C. H. Carroll. Chillicothe, O.. issues a 
business-like catilogtie, which sets forth the ad- 
vnntatttp. of his school. 

\li-. i:v« M. Wolf is making a very 

r.ii'l I i)..r of Chiifffe^a School Neirn, 

^\ '■ learn, by the way, that Mr. 

I i, , 1 . ; iiiu\ enjoying a well earned vac«- 

II M II I iingio the far West. We had the 
)ik>aMire of visiting this institution recently 
and addressing a large number of bright- 
looking students. 

— The Maryville, Mo., />ii7,/ Democrat of 
late (late contuius an interesting account of the 
closing exercises of the Com. Dept. of the Mary- 

1 eni-rossed tcsti- 
to Hev. J. B. Graff in 
-»■ of lectures on Busi- 
iinnial was signed l»y 

Fargo, N. Dak., 

the pnuciimUhi: 
B. C. 

— J. F. Draughon of Texarkana, Tex., has 
purchased the Nashville, Tenn., Com Col. 

— Diplomas were awarded to a large gradu- 
ating class at Mr. Armstrong's Portland, Ore., 
B. C., on May 27. 

— A tasteful and "taking" invitation an- 
nounces the annual graduating exorcises of 
the Los Angeles, Cat., B C, on June 17. 

— L. M. Kelchner is doing excellent work iu 
the special penmanship of the Highland Park 
Normal College, Des Moines, la. A re>-eiit 
note informs us that his original class of three 
now numbers thirty -five, and "still a-grow- 

— The Journal extends congratulations 


with them (uoc on detached slip 

which may be misplaced) they are liable to be 

confused or to go astray entirely. 

— A neat and strongly executed flourished 
design is sent by our gifted young pemanistic 
friend H. C. Hpencer of Providence. R. I. 
Another is from E, L. Wiley, Chattonoi^gn, 

-J. N. Downsj Youngst4i 

\v!"e. tiibs 
iship xtudent at tl 
. Ill , a bird fiouri! 
'!■■ degree of aptitut 

ate sent by F .\ , Cui lis. New York. 

— H. C. Rowland Scio College, Si-io. O., 
submits some writing remarkable for freedom 
and sureness of t^troke. The same will apply 
to a spec-imen by U. B. Lehman of Kansas 
City. Mo. 

— L. D.Teter, the " Penman's Ledger" man, 
now at Rochester, gives usanother taate of his 
quality ma flourished swan. 

- H. F. Crumb, manager o' Caton's Coll of 

Com., Buffalo, 

number of well-w 

— A well-draw 

eventually find 

portfolio with t 

H from J. R. Elder, Bear Branch, 

— Attractive specimensof plain, rapid busi- 
ness writing, and a set of husitiess capitals go 
in our collection to the credit of T. J. NevilFe, 
Staflordsville, Conn. 

— A very creditable batch of pen specimens. 
including script, drawing end pen fiourisbtng. 
has been received from our fertile young con- 
tributor, R. L. Dickensbeeta, Boulder, Colo. 

— T. L. Hanieu. Norton. O., wDds a Bg- 
un» drawing thttt (<hoirs good art ideas. He Is 
also a guod ty-it«r. 

— We have received phot«crapbs of a wet 
of iTsoIutJons from our antipouvau co-norkor 

>tyle from the work turned out ou this side, 
K evinces good taste, and has miny strong 

Hallett, Elmira, N. Y., Coll. of Com., and D. 
L. Hunt Stockton, Cal.. B. C. 

— A number of Bus. Coll. and privat* : 

I, Pbila. : 

W. P, Rhodew, Pawtucket, R. L : Ernest E. 
Mnrse, Winter Harbor, Me : E. E. Cooler, 
(iavle, Utah ; A. J, Hall, Covington, hid.; M. 
H. O'Brien, Wo«u«.ocket, R. I ,and ouralwayn 
clever friiud. A. A. Clark. Cleveland, O. 

ceivcd from the imi.i:., „i 
would in^t«ntly do uway 
. pression, Thev are as pretty i 

number of !.ppri 
Lister. They sli 
The writing of i 
pus and L ", K 

I C. C. 
1^' Kap- 

aged 10. Mr W-iHy him-ielf is ii show: 
graceful wriltir. 

— E. R. Davis, t«acher of poumanship at Mr- 
Drake's J(i>^i-v City B. C. liiv.'s us in 

few of iiMii^ . i ■ II. Ml v^ .■,1 , !■ H. Waite, 

G E. Martin, iN, It, I Immfis. .Ino .J. Corlay. - 
Mr. Davis tuvuis us with aomo capital com 4 
bination». text lettering, specimene, etc, fn>iaj 
his pen. all well executed. 

iipared with those 

ome moutha 1 
, must be credited to E, Frank Harlan, f 
Miss Steadman i 

— Penman S. M. Sweet of the Buffalo Hu«. 
Uni. favors us with some contributions from I 
pupils of bis. Many of them represent psgev \ 
of figure work ' ^ -• - - ... < i 

models of this 

and awoit the results. Au i-vcu, fine-lino, J 

graceful running style prevails. E Reld, i 

David E. Doyle, Hannah DutFy, Julia ZeifaoK \ 

and Charles Uehmig are among tbe best of the 1 


elegant v. |. > ; f m . . in^ individ- 
ual credit t . Lihku (ir.iv,-^, .li-ittu'.- Cauffmao. i 
M. Johnsuu aud Fauoie Clark. Mr. WilsoD U I 
doing a good bu.tiness with hiji p^n, writlag I 
carJs, copies, etc., out*ide of bis school. 

The Ruliso Passion.— /"Vrgf Anget (refer* I 
-ine to new arrival): " It Isn't often we see 
-vol estate agent up here.*^ 

Heeonii Anfjrl : " What makes you think i 

shoved his crown on to the back of his b«wd 1 
and began to brag about the climate (" — 1 
Brooklyn Life. 


n's Leisure Hour — Continuing The Journal's " Galaxy of Flourishers " Series. 

Examples by H. A. Howard mid E. L firow i. 
.\V.r( Afonth Ecamples by A. B'. Dakin. A K. Bush aud Others. 

"^ ^/ima/ie) QyCct Cl/cu zamP 

\Oth€r AdCfflUtmenU nn Pt»/t «> 1 

50 CROSS. 

Gillott's No. 604 Pens 

Given away with Vols. I and 2 

Peirce Philosophical Treatise 








Adapted for use with or without Text-Book, 

aad tbc only set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 




Favorable Kiraneomeiita made with Busfness 

' ^ ■ " and Private Schoola for tntro- 

Deaciiptlve List now ready. 

^otleiceaand Public and V 
duotlon and use. T 
'.'orrespoiidence Invlii 

Tne boat Pen In the U.S., and best penmen use them. 


turi'.l ■■ ! ■ ■ .. '-iiK -ele-'led. They 

111-.' |. ir\M ;■ . .1 ■ I'liMlo and Private 

fSi'liM..|i piinl i:....k i.. . (.. I - II . j'liL up in Boxes, 
I'ODtalniiit; *j I'l'iis, .>itiI- iM^L-imid, on receipt of 

""""dANIEL SLOTE & CO., 

119 4 121 William St.. N. Y. 

Good Writing is Capital! 

■peclni«ii of loup wriUns. In ivtarn 
I * buMliiH* IwlCT CDI of pUlr '.-.- 



Tri-State School-News, 

A High Grade Educational lournal(monthly) 
(or teachers and school cfficeis. Send fc 
sample copy and Itarn how to obtain a year' 



should not fail to send your name. Mention 
the Penman's Art Journal. Address 






(Complete edition.) 360 pages, octavo. Generally ac- 
cepted liy commercial teachers as the .standard book on 
this subject. Used in the leading business schools of the 
United States and Canada. Retail price, $1.50 Liberal 
discotiiils to schools. 


(School edition.) ;oo pages, i2mo. Containing the 
essential part of the complete book. Retail ]irice, $1.00. 
With pro])er discount to schools. 

3. Packard's New Manual of Bookkeeping 

and Correspondence. 

160 pages, octavo. A logical, simple and completr 
treatise on Bookkeeping, arranged for use in Business 
Colleges, and a most acceptable te.xt-book. Retail price 
$1.00. With proper discounts. 

Any one of these Books sent to teachers for examination 
at one-half retail price. 

S. S. PACKARD, Pub lisher. 

101 East 23d Street, New York. 

The above is the title page of Calnlogiie ami Pruc-Lisl of our I^ublica- 

ir you are in need of any of these books or pens, please send for 
descriptive price-list to schools and colleges. Address, 

D. L. MUSSELMAN, Quincy, 111. 

.oo,ysc«r»^oy.opMe.rcFT». I T-.0 YOU TEACH 


I author, J. M. MEHAN, : 




Is in the field for new subscribers. Your 
name on a postal card will gel you a free 
sample copy and introductory terms that 

right now. even if you don't read the 
papers before the new school year opens, 
Invest one cent and be convinced. 
.\dcJr. ss 



[ Ax^ YOU KNOW ^T' 


'^^T" ~ty en/nan^ (i:^tltyOj^wiAa/3 

Rm ■ For ojeof Wllaon'a FlO'r. 
^'"''"Lt};^^;;^'?™" yi a new work 

T^n ooozs-s'xx.A.zi x'TT^xixs^xro'O' ooasz*.A.N-s- 

o. no« 41JB. ATLANTA, GA. 

FELIX CAMP, Manager. 



Precisely the Best Pens made. If that's the 
kind you want, seud 3ll cents for 
I quarter ?ross; JI.OO lor gross. 

Spoiling aud Letter-Writing :— 204 page: 
teachers. 50 cents. A handsome and popular book. i5,*«x.sold. Typewr 
Iiistrm-tor and StcnofrrapheiN Haud-Book, 90 pages, two c lors. 
Sample to teachers. 65 cents. Specimen pages'of either book free. 

IN PREP.\ RATI ON:— Plain English, a practical work on lanj 
Shorthand, a model phonographic text-book. Commercial I^aw, a coi 
treatise on business law and legal forms Bookkeeping, a book giving n 
forms and methods, illustrated with elegant script. Write for full informal 
the publishers, 




Good iiosilions nre always open for all that are priiflcieut hi pen dniwin? and text lettering. 
I i you wish to become a pen artist. Nearly all of the young pen nen that are comfnf; 90 rapidly 
to the front have taUen it or are now pursulni^ it. Consists of ao lessons covering every deuart- 
mcnt from a simple line (o a finished pen portrait. Price S^. 


decidedly the Ijcst pubUsfaed. More alphabets and tinting than in ah other c 
Shading Ink 

uaily adapt 

E^hadintr. Marldnir 

explicit and c 

The best place t 

tlon and board reai 

Honk Maga/ nt; T 

e Pen Porlral 


e to become an alt-round Penman. Artist and Teacher in the Unit 
inpreheneive and practical— inalructlon unexcelled— eight boun 




Blxler'N RuNlne»s ('allege, tViiuNtcr, Ohio- 





/or am 

k of which you : 
with which the bom' 
Prom Robt. Lev 

le diplomas (t 

The desig 



These mc fine pointed, very 
elastic and are specially adapted 
for professional use and orna- 
mental penmanship. Writing 
masters and experts should not 
be without these pens. ,.,„ 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co,, 


season is coming around. Don't wait until the last moment and take jour chances of getting prompt de- 
livery with hundreds of others who rush in tlien, to be disappointed perhaps about getting tlicm in time for 
use. It costs no more to attend to this now ; in fact, we are in shape to give more work for the inoncj if 
ordered before the "rush season" sets in. 

No natlB 

We are 
the lichest, most varied 

{2) Hoiv many Diplomas ? 

Itlioiit kuotvlnsr lhe*e two racta. Se 

(/) What kind of a School? 

ciory ostlmitecan be nia4« on « Hporial dlploi 
by slviDc them in your first letter of Inquiry. 

instantly improving our processes and arc now hundliug a line of diplomas, certificates, etc., that we believe to be 
all respects the best that are oflfered in this country. . Get all th*? samples and estimates you can ; 
work and prices and judge for yourself. It isn't at all necessary to take anybidy's word for it; still, it 
do no harm to give a few extracts from letters received from people for whom we have recently made diplomas after they had 
fully looked over the entire field with a view to making the best bargain possible : 

ably the bestthntl have 
harmonious shading 

LoHoAf C'arbondale Hlirli School, 
Oarboudah, Pa 

1 a thort timL 8 nee are at hand To s 
t iHta of the lithographer ■> art but feebly e 

a excellent qual t\ and the presi work is Incompf 

TI e Unished diplo 
rinitfilnk " 

admirable lltnographj i 


ofevsora who have "i 

A. A. JolinMouj President CJolvcritlly o 
Laranilo, Wyo. 

1 highly pieasEd with the a 

r of work 
8 demand 

C /u/tatic 
"4 appreciation 

' Wyomlus* 

r diplomas. 


nodcrate price ashed a 

for the same. 
r Chnrch of the 
Ich, N. J. 

the artistic design > 

A. Gi 

The diplomas 
me to say that th 
way. AlthouRh 


ighly I 

invtlle. See^y nethany College, Ltndaborff, 

ordered from you arrived to-day byexpress. Allow 

irtistio and satisfactory lo us in every 

highest grade, I find that yoiw prices 

orders for work of 

ETans, Pres. irentern Normal Colleee, 

nade for U6. The work 

rk is highly artistic and satisfactory 
_ ... , mr work is of i hn highest grade, I find t 
■c^U ime-half of that- ai^crd bu other firms for work infcrti 

s, Pres, 

s highly pleased with the dipli 

I Temple 

r hud. 

& Hamilton, PrO|i*it Temple & Hamllton^M 
lucMN f!olleee, San Antonio, Tex. 

diplomas— one for our Business 

Penmansbip Departmeut. The ■ 
pect, both OS to artistic meri 
r than any similar diploma wo 

Department, one for Shorthand a 

■ bip De 


make for u 
graving^ of our plain and ornamental pear 
ir highest approval, as attested by the Inclosei 

Prom HarmUon & nioore. Prop** 

highly satisfactory i 

We t 

'. whicii n 


say that we 
vorkmanship o 

I of you duly received, and ' 
_ _ ...eased ■"" ' — ™l_ . ..... 

the highPst a 

1 1 pleased h 

ally charged for this class of work. 
rom nemlnie A, Proctor, IDadUon, W 

The workmanship on the diploma is Indeed e 

Our teachers are hinbly pleased 
Inish of the diplomas you made for u 

irc give names and addrcj<s«i compute, so lyoit mail write to them people if MWt rare to ; and wc ean supplu 
[leslrrii. In anyeucnt, don't make up ymr mind until seeing our specimens. 

aridHome View Caialosue and Pnll-«lce Specimens— TnT^enty-flve Designs 

process at about what cfit< 
only say i 

i-printid diplomas have li 


t with 
work of 

Bas. Unl., 

putting it mildly 
Exquisite and the 

. Bus. €olleec. 

nt, and for design 

re such references if 
>r Twcuty-Ove 

neby lithographic 

■t prl,-iw for hfgh- 


y wrapped up and put iiwey flat will remain for years a^good as new. 

Par/iol Lis/ of Diplomas eic, that wc Carry in Stock. — Size about rS x 2^ Inches. 

being changed for the latter by the si 

oof TBE.rouR 

iHl oriiiailtiillo 

•• Union." "Pablii: 

n-Dl|.. J 
iul I'iploi 

Schonl o 
sColltge-Dlp. E. 

and 1 

Kind ( 

ducatlonal Instilii- 

-OrderasDip. K. 
rrltinw Dip. I. 
L'tiQirmcnl of Rusl- 

-Dip. H. 

Ulp. n. 
(Bookkeeping and An 
la (Will Fit Any Penm4n8hi|)Sc: 

rimeut (of sny I 

- . E. 

Special Business t'jilcge UlptoraaiT 
-Dip. n. 

logs. etc.. in line and half-tone. Fine illustrations foVcataloKOes a specialty. '" ' " ■ ' '" " *■ ' 'iin«. ourns Ka.ingp, 

D. T. AMES. Penman's Art Journal, 202 Broadway, New York 

; Course) 
-Dip. X. 

^k^^'^ f^c/una/hA QyttC CL/otcuia/j? 

Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of them, make books which they try to palm off as superior to 
(he original'^. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

Uccause it is the best text-lmok on the subject ever published, as 
is [)roved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books preceding it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from it. 

What evidence is there that it is a st.xnuakd work ? 

It has been published 33 years without change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
I he country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report- 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of All About Phonogkaphv, the 
largest and handsomest shorthand circular ever published. 


nd Publisher, 


744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting, 

744 Broadway, New York. 


lATfT^st like cvtAhllshmpiit in thp world Firat- 
cliUUiSocoiid-bfUidlDstruiiioDtMar half D^wpnc-cs. 
Voprejudloxl advice given co all makes. Ma- 
chlne« Bold on moDtbly paTmente. Any InHtm- 
meat man uf noturcd sh ipped, privilege to examine. 
EXCHANQl>'OASPECIAI,rif. "WboTesalw DriOM 
to deaJera; Illustratetl Catalodnies Free, 

TYPEWBITEa ) 11 Broadway. New York. 
HEADftUAETEES, ta«WabashAve.,ClucagO. 


C ^ \ 

S H O Ft T H AKT D. 

Uo NOT spend II lifetime ill ieaiiiing the old 
SHADED. PU.->rnON eystems, when TWELVE 
WEEKS will enable you to wnt« fioml55to 
lai worda per minute, by the LIGHT line. CUN- 
and to READ your notes like print. Text book 
complete. J2.nO ; Part 1. 50 cent.o. Lessons by 
MAIL orat INS-TITLTTE. Trial Icssfm KREE. 
Book sent to colleges for examinatlim. Write. 

H. M. PERNIN, f^tf 




Mrp. Packard's Compli 

r sule. Pricu $1.7 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 

The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 years' c.\perienee, author of " Aid to Graham," 
" Shorthand Copy-Book," &c.. President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It docs not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
.System in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed tjiese 
slumblins blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unc(|ualed in the history 
of shorthand teachers. The publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will be sent 
liv mail post-paid to anv address on receipt of the price, $1 ^o 



THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., Publishers. ,.^ 
:5 to 27 Euclid Avenue, ■ Cleveland, Ohio. 

1 he Henn 1 itman oystem of Phonography 


American System of Shorthand. 

• il ^l.dtthnnd and t)]>ewrltinK hov 

hav a "departm<-nt of shorthand." 
but that of Benn Pitman 
than any other in this cO' 

*iUH}Um, D. ( .). for the |, 

If I wei« utarting to lonm PhonoKraphy r 
Itenn PitmaD'ji ^fnnuai and other books, and foil 
F Mun>ti\l, OmrOii Rfixnlfr of the. f. S. Sfuate 
MatHizltir. y»f. V. iMgcVVt— April, im.l 


has since 1855 been the standard text-book of .shorliiand instruclion id AmericH. It 
h8s bceu twice revised aod re writ en {in 1860 and in 1B85)— the lost time by B^no 
Pitman and Jerome B. Howard in collaboration— and it is now more largely used in 
American schools of shorthand, business colleges, seminaries, academic?, public schooN 
and colleges, than are all other shorthand text books combinetl. It has reached its 
270th thousand and is now issued at the rate of over a.'i.OOO copic* a jcar. It conuios 
144 duodecimo pages and retails at |1.00acopy, in cloth cover?, tr $.80 a copy in 

Jerome B. Howard, is the only tssential tixl-book besides the 3/rt;(Hn/, and conducts 
thes'udtnt to the briefest stjle of writing used by professiooal reporters. 12nio, 
187 pages. Price in cloth, |1.25; in boards, ll.dO. 


B. Hi^wnrd. Large 8?o. 44 or more ptges monthly, among which ar tight pages of 
beautifullv lithographed phonetic shorthand. A periodical complemeni to the 
books and the authentic organ of the Benn Pitman sjslem of Phonography. Sub- 
scriptinn price, |1.50 a year. Now in its sixth voluoie. Vols. I-V in cloth covcr>^, 
♦9 50 each. 

end for 

itfilog and specimen jwges nf all \t\u 

apl.ic publu 

A liberal discount will be made to all schools and to teachers 
of Phonography, and special prices will be quoted for introduc- 
tion and exchange. 




'$18 to $50 a Week 

or tlio Worlrt's Fjilr, Now nubHsbed monttafy. Uurliiji Fair weeltfy. 
ENCVCLOPKDIA OF TUB FAJH. 8end«Oc. Xor tenumino puporcontiUoli 

>'S-EYE VIEW, !■ ■ ■ 




^;'S cofies. 

An ejct 

enstve series of ciwanXv writfeii mptM. fi-psli from the poo, on bciivy. unnili-d i 
a size, there being fiftten sheets imckud lu a siilistuutliil cuae iind stmt fur ii ."ii 
or one '•«nt pustapc stamps Addrt'ss 


W. H. PATRICK. 64-3 N. Fulton Ave., Baltimore, ^ 



Better made, 

Runs easier, does 

Better Work, and 

More of it, than any other 

Constantly improved. 


Wyckoff.^ Seamans & Bciwdu't, 

,P7 Broadway. New York. 


Learn Shorthand? 

I have applications coDtinually •f')r 
yonng men which I cannot fill. I coiiM 
imve I.'Cated two or three times as many 
young men the last year if I had the 

Tlierf is nci better field for smart young 
mil 111, m Shorthand Writing. Let it bo 

-t. 1.1. Ill- Nt<.m- for tumethinK higher. 

SPANISH taught hy mail and person- 
Ih, ^p;iiii:inlh tttught English. Bmk- 
nt-fs mtn furnished competent St<i. 
uTapheis without charge for my senic- - 

OSWEGO, N. Y. J'tr 

— ^ 




The ORIGINAL, and lor 64 years the STANDARD' 


>nd /or book 
K- of works 

: Vitii 


flllOWL'd t 

1 iichers, 


The Phonographic Depot, 3 Eait 141h St., New York, 

Take lessons Mt "The Metropolitan School of 

" • ■ 1 Typcwi-" 

,New Y( 

ortliand and Typcwritiog," Ufi 



I A thousand years as a day. No arith- 
metic teaches it, A short, simple, practical 
methodby E.C.ATKINSON, Principal of 
Sacramento tusiness College. Sacramento, 
Cal, By mail, so cents. Address asabove. 

«'«I»IE (M'ICH I R'ysBrtvanclnKWilldoublevalue. 
Fine timber and rich soil underlnfd with conl. 
Well adapted tor I'oultry. Vegetables and Fruit, 


J(!tf/''&tt'Sfu'^0(M& St. LouiSjMo. 



"Aedmtmg. ) PEN/AANSHIP 

Ever Pflblished, 

I nnd middle-atfcd n 

THOUSANDS pUner.iGu,de, 


women hive learned to write a handsome style at home, with no ot 

tnt Writing 

f pliiiu and oroftmental penmanship from Palmer's Guide to Muacular Movement Writing, 

)fessional penmen with no other teacher. 



EVERY STEP ;?,',;;;,' 

IS become tlii' leadir 
n good hand ivlien ti 

ID on practical writing, and it has bevn sold la all porii 
ions given in the Guide are faithrulljr followed, and 
e development of muscular movement 1$ left to the imugina- 

mblpnow publlsbed. . 

9 College, I 

n In penmaolhlMn 


This new and elegant book presents 
the principles of Qrabftn phonography 
in a very clear and systemalic manner. 
It saves time and labor and prevents 
discouragement. Position taught from 

The simplicity of the rules and their 
freedom from exception insure higher 
speed and greater legibility. Number 
of word-signs greatly reduced. Large 
type, elegant paper, beautiful engraving. 
The cheapest and best text-book. Sent 
postpaid, securely wrapped, for $1.85. 

To teachers, with a view to intro- 
duction and privilege of returning, Ji. 00. 

Bryant k Stratton FablUbing Co., 

Will You Rflnd Thin? 


piece 82x2b. All direct frcm the 

«• L. D. TETER, 

Are You a Subscriber 



LISTEN while we tell you some- 
thing about that paper. 


ESTERN P8NMAN begins with 

jrastancL-s. The April number, wb 
fill Ue a fairly representative one. contain 
lage (photo-engraveal of bick hand Splni 

drawing by B. 
paraiso, Ind. ; a 

BEFORE READING FURTHER ;;';,r.,vr;''sr3,.?r'S;'; 

.M,a,to«,i,.Fr..u«iBTj.c.»,^. CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA. 

fan you risk sixty cents for a year's aul> 
A sarapk' copy will be sent free. 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

»^j|^^ tycYi/Ha/i^QyCdyQJviczAJtC? 

O^/lil S/fAOfS AAfO 

^i^iy O^^C't'^^y^.ri^i^z.ic^ldy^ 

NEW INTRODUCTIVE BOOKKEEPING. 125 Pages. Retail Price, $1.25 

F..rrnnimrrTt:it ll.i'iii I n. rits :in.| Kv-ninn riiuwcs. .KnoihtT HawX^mt Xia,^. 

FIRST LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING. 75 Pages, Retail Price, 75c, 
COMMERCIAL LAW. 310 Pages Retail Price, $2.00. 

1,^ ONKof WILLIAMS* K06BRS' many popiiUr Commercial Publication*, Although but 
tbrcv month! from tb« pra« It ban bren adopted by many of the lesdlnir business vul 
le«w and crimmerclai •lepBrtmcnU of the couolry. and te<ictaet« aud student* of pen - 
mHiisbtpnn'dflliihted with It. It iBorlitlnal. unique and beautirul, and its pccullHrltleB com- 
mend It instantly to all who czamtne It. Amonfr Iti strong guolltlM are : 

FlliOT-Th« Ifnea an- f jact reproductions of the actual pen-writin» of one o( the Ik-bI 
pnirtlcal writers In the country, inatead of accurate engravings from pencil drawings. 

fiiuowii-Thc'-oplesarf) printed on ruled paper, which contributes so much to th9ir nntural- 
ncM thitt (nn nveraire pupil doca not nUN(H->ct that the tines are cagravingg. 

TtiiHii-The set contain* so large a number of ooplee, 255 in all. that the pupil flndn ample 

lely. * 


>K OF INSTKCCTIONP. which aceompai 
lift tho«e hints, suggef^tlons and dircct'ons as to how to pracMci 
lie most cnpiible U'Hober of writing would give him. 

Thf retatl price of this act, whli^b Is culled tbeCouPl,BTit BDmoN, is 91.00, niid 
Hilled to uoy ndilrPM on receipt of that amount in postal nnti or postage stamps. 
r- mallei to any teacher, with a view to Introduction, lor SOo. 

AN ABRIDGED EDITION of Pen-Written Copies (Reproduced), 

('..iitiiiniiii; JilK.ut lull .opi.s fiii.l a Bnok nf Instrnctinns, aduptcd to piil.lic and 
jirivatc i^chools, hits just been issued. The retail price is qOc. and a set will be 
ninilcd to any teacher, with a view to iotroduction, on receipt of 25c. in postal 
not.- or pnataj;)- stump.'*. .Attention is also called to the followinf;: 

NEW COMPLETE BOOKKEEPING. 275 Pages. Retail Price, $2,50, 

NEW BOOKKEEPING. 250 Pages, Retail Price, $2,00, 

BUSINESS LAW (*?rffSf"). 200 Pages. Retail Price. $1.25. 

K'T < iiiiiiii.ri ml 8ihnolsBnd ('oninien.'i«l Deimrtments. An Bjrrrflinuly I'niftirnl n"«k. 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 275 Pages, Retail Price, $2.00. 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC i*r*?.",?i1,.!f") 

Retail Price, $1,25. 

225 Pages. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 235 Pages, Retail Price, $1.50. 

Retail Price, 75c, 

SEVENTY LESSONS IN SPELLING. 130 Pages. Retail Price, 30c 

THREE WEEKS IN BUSINESS PRACTICE. Metfiod ^i^' Outfit, $35,00 


a7i,; ,,!!/;( .vi,tT',.«,'i(/ scJifHic erer ittthlisli'-il Inr lUtlMtrativti Itutitiriat. It njTuriln iuyt Ihr itrlll thni in 
Mcccssflrj, 111 fit the iiupU in Wid tiest iKiKnilite wnii fi/r offlrt injrh. 

A Coiiy of ft lift of the nhooe iiuhHenttonx, crfrinlnff the ItHHinen^ fraetier, ipttf ho 

We also carry a line of Diplomas for both Commercial and Shorthand Departments, which may be 

adapted to any school; also Blank Books and Business Forms for Bookkeeping. Stationery, 

College Currency, &c., &c. Correspondence Solicited. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Educational Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 

Iegc9 belonging to the Catoii System ; 
it matters oot what the distance may 
hv. Thorough Departments of Bu8i- 
iics", Shorthand, Penitianship, En- 
glish Training. Elocution, Mechanical 
and Architectural Drawing in each 
Si hool. For a Course of Stud js 

id Systematic Management these Schools hive do superior, if 
Send cts. in stamps for au SO-page IHustrfttcd Catalogue, 

nil aiid other circulars. 


AdtlreHN M.J. CATON, Pre*., Cleveland, O. 

/ <^N>^r5- i^ri""^ -1-' 'is "*^'*"'r'- THK NATIONAL LBAGUE has ii Bureau In 
J HAil*^' ,'i£A^^^^ ^-'-^^ «'"-•'' J^'itte iiith9 ITnion which concentrate ttiuir whole 

HOWARD & BROWN, Com'l College, Rockland, Maine. 

TAIE 7 |„||, 



The 1.1-1 pla,i. to brconu- h PoDUiaii, Artist anil Toaclur M,),l,in, Priuli,;,! M.tli,,il 
Lfailini; IVnmin ,iml Arli«l* siviiii! .■iitipf 


i .iitirf limr lo sili.,i>l Kml .v.,rk, Siv I 
r firaclnati-< lliaii »r can Hll. Fiiii-M P.nii „ _ 
rated Calalo^'iic, shnwinf; work of <]niilnnU,s, fir. 

iii|,rior. Skiilful, OriKinal Wo 
lo.,l IiiHlriK'tion l^.oll honni : 
, >.. Ili!;> .lol, work eloiK- 

D.ilh. U-cturi,. a:i 
i-i.s l.v Mail a.kri 
(T or stamps, Cimil^rs fr, ,■. 

PS yAMFRc iuiACT.roo,..-,>T .... •..„ . ^^"^'"^ ZANERIAN ART COLLEGE, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

i. ,^« w M^ ^ MASTERPIECE, A Ploiitrhcd Ea-lo. onlill.,,! •• ProgrR,." 22 x 28, worth ♦100, niailed in tube, puslnuitl, for .00 cenW. 

I nil. A. n . Dakin, Amstirdam, N. ^ . tli€ HcDownwl Pititnan, sajs: " I believe it was engraved from (he linesl specimen of Flourishing ever eiocutcd." 


, Associate Editor. 


Vol. 16. No. 8. 

Handwriting, Old and New. 

■3 be acquired 
at school or soon after 

A slovenly, b I most illeg- 
ible liaDdwritioe is far 
more prevalent than, per- 
hai>s, most people siippos 

Instead of beioR i 

perior mental powers or 
good taste on the part of 

wilb all their 

icestors of 'TiV— 

As regards the clearness of the 
writing of a century ago, the old 
ronud hand was in vogoe, and 
the strokes were slowly drawn out 
with the quill jien. There was far 
less writing done than at the pres- 
ent day by the masses, and there 
was far more time taken to do it. 
Express writing was hardly more 
thought of than express traveling. 
The old stage coach method pre- 
vailed in both. The man was 
slowly drawn along by coach or 
traveled on horseback over the 
country. The goose quill was as 
slowly drawn along over the pot- 
hooks and trammels of — for its 
day — the good old round hand. 
But a new century has brought in 
speed, and to-day the goose quill 
and the old round hand cannot 
compete with the express train, 
thctelegi'aph, the phonograph and 
the typewriter. Writing must be 
dispatched to meet the demand, 
but it should carry the individu- 
ality of each letter, thus retaining 
the two essential elements of all 
good writing. 

What is being taught as to writ- 
ing in most of tlie public schools 
of the country to-day? A method 
as regards movement which too 
nearly ajjproacheB that oP the stage 
coach. What is required of the 
pupils when they leave school and 
enter business life? The express 
method of writing. What is the 
consequence? Form is sacrificed 

to ; 


without hand poise, and the bad 
writing scut to printing offices and 
generally prevalent is a sort of 
pen dyspepsia ; where the pen is 
required to bolt a great mass of 
writing in a limited time, and the 
muscular action of the arm and hand is 
inadequate to carry the thought to the 
paper fluently and legibly at the same 

What is the remedy for this? To have 
the pupils of the public schools taught 
business writing, and not the drawing of 
letters. To have movement so associated 
with form that the one will constantly 
react on the ol her. To write as our fore- 
fathers did would be to sacrifice speed. 
But si>eed must be had, and nineteenth 
century writing in the race sacrifices 
form, If a little bit of identity ie tacked 

on to the letters, well and good; if not, 
you -mght to be able to read writing with- 
out identity, seems to be the sentiment. 
The public schools of the country ought 
to turn out rapid writers whose penman- 
ship is clear and legible. There aie hun- 
dreds of pupils in our Hartford grammar 
classes who write a handsome business 
hand at a fair rate of speed, and this is 
true of many other cities where writing 
is in charge of specialists. 

The blackboard writing of a large per 
cent, of even the best department teach- 
ers in the public schools leaves much to 
be desired, and challenges the pupil's at- 

file of teachers fall below a good standard 
in their blackboard writing. These bad 
models presented constantly to the eyes 
of the pupils have a damaging effect upon 
their writing. Teachers should help to 
lift writing out of the ruts, by showing 
that they care enough about it to give a 
good presentation of their handwriting 
before a class. 

What is needed all over the land is 
the skilled wilting teacher, and the 
skilled drawing teacher, multiplied to 
the same extent as the trained instructor 

I have to thank the Times for its inter- 

Wr -,i.,„,,u...i'r ,.i*..™lriBiiirt .111.1 wtoP,™ii,mtr.™-«.taT». f^ 

ft I I.W. \lKi>Ji<iriM f, 

"** ™^' ^|» 

tention mainly by its non-conformity to 
any regular standard. Individuality is 
not to be crushed out. but idiosyncrasies 
of style should be withdrawn. Where 
exceptions to these erratic styles occur, 
they will almost invariably be found 
where the teachers, themselves, have 
been drilled as pupils in public schools 
which employ a special writing teacher, 
or where the teachers are graduates of 
some business college. But as there are 
many cities and towns that have not as 
yet fallen into liue on the question of 
specialiBts in writizig, the great rank aud 

esting article, which is calculated to stir 
up thought on this subject. 

Lyman D. Smith, 
Hartford, May v.. 

Anti-Forgery Ink. 

A patent has been allowed for an ink 
.specially prepared so as by its use to ren- 
der forgeries and criminal erasures, addi- 
tions or alterations easy of detection and 
difficult to accomplish, it being alleged 
that the ink is not affected by the agency 
of acids, alkalies, etc., and that it also 
renders wi'itten documeots imperlehable 

hy the decay of time and other circum- 
stances — such as damp, mildew, etc. — 
whichwouldmilitate against their perma- 
nency and utility. 

The ingredients of which this ink is 
comjiosed are as follows : Sugar converted 
by the aid of concentrated sulphxiric or 
other acids into carbon black or lamp- 
black, vegetable black, soot or other sim- 
ple carbons, in certain approved propor- 
tions, is combined with a solution of gum 
arabic or other mucilage, caustic soda, 
oxalic acid and India ink. To these in- 
gredients vanadium, in the form of ammo- 
nium met a -vanadate or other suitable 
form of vanadium, Aleppo galls 
and nut galls are added, the whole 
being finished by the addition of 
a small quantity of aniline dye for 
giving a tint to the mixture. 
Enough water is added during 
manufacture to make a freely flow- 
ing ink. which is then ready for 
use.— .-iHi^rfcaH Stationer. 

Nature and Habits of Trees. 
What a strange underground 
life is that which is led by the 
organisms we call trees. These 
great fluttering masses of leaves, 
stems, boughs, trunks, are not the 
real trees. They live underground, 
and what we see are nothing more 
nor less than their tails. Yes ; a 
tree is an underground creature, 
with its tail in the air. All its in- 
telligence is in its roots. All the 
senses it has are in its roots. 
Think what sagacity it shows in 
its search after food and drink. 
Somehow or other, the rootlets, 
which are its tentacles, find out 
that there is a brook at a moder- 
ate distance from the trunk of the 
tree, and they make for it with all 
their might. They find evei-y 
crack in the rocks whore there are 
a few grains of the nourishing sub- 
stance they care for, and insin- 
uate themselves into its deepest 
recesses. When spring and sum- 
mer come, they let their tails grow , 
and delight in whisking them 
aboat in the wind, or letting them 
be whisked about by it : for these 
tails are poor passive things, with 
very little will of their own, and 
bend in whatever direction the 
wind chooses to make them. The 
leaves make a deal of noise whis- 
permg. I have sometimes thought 
I could understand them as they 
talk with each other, and that they 
seem to think they made the wind 
as they wagged forward and back. 
Remember what I say. The next 
time you see a tree waving in the 
wind, recollect that it is the tail 
of a great underground, many armed, 
polypus-like creature, which is as proud 
of its caudal appendage, especially in 
summer time, as a peacock of his gor- 
geous expanse of plumage. 

Do you think there is anything so very 
odd about this idea? Once get it well 
into your heads and you will find that it 
renders the landscape wonderfully inter- 
esting. There are as many kinds of tree 
tails as there are of tiiils tu dojts and other 
quadrupeds. Shil-. ( In tn .'-'iy Gil- 
pin studied thfin 111 111 1.1 -^1 riit-ry.'" 

hut don't forg'-r i ■ .niyihe 

appendage of tin im.l. i lji un 1 >.-^'i-tabk' 
p.ilypus, the truf or^^.iuiMii h. ulmh they 
hvhng.—Dr. O. W Hvlmes. 

^ h/e/u/ian^ QytlC cJ^tuna/o 

The "Practical Education" Idea 


].r.ictical tdn- 
• , It lull" idea ap- 
p- Mrs to be tak- 
ing deep root 
MbroHd. Not 
that it is anew 

ocean, but it is 
ouly of late yean* that the subject has 
been deemed of sufficient importance to 
<lcmand much consideration from the 
l>ress. that perfect registrar of the popu- 
lar pulse l)eat. The " business college " 
appears to be a purely American institu- 
tion, but the business college idea is by 
no means confined to this continent. 

We have no foreign exchange ptriodi- 
cal that treats this subject so fully or in- 
telligently as the bright, clean, beauti- 
fully printed Counting Room. London, 
through whose columns most of the 8»vb- 
joined articles come : 

stated that this association is not the only 
one existing in Germany, but is by far 
themoetimportant and is known through- 
out the whole world. 

A correspondent of the Moniteiir Officiel 
du Commrrm says that this association 
ha^ obtained for those belonging to it 
over 38.000 situations. It has numerous 
branches throughout the world. The 
annual sulwcription of ita members is 
only six marks, and alter ten years three 
marks. There is no re^fistration or en- 
trance fee. It at present consists of 
34,000 members and 170 branches, both in 
Germany and foreign countries. This 
association ♦^urther possesses a special 
sick and burial fund , an assist ance bureau, 
an assurance fund against total incapacity 
and old age, as well as for pensioning 
widows and oniban?, to which 4250 mem- 

and the 
need not 

be here noticed ; we have allowed the 
question of the number of the popula- 
tion, bnt there is also something required 
to make thera more vigorous, and may 
we not by a better method of vmting en- 
able them to become more vigorous by 
avoiding short-sightedness ? 

Pen - Lettering and Engrossing. 

[See nivHtratifn, Alphahet Fancy Tr-rt, 
this Page.] 

FROM A toN draw head and base lines, 
and mark the space for each letter, 
but do not outline them with the pen- 
cil. Take a pen that makes a uniform 

must represent the light aa coming from 
some certain direction. Generally we say 
that tbe light falls upon the center or the 
right side or left side of the object. If in 
drawing the tub we represent the light 
as falling upt)n the center, each edge 
would be dark, and the light striking the 
upper edge would leave a shadow w^thin 
the tab. around edge, nearest the eye, 
lighting up further edge within and 
blending into shadow at each end within. 
The picture of pitcher gives idea of orna- 
mental work upon shaded object. Sup- 
pose we represent the ligh t as falling upon 
the right side of the object. It will leave 
the left side in shade. The daikest shad- 
ing should be therefore near the left edge, 
blending gradually into the light at the 
right side. Tho light striking the edge 
at top of pitcher would leave a shadow 




Now that the teaching of commercial 
subjects is, at last, receiving a share of at- 
tention in schools, difficulties arise in the 
an-angement of additional lessons within 
the limits of ordinary school hours. To 
lueel the necessities of the new instruc- 
tion, teachers will have to exercise a little 
ingenuity in " dovetailing" certain sub- 
jects with one another, where this is pos- 
sible, and substituting illustrative lessons 
to subjects in the old code which bear 
more directly upon the principles of in- 
dustry and trade. Dr. John Yeats has 
drafted a practicable scheme for the use 
of elementary and evening schools, which 
we heartily commend to the authorities 
who are interested in this branch of edu- 
cation. The adoption of some such 
scheme would lead toanimportantsaving 
of time. The present enforced " grind- 
ing "of arithmetical problems in dryas- 
dust school books is replaced by actual 
lessons (from the fifth standard upward) 
in which the pupil is set to work upon 
actual invoices, account sales, exchanges 
and bookkeeping ; while in place of the 
ordinary copy-books the writing lesson is 
utilized by initiating the pupil into the 
details of commercial coi-respondence, the 
filling np of official forms and the like. 
Frt'iuh and shui-thand are necessarily 
made " specific " subjects, andalternative 
schemes of industrial geogi-aphy and com- 
mercial history to those set forth in the 
code schedule are prepared, adapted to the 
requirements of various ages and stand- 


A correspondent of the Monde Ecoti- 
omiqiip for the 5th March say that the 
Germans have shown themselves during 
the last few years to be on the way to 
become past masters in commercial mat- 
ters. Their energy, patience, activity and 
spirit of enterprise are remarkable, and at 
the pace they are going they will soon 
succeed in obtaining the commercial 
supremacy on the chief markets of the 
world. It may be interesting to ^tndy 
the means by which they develop and 
encourage the native tpialities of their 

One of the most interesting institutions 
is certainly an association founded at 
Hamburg, in 18.'>8, with the object of 
procuring for voung men desirous of 
entering into trade, situations in large 
houses where they may learn the usages 
of international commej-ce. It should be 

Bji H. ir. Kthhc, Ilh'stiating hh 

bers belong. The money in hand for the 
latter fund amounts at present to 1,500,- 
000 marks (about £*5,000). 



European Spectacles, 


After the reform of orthography comes 
the reform of writing. This must be to 
place writing in accord with the princi- 
ples of hygiene, and adopt some system 
similar to that which tends to become so 
general in Germany. Our friends beyond 
the Rhine have already recognized the 
necessity of teaching in the schools up- 
right writing, with the upright stroke 
and the upright body. This reform has 
also some warm partisans in France, and 
amongs others M. Javal has made an in- 
teresting communication to the French 
Academy of Medicine. M. Javal says 
there has been an objection raised to up- 
right writing, it has been said that it was 
not as spaedy as the sloping style. But 
this ohjection will not stnnd. In schools 
where writing is taught, it is of little im- 
portance whether the tracing of the let- 
ters is done slowly or quickly. The pupil 
will be able to write the upright style 
well before he becomes an adult, and 
nothing will be so easy to him as to trans- 
form the upright into the sloping style 
when he becomes oldei-. Examine the 
writing of an adult who wriie-* quickly 
and well, and it will be noticed that he 
places the paper before him sloping to the 
left, in such a manner that the strokes 
are almost perpendicular to the body. 
The lines he writes are rectilinear, and 
are formed by a forward movement of 
the fore-arm resting on the elbow. A 
child eudeavorini; to write in a similar 
manner with his shorter fore-arm, will 
form concentric circles instead of parallel 
straight lines. The adult writes the let- 
ters with the aid of the wrist and the 
fingers, a slight oscillatory movement of 
the wrist being sufficient to form the 
small letters, while the larger ones are 
traced by the practiced and rapid exten- 
sion of the flexible fingers. These are 
complex and difficult movements, you 
cannot obtain them from a child, and 
vou should liotseekto do so. 

" NnlUi ., .liiM ul|.> I- ^JVrn ;i lOrrr of 


thi- U-' 

the help uf !:iiugle movements of the lin- 
gers, and traces in upright form a cojiy of 
the work he has to do. 

Make inquiries at a school where the 
upright style of writing is taught; the 
children remember easily. Make the in- 
quiry at a school where the sloping stj"le 
is in vogue ; the children as easily forget. 

We are told that the matter of the slope 
of writing is of small importance. This 
may be so. but it is a question which in- 
terests the majority of people, and so the 
results cannot be said to be without some 

line in both upward and downward stroke 
and complete the outline of each letter 
without lifting it. when possible, and it 
is possible in all the letters on this line, 
excepting A, B and D. Turn the sheet so 
that the bottom of the letters is toward 
the left hand and lay in the shade lines, 
commencing at the bottom, leaving a 
strip of white at the left and top. Make 
each stroke as long as possible, without 
passing into the portion which is left 
white. Continue these lines, in a broken 
manner, above and below the line of let- 
tering, put on the oblique lines and the 
job is done, excepting the black, which 
may be put on heavy or light, and before 
the oblique lines. From O to V outline 
with pencil. Draw the long background 
lines in free hand or with a ruling pen 
and T square. This style of lettering is 
being used much at present, but usually 
made solid black. 

within near that edge, lighting up near the 
handle at left edge within, and blending 
into the shadow gradually near right 
edge within. The handle should be dark. 

Free-Hand Drawing. 



No. G. 

The fan in first di-awing has the circle 
as a basis, and illustrates oniamental 
work upon flat copy. The handle at join- 
ing point with fan should be darkest, 
shade blending gradually into the light 
at center throu;<hout length, and darkest 
at edges. In bird's claw, second drawing, 
shade dark at base of claw, shade darkf st 
the claw furthest from eye, leaving one 
nearest eye lightest. Each claw should 
be darker at edge than center to bring 
out partial rotundity. Great care should 
be taken with third object. Draw thumb 
first, then fingers, snake's head nest, part 
of snake joining fingers, and tail next. 
Three downward curved strokes, first be- 
ginning at base of thumb, will give out- 
line of snake. Lastly, draw sleeve. Shad- 
ing is paitially indicated. Each finger 
and the thumb should be shaded accord- 
ing to principles already given. Care 
must be taken to shade thumb lighter 
than neck of snake, and finger back of neck 
darker, so that the neck will appear to 
protrude between thumb and fingers. 
The palm of hand should be lighter than 
the space just beyond tips of fingers so as 
to show the palm sinking down gradually 
into hollow of hand. 

The object can be successfully e.:.-ecated 
with either pen or pencil. The idea of 
the object is strength and power, and 
everj" stroke should be made with this 
idea in view. In drawing any object wt 



corresponding with left side of pitcher, 
while the ornamental work must corre- 
-spond in shade with thf object upon 
which it appears. 

tye/wiaru) QS^tkLCL^tuna/b 

Initials and End Pieces. 

[text akd r 

No. 10. 

.D'l harmony appeal to 
one's higber nature, 
and add much to the 

' real pleasing 

enDobling qual- 
_ ?: ^ ities of life. 

^!a^ ^*^ The former is 
that which rounds the curve, 
smooths the line and governs 
and controls the motion ; the 
' ' latter uniforms the line, regu- 

lates the motion and softens and blends 
the tone. 

Study them whenever, wherever and 
however found. They will add to your 
drawings, your movements and your 

"Without grace our 
drawings and our move- 
ments become stiff and 
mechanical; withouthar- 
mony they become dis- 
connected and chaotic. 

While the figure? here- 
with are not in motion, 
yet they reveal the law of 
motion ; while no sounds 
are heard, ytt may we 
imagine tbem and know 
that harmony is there 
and that all is merry, 
glad and gay. 

Mr. Uulbert, Broad 
Brook, Conn., submits a 
very creditalile drawing 
wbifb is too fine to photo 
well. Fewer short, scratchy 
strokes will aid io clearing 
your drawings of their 
muddy effect. 

Mr. Elstou, CLantiUy. 
Mo., submits drawings 
which reveal native ability, 
but be should oot be dis- 
couraged, for b*? has a good 
deal of room for improve- 

of a more discouraging 
thing to auy one than to 
udvaDce so far that im- 
provement seems impos- 
sible ; then, and not until 
then, sliould workers be 

men are to be selected from the high 
schools and the grammar school g^'ades. 
Their ages are to range between thirteen 
and twenty vears. No World's Fair con- 
gress has been thus far arranged for. it is 
thought, which will excite more interest 
than this project. 

The idea is to get from each comitry 
not more than from fifteen to forty or fifty 
students. All told, it is intended to have 
5,000 at the congress, and a special com- 
mittee has been appointed to see that 
proper encouragement is lent to induce 
attendance. The preliminary address of 
the special committee has been issued by 
A. F. Nightingale, chairman, and F. F. 
Bliss, secretary. 

President Bonney of the World's Con- 
gress Auxiliary says tbat the topics dis- 
cussed will touch neither upon religion 
nor politics. His idea Is to gather in Chi- 


older I Snd 

to leum ; were it not so I 

fear I should weary of life. 

Mr. Dell of London, Can- 
ada, submits cupids and 
scrolls and scraps which 
show ability. 

The Cupids nro a trifle 
top-heuvy aud small fooled. 

The ^croll isa tnfie monotr 
onous, the shading occur- 
ring regularly at every turn. 

Mr, Dell, trv ngai.i ; you 
certainly will see what the 
top looks like if you work 
long aud faithfully enough. 

D-reciiona for SeiHembert 

Prepare suitable initial and cencerpiece to 
accompany urlicle on roaes aod rustics. Let 
the floners be as near like nature as possible, 
and the rustics rough and effective. 

Let us have a few landscapes, and marines , 
too. A group of them in one design will be 
acceptable, or one complete within itself will 

do a 


Look over your portfolio ood see if you chu- 
not select some good pointers to help you in 
the designing. 

Students at the World's Fair. 

Tber wHI Come front AU Quanor. of the 
l.lo(>c-.\ NuTfl nnd liiu- c-line Fcatitrc. 

Provision has been made for the hold- 
ing in ChiCiigo, at the time of the World's 
Fair, of a congress composed of youths of 
all nations of the world. Delegates will 
be sent, it is expected, from England, 
Japan, France. Germany, Norway, Swe- 
den. Spain. Austria, Italy, Russia and 
countries of the Orient. These young 

the serious concerns of millions of men. 
Brought thus togeth«>r, and face to face 
with the larger relations of our independ- . 
ent humanity, those fresh minds would 
greatly gain in fitness for the important 
tasks decreed to their future. Among 
thetn would be many who will survive all 
who are now active on the stage of the 
world's affairs, and who would therefore 
stand before the generation to follow us 
as witnesses of the humanizing power of 
the World's Exposition of I8fl3. and be in- 
spired by its influence to higher and more 
useful careers, making the fulfillment of 
its yreat promises their noblest claim to 


for this Department i 
. Kelley. oiBce of Th _ 
lAL. brief educational 1 

cago next year a representative assembly 
of the educated youths of all countries. 
They are to be addressed by the leading 
educators of the age who may be in Chi- 
cago. The scheme originated with a 
committee of which Francis Bellamy is 
chairman. The pith of the argument for 
such a congress is embraced in the fol- 
lowing paragraph from the preliminary 

More than one-tbird of the teachers of the 
U.iiied States are men— liJ,929 meu aud ■^■il,- 
302 women— as.?* per cent. 

•■ It is felt that a carefully selected as- 
sembly of the young from all nations, 
under such remarkable conditions as will 
prevail during the Columbian Exposition, 
cannot fail to powerfully aid this high 
end. It is purposed to draw together the 
worthiest and the most talented youth of 
all lands, thecoraing leaders of mankind, 
that they may be led to realize, as could 
not otherwise be possible, the meaning 
and the worth of the fellowship of nations 
and the brotherhood of man. In a gath- 
ering 80 constituted there would cer- 
tainly be some who will be called to deal 
decisively with the destinies of states and 

The KatioDol Library at Washington i 
tains 7O0,O0lf bound volumes, ood 200 
pamphlets. Tbe annual increase is from 15 

Alcaeus Hooper of B-iUimore, the youngest 
son of the late Wi:iiam E. Hoorwr, " ' 

urer of C'jV 
tor a worn 

Seven women teachers m an Ohio city have 
deliberately threatened a strike, because after 
having worked faithfully for several years 
for $70U a vcar a man is elected to serve with 
them who is to receive tlAM for the same 

Said a thnughtful teacher a few days since. 
" If the "physical culture' fun -r goes on a» it 

of their points of vantage." — 
topular Kiiut-ator. 

Judging from the number of i-hildren who 
attend school, the United States is the best 
edu. ated country in the world. Tbe 

Austria-HuQjrnrv. 172; Norway, l."** • 
ed Kincdom, T43 ; Sw« ' - - '- - 

(JT : Gr(»ce, 7a : Russ'ia,"a4! 

A whaling outflt^The birch rod. 

A new university degree is propose:! bv the 
N. B Journat of Eaueation—" C. C," called 
to Chicago. 


ap year 'm< 
answered Freddy, sadly. 

A summer schonl for feraalo studpnts is to be 
estwblivhfd iu the Eiffel Tower Tbis should 
iu'erest persms who believe in ibe higher edu- 
cation ut women.-l'hi'a-ie-phia L^itu'r. 

Mnmma : " Whvdid you nm off from school, 
and ppeud tbe whole day rowing about the 

r'^EN- '"'■ ''"''«Ke" 

Bofi : " Papa said be wanted n 

tbeir pleasant quarters j 
St^io'; '•Sonipwbat; but 

the professor said tit the 
pilmary gciplogical forma- 

Evehm : " How's that, 

A*adg»: "It contains no 
trace of man."— i,i/e. 

"What happened 400 
y^ars a^o this year," nsked 

a years old.'' 

Baiper^s i'nung teople. 

Mamma: " Sal lie. if you 
had a little spunk ycu'd 
stand he.t^r in your class. 
Do you know what spunk 

Halite (moodily) : " I sup- 
pose it is ihe past participle 
of 's^ank,' mamnju."— 

A young lady pupil re- 
cently compare<l ill, in this 
manner: " Positive, ill ; 
comparative, worse: super- 
lative, dead." The whole 
class looked up vtry much 
surprised, and tbe master 
with an effort to suppr^'ss 
tbe sadness he felt, ^id: 
"Schi>lars, ^ou can have 
fifteen minutes for the 
luneraL"— iHevtHl. 




if tombstones were al- 
ways reliable the devil 
wduld suon be willing to 
put out his Hre aud quit. 

He who is iu love with 
himself has no rivdl.- 
Ttxas Stjtinait. 

A good-uatured sninster 
used to boast that she al- 
ways had two t)eaux— tbey 

when I marry his sister ?" 

M'»WMe.-liut:lj): "Yes I 
will ; for I like yv-u." 

B QuohObb (ilty/r*. 
B," replied the editor. " How 

Jack: "I don't wonder the Chicago girl is 

' Pop, what does the paper mean when it 
's, • tbesiniiinB left Dothing to he desired' )" 
' It evidently means, my son, tbat the audi- 
■e had enough of it." 

"Wi.'ll. if tbat ain't moan," exclaimed the 
priinner; " every one o' tbe stories in this here 
paper they've gimme to reid is coutioued. 
Au'n ■ ' ■ 

Tbe Home and toe Lodge.— "Your^ bus- 
band was a man of many excellent quah'tie 
"Yes," sighed tbe widow "be was a go 
man; everybody says bo; I wasn't much t 
quainted with bim myself; ho belonged to six 

3 be bung uvxtweskl'''— Indianapolis 

> Trd 

He left the uoo<l pile aud purloined tbe pie. 
This tramp who scorned all decency and law ; 
'1 his other eye: 
,t I never saw." 
-.\ew Yvrk Hun. 


yttC d/^iczna/P 

Penmanship Served with Brains. 

irlilnB WrIilDS In itae fublle ScboaU. 



ing of writing. 
echoing the senti- 
ment of perhaiw a 
large nniiiber o f 
those interested in 
edncatioii, remark- 
ed that writing was 
a knack, and that it 
did not offer to the 
thonghtfiil teacher 
the (tame opportnni- 
lies of edncational 
principles as did the 
study and develop- 
ment of other snbjectR. What 
iderstand by educa- 
tion and educational principles? 
Generally stated, education is 
the art of drawing out or devel- 
oping the faculties of training 
human beings for the functions 
for which they are destined. 
The most important of the principles 
as laid down by the new education are as 
follows : 

Pii-rtt— The nature of the education 
shouUl l)e determined by thenature of the 

Spcond— The mind develops in a certain 
order, and this order should be followed 

Third— The nature and order of studies, 
and the luaunerof imparting a knowledge 
of them, should be determined by a 
kin.wU-due of the mind. 

I'.imlh— Education should, so far as 
lii>ssii)!c, bi-!ir an intimate relation to the 
dftiiinids of the age and country in which 
thf student lives, and tit him for a suc- 
cessful discharge of the duties of life, all 
leading to the cultivation of power, 
knowledge and efficiency. 

What is writing? It is defined as being 
t lie art of fixing thoughts in a palpable 
and lasting shape, so as to make them 
known to others. It is a means by which 
we record our thoughts. When and how 
onr present alphabet was invented has 
hi'cn a matter of specnlation from the 

Writing, ni another sense, is the result 
of training the muscles to obey the will 
in conformity to law. The law of shape 
is determined by the natural movements 
of the arm and hand and good taste. The 
pupil is the lawyer, the teacher the judge, 
and the principal the supreme judge. 

Tht* teai-her. in order to be a good 
.iudge. must know the law. In other 
words, he must have a dear understand- 
ing of the forms and combination, as well 
as the ability to impart to othei-s how 
movement is applied to form. 

This is not a knack (a nice trick), but it 
is based n|)on true educational principle^, 
as follows: 

It develops a muscular control of the 
arm and hand. 

It develops attention and close obecrva- 

It develoiis habits of order, judgment, 
luvuracy, self-i-eliauce and memory. 

It develojis will power. It cuttivntts 
thi- ti-sto. The hand is trained to oIkhIi- 
ence. The sense of sight and the sense of 
touch are educated and the will is 

Writing, drawing, manual training and 
industrial phases of the kindergarten may 
be classed under the same general head. 

n. should be . 

the mind in r<-r< 
All the forc-i • 
cational priiiei].., -. _i,, ,„r-,-, 
fairly to be applit- .1 to writing 'i 

ilal edu- 

James P. Munroe, discussing •• Certain 
Dangerous Tendencies in Education " in 
a recent number of the Educational 
Review, says : " In our haste to take up 
with this recent notion in education, we 
have forgotten or have scorned a certain 
excellent manual art that has the merit of 
simulicity, cheapness, adaptability to all 
grades, and immediate application to all 
pursuits in life; I mean writing. This art 
is, of course, limited, but is useful in 
gaining muscular control." 

That the end is useful and nece&'ary we 
need not discuss; it has for centuries 
stood as next to oral language in point of 
usefnlness to civilized man, and we 
respectfully urge that it is no more a 
knack than reading, drawing or mathe- 
matics, bnt stands equally with them as 
educational, purely and simply. It is 
developed by the same processes and 
methods, and approaches perft-ction of re- 
sults as the capacity of the teacher ap- 
proaches perfection. 

In stating, therefore, the educational 
principles which are to be applied to writ- 
ing. I but state the principles which are 
conceded to belong to the other subjects. 

Knowledge of InalrumenI ami Matt-fial. 

The one that I should state as being 
fundamentally applicable to writing along 
with drawing and manual training would 
be knowledge of the instrument and ma- 
terial used. This means the control of 
the muscles of the arm and fingers. 
Here we go from the simple to the com- 

Movement should precede form. This 
movement should be made in the air 
from left to right. 

1st— To gain conti-ol of the muscles 
and to learn what constitute gracefulness 
in motion, and from the beginning to be 
able lo make it. 

2nd— In order that this gracefulness 
of motion may become an habitual 
movement by making elementary exer- 
cises which will lead to simple form in 

3rd— To develop attention to the cor- 
rect mannerof holding the jien while mov- 
ing the han<l and arm gracefullv. 

4th— To develop attention to the health- 
ful position at the desk while holding the 
pen correctly and moving the hand and 
arm gracefully. 

explained to consist of 

1st— A genera] or total imj^ression. 

2nd— A perception or looking on a sin- 
gle thing. 

3rd— Observation of quality and relation. 

4th — Comparison . 

-■jth— Judging. 

6th— Conclusion. 

In regard to the hand the anatomist 
tells us of the thirty bones in its frame 
work, their marTelous adjustment and 
the facility with which the thumb may 
be brought in contact with each of the 
fingers. He describes its arteries and 
veins, and its network of beautiful rib- 
bons and bands, twenty of which must 
unite, we aretold, to produce the slightest 
movement of one of the fingers. But 
little can he tell us of its countless nerves, 
with their facile control of every muscle 
and joint ; and who shall explain the in- 
finite number and variety of messages 
transmitted from the finger tips to the 
center of thought and volition, or of the 
act of willing? to say nothing of the 
countless number of muscles, etc., in the 
arm, which we all like to talk about in 
connection with teaching a free, business- 
like handwriting. Who shall make known 
the seci't nf tln-ir jirompt response to the 

'■ Sir ( liii], - !'., 11. in reflecting upon 
thesftbni--,.l>rl:iiL, himself o'erwhelmed 
with th.- .-vi.i.n. r that they atford of the 
wisdom, goodness and power of the 

It needs no argument to convince the 
thoughtful educator that the hand and 

nrn. «hniiM 1 i,, cnTlllrrlion with 

5th — ^To develop the combination of 
position, pen hol^g and movement while 
rfgistering the motion on paper, thns 
bringing in the sense of touch, which is 
qnite an element in g04>d writing. 

Tliis is the first step that perfection is 
to lie aimed at : A little simple move- 
ment, then a little fonn ; the two always 
associated, the former a means to accom- 
plish the latter, and not an end in itself. 
We do not expect the toddler who has 
learned to balance himself to enter for a 
six day go-as-you-please race. 

Writing is nseful just in proportion as 
it is made practical in caITJ^^g on other 
branches of school work.' To make a 
scribbler is not to make a practical bnsi- 
nesfl writer. All movement and no form 
will make a scribbler ; all form and no 
movement will make a slow, cramped, 
laborions writer — a draftsman. 

In the study of form, in drawing cubes, 
perfect models are provided. The ideal 
should be aimed at — hence the necessity 
of a copy. 

CopyftookM leftindeit 

Here arises the question. Shall the per- 
fect form of the copy-book be the model, 
or the crude, rough imitation of the 
teacher? We have had " copy book an- 
nihilators." so-called, who have seen the 
folly of their ways and have made his- 
tory by making a set of copy books them- 
selves. How fortunate it is that there is 
no law against changing our minds. 

My experience, both in a business col- 
lege and normal school, is that order and 
system render all things easy ; without it 
we never know where we are, whether 
we are going forward or backward. The 
average teacher needs a "guide board " 
of some kind in order to reach the object- 
ive point— ^ood writing. Without it 
we find the inexperienced teacher dwell- 
ing too much upon the non-essentials. 

I commenced teaching in a normal 
school in the same way I had taught in a 

to teach writing, or how to 
copy-book without abusing it. 

The proper preparation for teaching 
consists in equipping the teacher with all 
the standard devices available. The copy- 
book in the public schools is standard, 
because it has those elements which have 
made it live in the esteem of the most 
competent of educators. It provides for 
a systematic graded course ; it economizes 
the time of the teacher ; it prevents a 
change of style of writing should the 
teacher be changed to another grade. 

ItefeclM in Mt-thod» of Teaching. 

It will now be my aim to point out 
some of the defects which have been creep- 
ing into our methods of teaching what is 
called penmanship. As a matter of fact, 
however, there are few who can reach 
that degree of skill which warrants us in 
calling it penmanship. Penmanship is a 
high degree of skill. What we want is a 
better method of teaching writing, which 
will make it possible for the many in our 
public schools to become free, legible 
writers, audit can be accomplished il it is 
made up more from the standpoint of 
practical schoolroom work and less from 
the standpoint of mathematical accuracy. 

What we want are the essentials of 
good writing, plus ideas. Onr ideas of 
teaching writing should not be made 
wholly from the standpoint of the ex- 
pert penman or engraver, who perhaps 
has never had any experience in regular 
schoolroom work, as he is too apt to look 
at it from the artistic aide, the symmetry 
of form and the harmonious blending of 
curved lines and angles, and contrasts of 
shaded and hair lines, which can be ap- 
preciated only by thehair-splittingexpert 
and professional penman. 

What we want is a method of present- 
ing the essentials of the subject so that 
the average teacher can produce better 
resultf. The best teaching is that which 
produces the best result, and the best re- 
sults are obtained from that definite in- 
struction which makes it so plain to the 
child's mind that the thought seems his 
own and the teacher executing the 
thought or copy in the book fairly well, 
or upon the blackboard in the presence of 
the class, inspires the pupil to try to do 

Riafkboardm, Chartm, JTte. 

While I believe in the liberal use of a 
blackboard, I believe its exclusive use in 
teaching writing is a positive injury to 
the eyesight. The unit of measurement 
.on the board is about two inches, and on 
paper about one-eighth of an inch. The 
children see the copv at different angles, 
it being impossible forthera to see it ft^ni 
the same position. One moment or a sec- 
ond the eye is adjusted, accommodation 
as it is termed by the oculist, to see the 
copy on the board, and the next moment 
the eye is adjusted to the pai)er. and thiy 
change is constantly going on until the 
copy is finished 

If we wish to protect the children's eye- 
sight, and to make it possible for them to 
gain a correct conception of the copy, we 
must place a correct model the same dis- 

hanu to the teacher than they have ever 
benefiteil the pupil. Teachers who do not 
use charts are always better writers \\\\on 
the board than those who do. We all 
know why. They practice more, some 
from a sense of duty, others from a sense 
of pride or a desire to excel : and when 
the teacher shows a painstaking ability it 
is always an incentive for the pupil to 
think more clearly and to act iH'tter. 

The principle of reviewing is a funda- 
mental proposition in all teaching. It 
matters little how thoroughly a suA)ject 
is explained to the pupil, in order to have 
it become really a part of his mental 
equipment it must be presented over and 
over again. In nothing is this tnier than 
in writing. The form of each lettermust 
be absolutely comprehended, and thiB 
cannot be done except by rejieated repro- 

By reproducing the cTact ropy again 
and again all sii •_"_'•*- ti-'H'j h.-lIh by 
teacher, all inforni.tti i. l. i ii . J 1 1 ..m the 
thouijht or praciiri n !■ i : nr re- 
produced and eiili'i n i ■ > il i-on- 

cept of the form mill r,. in Mi: iiMn hrfmnes 
a possibility 

It is assumed by some that the form 
only should be studied, and so the matter 
of the copy-book has been largely such as 
would illustrate this, ignoring the fact 
that the sooner thought is as-sociated with 
every written word the more rapid the 
advancement of the child. 

From failure to recognize this truth, 
obvious defects have sprung up and largely 
among those outside of the profeesion. a 
distrust of the efficiency of the copy- 
book has arisen. For, say they, as soon 
as the copy-book is left and the boy takes 
his post at the office desk, the forms are 
forgotten and ho has to team then how 
to write. There are several reasons for 
this attitude. The copy-book luis been 
used too much as an end in itself. The 
attention has been altogether given to 
form, and the moment matter, free mo- 
tion and form become involved, form is 

Thought Material In the CoplfM, 

The practical work, as it is to be per- 
formed when the pupil leaves the school- 
room, is the proper demand of the pres- 
ent on its education. It should be our 
aim from the first to have the written 
line convey some useful thought. Begin 
with common words, boys' and girls' 
names and the names of knn^^^l places, 
short phases and sentences, .statements of 
history aud scientific facts, complete se- 
lections of poetry, and from these develop 
the writing of full pages of connected 
sentences and paragraphs. To show the 
extent to which some have aimed at 
forms which look well, many of themosr 
common forms have been studiously 
omitted, for Instance, all words ending 
with " ly " are alreolntely unused insome 
sentences for fear the ■•!" will collide 
with the "y" in the line above. But 
-ly" still remains in hundreds of the 
most commonly used words of the lan- 
guage. I believe that recognized difficul- 
ties should be met aud not avoided. 
Writing may be kept in the best condi- 
tion throughout the whole course if cor- 
rect methods are observed, not alone dur- 
ing the writing period, but throughout 
every branch of school work in which 
writing may appear. Carelessness in the 
form or arrangement in a language or 
arithmetic exercise will undo ranch of 
the good derived from the careful teach- 
ings of the writing lesson. Demand in 
all work neatness, and never allow care- 
less work. 


Do not allow children to display what 
is called their iudividuality at the begin- 
ning, that is. to write any way and every 
way, to begin everywhere and end no- 
where, as it is much more difficult to 
ti-ain them into a good handwriting when 
they take the iien than it would be if 
they had never written at all. Someclaim 
that fixed forms of writing injure the 
child's individuality or destroy the char- 
acter in his handwriting. We might as 
well say that the child should be allowed 
to spell and pronounce words as he 
pleased, as the fixed ways of spelling and 
pronunciation of recognized standard 
would seriously affect his individuality. 
While this may be a good excuse for the 
teacher who writes a carele.ts hand, it is 
a very poor educational principle on which 
to base our instruction for the beginner. 

Goo<l writing is largely a matter of 
habit, and as early impressifms are most 
lasting, it behooves ns as teachers to have 
correct conceptions of the fonna of the 
letters and correct movements. 

If the teacher does not take pains in 
what he does, in the presence of a class, 
how can he expect the children to form 
the painHtaking habit of doing things 
well ■/ The teacher is placed at the head 
as an example and guide. If the d.-acher 
sets a bad copy or example, or gets off the 
track, the pnpil will do likewise. 

The time spent in deciphering illegible 
writing should be charged to poor teach- 



iiig and tlif don't-care cImbs. The skilled 
writers anil Hoccessful teachers gained 
their skill in writing by thonghtful. 
painstaking practice, and their success in 
teaching by learning how to touch th** 
mainspring of action in the pupil's mind. 

Ihe Mo»t SkUt for thf Mont Sltidfttf; 

It is folly to claim or expect that all can 
reach the same degree of i^kill. While it 
is very desirable to turn out a few skilled 
penmen from our schools, it is a greater 
credit to turn out many free, legible 
writers. There are some pupils who 
nave but little desire and much less hope 
of becoming good writers. Many think 
It next to impossible on account of poor 
writmg " running in the family." This 
notion should be overcome at once, and 
in accomplishing this lies much of the 
success (»r failure of both teacher and 
inipil. The seat of action is in the head, 
and not iu the hand and arm, as many 

A comparison of two teachers whom I 
have in mind I hope will not be out of the 
way to illustrate the difference between 
a good and poor teacher of writing. The 
first one was a gentleman and a tirst-cluss 
teacher, although not a skillful penman. 
He knew how to teach a child to sit in a 
correct writing position, how to hold the 
pen in an easy manner ; he knew how to 
illustrate a graceful movement as applied 
to writing ; he also had a perfect mental 
conception of every letter and combina- 
tion based upon one of our leading sys- 
tems, and he had the power of imparting 
that which he knew in clearly cat word 
pictures ; and his criticisms were as just 
ns his compliments were inspiring. He 
gained the confidence of his pupils by not 
placing himself upon (lir In^'h tlu-Mne uf 
authority and lookiim i1m\s n ni-n ibem, 
and he retained it by n-m- t.\< i m I. :nliiig 
them to think and iiVr l<n- tin msrlv. >, 

He was a student of the human mmd and 
had learned the underlying principles of all 
successful teaching — namely, the creating 
within the pupil a desire to progr 
tbonyht, . ' . 

Tin jii \t It ;ii Inr was one of those high 
ami iin^'liry ImijI talking sort of creatures 
who wrote a liaud which was as peculiar 
as himself, and as unreasonable to teach 
others from as he was short sighted as a 
teacher. He was a man who recognized 
no authority above himself in anything 
he taught, a' man who would sit on his 
high throne of importance and look down 
upon his pupils with that look which was 
intended to chill them into submission, 
call them " little rascals" and oth«r pet 
names. The result was ' ' fear and trem- 
bling " vpith some, and the developing of 
the " mulish, don't care"8piritin others, 
which was the beginning of failure in his 
teaching in that school of fifty pupils 

of times, and better than the teacher had 
done, but it did not come up to the teach- 
er's eccentric idea of writing. At this 
point something happened which would 
remind you of the classic story of " Rob- 
ert, the Devil." who when, as narrated by 
De Quincy, there was any dispute about 
the spelling of a word, always settled the 
matter by a round of fisticuffs. To make 
the story short, the next day this teacher 
hiid only twtlvL* pupils, and they were there 
because they had been sent. This teacher 
is now preaching the Gospel. If he does 
not succeed in holding his congregation 
better than he did his pupils he must have 
a hardened conscience or a special apti- 
tude for talking to space. 

His pupil is now successfully teaching 
how to write and how to teach writing. 

Do not try to teach your own individu- 
ality. The pupil will get enough of that 
without any effort on the teacher's part. 

It is not so much a question of whether 

How I Taught Writing. 


Knowing that writing is a difficult sub- 
ject to teach, I resolved to do it as thor- 
oughly as possible iu a country school. 
The first two months were spent in drill 
upon the principles. Every day the whole 
school ruled slates with four lines, mak- 
ing three spaces, and analyzed small letters 
and capitals until they could name and 
write each letter according to " Spencer." 
Then came the dreaded task of introduc- 
ing pen, ink and copy-book. There is a 
legion of demons in every ink bottle, and 
it is not strange that many teachers evade 
instead of coni[uering them. 

On Friday afteraoou the pupils were 
told that copy-books and a bag of change 
Would be there Monday niomingand they 
were asked to come with a penholder and 

six cents. After looking over the new 
books. No. 4 was selected as best suited 
for a mixed school. All were bought of 
that number, and when written, there 
was not as much difference as might be 
supposed from eight to eighteen years of 
age. About two-thirds came with the 
requisite equipment on Monday. Nearly 
all had paid for their books on Tuesday 
and the lessons began. AU not prepared 
sat apart or on the front seats. A new 
pen point was given to each as a present 
from the teacher, the others promised 
one as soon as ready for it. The books 
were distributed and inspected, the 
pupils all placed in the proper position 
and the pen held correctly. " Trace the 
first word with the dry pen. Write just 
below in first space between vertical 
lines." This is as much as can be done in 
the first lesson. 

They were told to bring ink bottles the 
next day and a cheese box lid was provided 
to collect and hold them in. The bottles 
should be labeled before bringing to 
school. We wasted one lesson in pasting 
the owner's names on the bottles, and the 
mice ate them off. so we resorted to orig- 
inal methods, such as threads around the 
necks of the bottles, etc. Monitors were 
trained to pass ink tray and pens. After 
a little practice they were timed, and it 
was found that distributing or collecting 
writing materials could be done in three- 
quarters of a minute, occasionally a new 
pupil or absent monitor delaying to longer 

The signals were, "Monitors for writ- 
ing." "Pass copy-books." ''Open to 

page ." " Study copy." '* Position." 

" Trace copy with dry pen." "Take ink." 
" Write first bos." and so on, calling the 
number as they wrote down the page one 
word or sentence, as the copy was divided 
above. For closing, the signals were : 
" Wipe pens." " Cork ink stands." "Blot 
copy." "Monitors." "Pass books," 
those in the back seat laying their books 
on the desk in front and so up to the front 
desk, where the monitor stacked them al- 
ternately crossed. 

There was so much difficulty about the 
pens that I bought holders at 12f^ cents 
a dozen and, filling them with new points, 
loaned them to the pupils at each lesson. 
A new pen should be drawn between the 
lips to moisten and prevent ink from 
slipping, dipped in ink up to the eye and 
surplus ink drained back into the bottle. 

The books were written in four months, 
writing twenty minutes a day. The 
pupils enjoyed the writing hour, showing 
discontent if anything happened to cause 
its omission. The little ones tried to keep 
up with the insti'uctions. writing on their 
slates, one six year-old bringing ink 
and paper and writing from the explan- 
ations on the blackboard until her pen- 
manship would have done credit to many 
a grown girl. Absentees were occasion- 
ally given permission to make up back 

The books being filled, were numbered 
and the first and last pages taken out, 
pinned together and the corresponding 
mimber written on them. These samples 
were given to a committee, who selected 
the best writing and pinned a blue ribbon 
on and a red ribbon on the second best. 
Then a blue ribbon on the one showing 
the most improvement, and second best 
decorated with red. The committee 
wrote ' ' honorable mention " on two. 
This happening the day before school 
election, we pinned the samples on the 
wall and they attracted much attention. 
Both pupils and teacher felt that the dis- 
play was quite creditable 

Did they ever spill any ink ? Yes, 
several times. This teacher is not one 
who never has any trouble in teaching. 
There are always difficulties springing up 
and convincing her that teaching is down- 
right hard work. The pupils cleaned the 
ink stains off desks and floor as best they 
could. Two or three smeared ink on 
tach other, too, and were sent from the 
room in disgiace until they were willing 
to promise good behavior. And some 
would crook the forefinger, no matter 

how hard they tried Iu retain the right 
position ; but altogether the school does 
very fair writing. 

Teachin^f Children to Write. 

A Cradod Course of Sludr Iu Pcd- 

and m a few 

minutes, then 

;^^^^^^v^ite Fig. 73. 



Exercises ."j? and 67. review words of 
last lesson and write a man and Figs. 74 
and 7.5. 

Hand drill. Review all forms taught 
last week. "Atteution. children! I see 
some holding their pencil right down 
near the point, like this. Hold your hand 
and pencil up m. Now lake your pencil 
a long distance, half as long as your 
finger, from the point. See how I hold 
mine." Call attention to this fault often. 
It is one of the worst habits, as it necessi- 
tates cramping the fingers. Write Fig. 6(i 


Draw a picture of the moon, and talk 
about it or recite a verse of poetry. 


Hand drill (see December Journal). 
Exercises 57 and 67. Write all of the 
letters and words of last week. 

Exercise 7C. .See that they do not cramp 
their fingers or drag the hand on the side. 
It is well to occasioQiiUy go to each pupil 


Exercise 63, giving close attention to 
position of hand, arm and body. The 
principal object of such exercises as this 
is to give the child something so simple 
and easy that it does not require all of his 
attention and he can maintain a correct 

Make Fig. 6« on the board. 

Look . children . what 
i tliis?" Teach name. 

Watch carefully now 
(erase lower turn). What 
did I do ? What does this part that is left 
look like?" " Lookslike o." Make the let- 
ter V near the part of a. " Who can tell me 
why this is not just like oV Bring them 
to see that it is more slanting. Draw a 
straight line through both — 
— y^/ ~ to illustrate the difference in 
C^ slant. Have them practice 
** Fig, 69 for a few moments, 

then ask what we shall join to it to make 
(t. If no one can tell you make a again 
and erase lower turn or erase first part. 
Repeat in various ways until they see that 
the lower turn joined to an o without the 
little curve, and more slanting, forms a. 
Make one part of the letter with crayon 
of one color and the other part another 
color. Make « in the air, having them 
follow yonr motions first with their fore- 
finger, then with their pencils make the 
letter, counting one — two — three. After 
passing through the class go to the board. 
"Look, children; I wonder how many 
are makingit thisway? (Fig. 70.) What 
is wrong with it?" I hope 

you will not have the 

experience I /^y C ^ encountered 
once upon ask- 7£> iug a. -similar 

q u e s t i on. A bright little 

girl answered : " HVi.v. .'/on don't knoir 
hoir to niiikr it.'" She seemed to think 
that "grown up people iihrays do the 
best they know." 

Exercise 64. Review the letter <i and 
practice making it a few minutes, then 
write Fig. 71. 

and slide a ruler under the hand and 
wrist to illustrate the fact that there 
should be space under the wrist. Only 
the arm and tips of the third and fourth 
fingers touching. Place Fig. 77 on the 

board and teach the name. 

Erase the right curve, having 

j^,/^M^~ them watch you carefully 

^p- and tell you what you erase 

and what is left. Make 
the right curve one color and the 
lower turn another color, to illustrate 
the parts. The strokes should cross about 
one-third of a space from the base line, 

and the downward stroke 

almost straight. "Look 

^Xi^ children, I see some making 

r^ it this way. (Fig. 78.) What 

is wrong?" Practice a few 




Hand drill, Exercise 67. It is well to 
have children march around the room for 
a few minutes before a writing or draw- 
ing le.-^sou, as they w^ill sit more quietly 
after a little exercise. If no more let 
them rise from the seat and go through 
the hand drill standing. Practice «, n 



Exercises 57 and 76. Review words of 
last lesson, asking how many upper turns, 
lower turns, left curves, right curves. 

straight lines, etc. in the word. Write 
Fig. HI. Talk about a new dress, doll, 
ball, hat. etc. 

Exercises optional. Fig. H2 on the board. 
Teach name. Erase curve at 
top and ask what is left. This 
kind of a (■ is very easy to 
-teach, as it is a vefy slight 
modification of the lower turn 
Practice a few minutes. " Look, chil' 
dren, I ste some (•'« like this. 
(Fig. H3.) Do yon think that 
looks nice ? Now let's see if (7"/ 
we can't make them straight ^^ 
backs. Little boys and girls 
ought to have straight backs, too, but I 
am afraid some of mine are going to have 
crooked backs if they do not learn to sit 
up straight." 




In Memoriam. 

it. M. Ranlett, H. B. Bryaai 

T THE late meeting of 
the B. E. A., a me- 
morial mf'etiiig was 
held and the coDven- 
lion gract-fnlly tend- 
I ered i t s chaplet of 
I myrtle to mingle with 
the laurels which in 
life adorned the brows of three d»^parted 
brethren : R. M. Bartlett, U. B. Bryant 
and Henry C. Spencer. The profound 
sense of bereavement was touchmgly 
voiced by a number of speakers. This 
leaf 18 from the official record : 

Uh. Fackahd: I have to tfaaok you for the 
honor you have done me io mtikinK me cbair- 
mao of lbi> commiit«e, not because I think I 
am llttelfor ibut positioo, but because I am 
entitled to It oii special ifTounds. 

Wbco 1 returned Trom Europe ou tbe 7tb day 
of Utiitciiiber Iokl I was Ki'e4>ted by my friends 
at tbe dOL'k with juyful faccK. A dotigbtlul 
reiwpliou I bad— nothing unpltaiaul was said 
to me, uothiug tbat «b4 niuurnful, and su I 
enjoyed the creeimc. Aud I also eujoyvd tbe 
iirzt day, buuduy, revisiting old sceues and 
Sfc tig old Iritndd. On Monday morning I 
fouuu in uiy olUce a telegram nhicb Lad been 
witbbt^ld Irora me. That telegrum announced 
the death i>l Henry C. Spencer. I can never 
be suffic.untl; tbaukf ul to my friend!^ for witb- 
buldiug ibis sail newt^ torso lung a tmietosave 
mv from u sad bume-comtng. Ibere are very 
few of }ou, i^erLaps, 'nbo know of the love 
.vbirb I have borno Henry tipeiicer. 1 tbiuk 
he kufw it in part, aod if be did not know it 
then I am sure Le knows it now. I bave 
known Henry Spencer since he was a boy. It 
stM3DiB to me that 1 almost knew b.s every 
Ihoubbi, lor be was a man wbo cairied bis 
tbuuglilttiipun bitislteve. He was not secretive. 
In uU IbuC naa good, in all that come to bis 
a<iu>l, Le was witling bis friends should sbare, 
and bis mind lan lu such pure and delightful 
cbaiint^ls tbat henevei bad any ri^k to run in 
toking bi^ intnds inio bis counsel i loved 
him us dearly as I ever lo\ed a man Of 
course, 1 bave filt, and hbd felt lor some time 
knowing iho c»iiduion ol bis beal b ibat pos 
sibly be mi^bi paas away before some of the 
rust of us, but I do not claim any spec ml 
privilege of mouioing tbe loss of tbis dear 
man. lam sura tbat all join with me all who 
have known btm and to »hom bis fumtlmr 
(ai.'e has bei u au luspirdtion to us in our work 
1 doubt wbelbvr tbere is a member of this asio 
ciatioi), or baswer been, wbo nasito consiant 
in at eudancG upon its meetings so willing to 
do tbe thing tbut was bee-t to be done, so n ill 
ing to lose sigbt of himself in tbe work that 
was to be dune, so approt-cbable sothoroughly 
witLiu "the tcope of yur work as Henry C 


? tbe 

; voict this ! 

of all who knew 

'Iho re'olutioo which was passed formmg a 

Heury C. Sv-oncer, U B bryant and R M 
bank-It, aud that is unothvr reason n h> it was 
littiDg tbat Ibhould be tbe cbauman of tbe 
committee ; lor pt^rbaps there la not a member 
of tbis Assoi'iatKin nbo has known all these 
geotlumeu a-t iutiinatoly as I have 

Kpeatiiigoi Mr. bartlett, be was ma special 
sense mj fnther. I always looked upon bim as 
such, and be always called me his boy Silas. 
He was the first man wbo inspired me to do 
any work in this direciion ; my first employer. 
Tte first work I evi'r did in couueetion with 
business colleges. 1 did (or Mr. Baj-tlett. cuia- 
moi.ciug in the year i»n**. Ii ^.■^ njiil r.> tm , l» y 
that I was when I went iii[<< \ii fmn i{> 
euip'oy, thit he scarcely e\(-r t,.,.|, i -iiii iImi 
be did not consukme, not be- .iiiM he tiiMn lit 

[had ; 

tch Tis 

, but t 

suih love for mc and such faith in my g kmI- 
wiUaudsytitpatby. I have often woudered 
at the amount of confidence which Mr, 
Banlett bestowed upon me wbile I was in bis 
employ. He was kii,doess itself. I remember 
on the occasion uf my being married thot be 
toiik me into bis private office and talked to me 
as a father. He ^aid: " 1 think, perhaps, you 
have done a wise thing to be married ; but 
whether wi'^ly or not. you are married. And 
so, if you du not object, I will give you a little 
advicv." He said : " When I was married, I 
made n present to my wile. 1 wasaseati- 
metital husbind. and so I presented her with a 
benuiiful bureau— just a lovely bureau wnb a 
revolving mirror. She didn't really need a 
bureau, hut ii was the thing whicb sinick my 
eye as a suitable present, and that bureau was 
put into our room. It was tbe only piece of 

fomitare in the room Uiat was at all beautifol. 
It made everything else look so lonely I soon 
felt tbat m order to save tbat bureau and tbe 
sentiment connected with it. I must get a 
carpet : and after \ g»t the carpet the chairs 
looked dull and shabby, and so I had to get 
new chairs. I cannot t«ll you wbat tbat biuvau 
cost, but my advise to you is not to buy a 
bureau." It was good advice.and I speak of it 
simply to show the great kindliness of tbe man 
and explain the feeling which I have bad for 
bim for tbe past forty-four years. 

Then. Mr. Bryant. Ob, how ^& the news 
tbat came to me of tbe deal b of tbat man. I 
cannot say tbat I expected it. I saw bim 
lost January wben be went on to Chicago to 

estigate tbe 

of 1 


. lair 


tbe exhibit, and oue tbing I want to under- 
stand. It will 1« said by persons who come 
here that there are only two colleges in the 
country that will be specially benefited by 
this exhibit, and they are in Chicago. If there 
is such a tbing as losing sight of Felf and doing 
somt-thing for the cause, I want you to know 
that this is wbat I propose to do for the 
World's Fair." Shortly afterward I received 
a letter from him in reference to this matter. 
As I bad been appointed one of tbe counsellors 
of the Auxiliary Committee, he n rote me con- 
cerning tbe matters we held in common. Tbe 
next day I received a telegram saying that be 
was dead, it is not necessary for me t^o 
enter upon anything like a eulogy upon these 
three dear friends of mine and dear frieuds of 
yours. It would be appropriate if I had the time 
and ability, but such an effort is unnecessary, 
and besides there are nicn here whom you 
will call upon to speak who will supply any- 
thing tbat I have omitted. I will, therefore, 
simply read to you tbe repoi-t of the c 
and offer it for your consideration. 

Jtfport of the Memorial Committee. 

To Of Members of the Business Educators 
Assoctat on 
Since the 1 st meeting of this associatioa 
thn-e disiiiiguiabed Ut,bt ot tbe profession 

mgton was a pal t and a i j tant p i 
the history ot our growth Hid ache ei 
during tbe post tliirty n\eTeai Mr liai 

Mr Biyant has bell an unquestioned posi 
lion for tbepnsl Jorty veai-sa oi eof the chief 
promoters >t a system of ro iperaii\e ch j|s 

eiTilsto prou o e Its peimanentj and t 
Its bigbes behests 

Ac the time ot his deal h he was a me nl 
tbe bxecutive Committee ot this assoc 
and ne ol its houoirdes pie^sideots Hi 

looked lor .sympathy and gu.dunce 
other frieud. 

in tbe loss of these, our friends, 
association and we as mdividuol w 

nwt for ibem, lur iheir work i-s don 
done, hut for ourselves, who bave 
yet to do. and who nepd lor that 
ouly the iiiemiry o( our loved asso 
the inspira ionol their presence audi 

Business i.d uuatot 
a^emblcd iu cun^ 
Uth day uf July, ix 
the altar ot holy ic 

Odered hy the cc 

S. S. Packard, 

l>. VV. Brown. 

Mk. OsboBS: I move you that tbe i-eport of 
the committee be accepted by a risiue vote. 

Mr. Mbhan: I second ih^ motion 

Mr. S! 

chairman of the Executive i 

tbe duty of appointing twoassistants. although 
this selection was an entire surprise to me the 

• appointed wiibio five minutes. 
My mind revert«-d immediately lo Mr. Packard 
aud to Mr Henry C. Spencer — «o tnese gentle- 
men because I knew, judgimj fruni myeiperi- 

the J ounger e 
member with loving gratitude tbe kindly in- 
teresr that Mr. Spencer bas taken in me a num- 
ber ot times, when that interest mf>aut much 
to me, and his memory will always be held as 
a very dear treasure. His kindly advice and 
material aid ou s-veral occasions helped me 
mucb. and I shall alwav remember it. 

Mb Socle: Mr. President. I lake pleasure 
in saving tbut for more than a third of a cent- 
ury I had the bonur of knowing each member 
whose memory v 

met him only oocasionaly, and then oily for a 
short time, but I know i.( his work ihrough 
Mr. Packard and others, more than from waat 

like theirs. I tbank God that these men. have 
been sent and tbat they bave made the im- 
press tbat they have. 
Mr.VVii.t : The standing of every profes- 

'lued to be in better health aod spirits 
than I ever saw him in before. He seemed to 
look forward t-i years of usefulness, and we 
all remarked that we never saw Mr. Bryant 
before in such a kindly and hopeful spirit. 
He wanted to take bold of tbe matter of the 
exhibit at the World^s Fair, and he said to me 
the last thing, " 1 want you to understand 

"hile tbfy lived: I 

ovv tbat 

hev are dead. 

men wbo were bis pupilsi f 

oui whom I 

Banlett 1 bad a very 

heard nothing but the best 

of praise. 

ti equal 

tance : of bun and of 

been one of the great inducer 


lor years. With Mr. 

continue in tbe iirule-^sin., 

evvlmt liioiieti personal 

Mr. Bartleti s «uil;. a^ I - 

-■^^ r,l,l,.|, .,1 

ury. With Mr. Sol-ucit i bad u nio^i. cuidial 
and more than iutitnate acmitiiutance Lxteud- 
ing over a periud of more than thirty years, 
and fiequemly durnig many years when in 
Washiugiou it was my most prof ouud pleasure 
to visit Mr. Speiic*-r. I always received a 
mnstcordiil and welcome recer'tion. profiting 
by his counsel aud example. VVbile I give my 
r-y appro- 

: I have bad the plet 


especially lo devote my lew remarks t 
lemoryof Mr. Spencer. He was one o 
V men whom it has bt-en my good fori 





to him was most earnestly and faithfully , 
formed — perf'iroied in a manner to give in- 
struciion and encourage Hient to those «ith 
whom ho was as^ociaiid. 1 was m ihe far 
Wf^t at tb'; time of bis deaib. and did not 
ifter it 

and when the mantle ui 
his shoulders I was fiT<]ii 
with him in his scbiui ■ 


ing to plant tbe bpei 
and towne of the V 

Spenc r a d feel t 

- onalh i foi 

e could h 3 

the lovtiint, and I 
been uui Ioji> is thei gtin 

Mb CUBTia*, 1 simply rise to md i 

ullu n - ovei 

whenever we 

did meet wc 

not hive do e 

o beinise 

ot 1 rs 1 shall n 

Mr Rowe 

I w mt to giv 

e expi-pssion to a 

final embiace 

when he thr-w b 

thought mat i 

1 Ki uiy heart a 

; Ibis time. I did 

mc aud gave 
brotberU kiss 

soiiul acquaini 

ai.ce with two of 

an acq juintaiiee 

Mb. gray 

After SDL-ndiQK 

with Mr. .spt 

ucer. Some 

wo yenrs ago 1 

tbe VVpst ID 

my efforts lo ol 

became ( 

kuowion any of the members when I arrived 
iu tbe city in which ibe coovenlion wa*; held. 
I e-itertd the room during a stssion I was 
naturally very timid and a^iutihed ui doing so. 


bis hand, and asked n 

a welcome to this a; 

H. C. 

forget that little act ot kmdnesjs, and 1, too, 
fio.u tbai be^imiiiig, learned to appiei-iate 
tuat gen leman m<ire. day by day, as I knew 
him, and year by year as I mei him, until, 
when I shocked at the news wbioh woii 
conveyed 1*1 me, I, too, lelt that I had lost a 
personal friend. Iheretore I can add luy tes- 

.iiy pei-sooul fdvor be 

Perhajjs his field r 

a Mr. Bartlett, having 

aiid acting uji 

with bim. but from t 
oughly acquainieil wi 

1 New York a 
held there. I bave 
years and I bave kn 

so lovingly II 
tributes tbe v 

ved such 


- rIyemna/uiQ7VttoJ^uzfLaC3 

" Loved him." Say rather with me, " He 
iirM, now and foi"evermore 1" We love him 
and be loves U9. "Say not of bim wbo sits 
and loves you up in Heaven, * we loved him 

the !«uls Ibat c 

s to be co-workers ii 

lubers oC the profession. 

Mr. R. U. 
tacbed to the 
knew one of 
brother, and : 

inline biscbar- 
vinclng on that 

orotber. Henry C. Spenc 

tile ri'emory of 

sight, but the life c 

I and his beautiful work 

But in his own coliege, I do not peniiit that 

to be <^id We i^peak of him freely and ten 

h h h d p d h 

sent!- The Automatic Shading Pen. 

' us, aud the labors of life a 
Bntgh<>d, ami ne look upon the \\ork whi 
men have done we are broucht taoe t< fa 
witbthisquestionof imnurtil tv tb^fi 1 n^ 

our S|»eculati\ t. tbeor 


NEY with the 

Luatic shading 

n a problem of 

o prufessioual 

students and 

men. First, 

do good work, 

nd, leara to do 

dly ; third, put 

h d behind it and 

E h d ff n es of shading 
n m d b Mr. Stoakes, 

p n N 3 4, 5, 6 and 8. 

Th n rab n t^th inch wide ; 

nb h h nu nber 8. seven- 

gh n h N nd 3 are also 

md huwdho use with ad- 

h nk k nf? n bronzes, etc.. 

a h w d p and 8 are also made 

wi h u k ng scrolls and 

g d 

only what we eel to be our duty, but alho as 
a privilege, as a duly, ns an obligation that w© 
owe to the memory of these men. They gave 
their lives, tn this work They built a grand 
foundation, uptin which it is our privilege to 
build : and their lives, thouj;h no longer visible 
in earthly form, their lives, the inspiration of 
their lives, is with us to strengthen and en- 
courage us in the work which we know they 
would have done if they hud been spared to 
the hour. 

lived in his profession, it was my father. Every 
moment of his lite wus devotetl to the ciiuse of 
commercial education, and just befnre his 
death he called me to his side and said, " My 
son, 1 give into your keeping an institution 
that has now been more than 50 yeai-s in exist- 

; keep it and promote ii 

^^/ /'^^ ^^4i/ y^^ wf- J/ / / -^.A ^% ,/^yf^/y^ 

and, above all else. I wish that you alnars be 
present at the conventions of the commercial 
colleges, and extend to them a God speed. ' 

during all this conference we have had wiih 
us P. M. Bartlett, H. B. Bi-yant and Henr> C 
Spencer. These men have not gone they aie 
with >js, even more than can be expressed by 
the example which Ihey have set foi oui imi 

and I feel that 
s';ed awa> lu 
i peihaps into 

and that is that gethei 

had hoped to 

F* Ethics and the backgrounds. The No. 4 pen ie the best 

Tbis^seemed 'to ^^^ beginners and the mo.»;t useful, and 

L later years of his life No. 1 second. Use ink specially made for 

these pens by one who knows how, Iii- 

) sert a wedge-pointed stick in the cork and 

fill the pen with this, beinj; careful not to 

get ink on the outside of the pen. The 

I pen can be cleaned by putting a folded 

sheet of paper between the nibs, and the 

I , ink that adheres can be scraped off when 

dij with a kuife-blade. 

Sit upright, front position. Hold the 
paper square in front, with blue lines par- 
allel to edge of table. Hold the penholder 
I as for writing, but more nearly vertical, 
and keep the work almost directly be- 

neath the eye. Hold the edge of the pen 
on a slant of 4-5% making all strokes 
downward and to the right. Keep the 
notched edge to the left and lowex side. 
Practice vertical strokes and horizontal 
strokes as illustrated in accompanying 
cut until you can make a square. No. 3, 
without lifting the pen at lower left and 
upper right-hand comers ; also left and 
right curves to form a circle, as No. 4, 
then the compound curve, being careful 
to get the finish vertically below the be- 
ginning point. 

The horizontal compound curve is easy, 
as are its halves !) and 8. Make principal 
6 with a sliding stroke to the left, curving 
downward, turning to the right and stop- 
ping square, and principal 7 the reverse. 
These two joined at top and bottom, with 
more curve in down strokes, produce an 
0. Turn the paper upside down, and if it 
looks the s.ime it is either because it is so 
good it can't be better, or so poor it can't 
be worse. Don't be discouraged, and 
don't undertake too much at one time. 
Now you are ready to try small jh, mak- 
ing the turns at top and bottom short and 
narrow. Try n and n, noticing how the 
difference in width of turn makes one 
letter distinct from the other. Try capital 
U, N, H and U. small I, h and b, and 
when you can make these well you can 
try 0, C, G and Q, and then the other 
letters, carefully studying the copy, and 
work until you can make all of these 
letters without a copy. You can also 
make the letters of the ordinary marking 
alphabet, and making them in a vertical 
position is a good preparation for other 
alphabet-s, which should be studied and 
practiced with reference to key letters 
and not in alphabetical order. A number 
of alphabets, including the Old English, 
German texts and round hand, should be 
mastered. The ability to use the shading 
pen begets ability to use ordinary broad 
or double points, and vice versa ; and 
strange as it may seem rajnd lettering or 
marking is an aiil to a good handwriting, 
although the movement is different. 
Uniformity in slant, space, size, etc., are 
cultivated and the handwriting strength- 
ened thereby. 

Avoid many colors of ink. Certain 
colors harmonize, others are antagonistic, 
aud unless oue has a knowledge of or taste 
for colors he is apt to make a " mess" of 
it. Red. green and brown (and a good 
black when obtainable) will generally be 
found sufficient aad scarcely make a bad 
combination. Work for unity, not va- 
riety, in color as well as style of letter. 

Tbe most practical use of the automatic 
shading pen is for making temporary 
signs in stores, announcing special sales, 
bargans or pi-ices. Every merchant has 
more or less use for display cards which 
cannot otherwise be made so readily, ao 
attractive or with so little expense. If the 
merchant, clerk or bookkeeper can do this 
work he makes money in the best way— 
by saving it. An energetic young man 
can get plenty of orders and make good 
pruDt. Attractive mottoes and designs 
can be made for the home and school 
which open up another line for the 
worker, as also card-writing, making 
hat-mai'ks. &c. The wide, smooth pens 
have been used effectively for tinting 
long, narrow stripes on a chart. Good 
money can be made by buying pens and 
inks at wholesale and selling at retail, 
and if in connection a class is organized 
and instruction given, alphabets and 
specimens executed, the automatic pen- 
man w.ll fill his pockets and be happy. 

Large Sums Paid for Stories. 

Tbe largest sum ever paid for a single 
novel is said to have been $200,000 to Al- 
phonse Daudet for "Sappho," published 
in 1884. Eighty thousand dollars was re- 
ceived by Victor Hugo for " Les Miser- 
ables " (1862), published in ten language-. 
Lord Beaconsfieid received $()0,000 each 
for " Endymiou " and " Lothair;" George 
Eliot received $40,000 for ' ■ Middlemarch." 
and Charles Dickens $y7..i00 for " Edwin 
Drood."— ffoHSd* Tra'ie Journal. 



PiiNMANs Art Journal 

c^nim. No frr* mtmplrH ej-orjU to &omt fldt 
afftHtu tvho are mibiicribmi. to aid thrm in 
takinp mtbaeriptionK. 

Foreign nibacrtpd'uns (to countrie» in Poih 
teU Vn1on\ 9l.'£i perj/ear. 

FuU tint of r^ipitar and apeetai premi 

New York, AiiKUKt, 1898. 


Aail-PurRVry iDk iw 

NaturvKud HaMUOlTrm IW 

LUCOCAnoII"lDXA Abmoao.. liu 

il bluoaitOD In OrMi DrIUlD ; Oin- 
iducallun Id aeno^ty ; Wrlllng Kt^ 
era ThrotiRb Buroprko tipecUclM. 
omi* Hlydeni* 110-111 

4(H. ' 

It 1). Ilryant, Henry 

money in ailvertU'tDg and ^ot so much 
from it onKht to know something of the 
baffinees. The Jolunal has many a time 
said that little is to be expected from occa- 
ssional. fipa«mo4lic advertising. The name 
mn8t l>e wtrll 6xe4l in the pnblic eye be- 
fore the pablic will patronize to any con- 
((iderable extent. It is Mticktoifat-enegti 
that pay.-* in wlvcrtising a» in anything 
elite. Intelligent, pernstent hammering 
away at a point is bonnd to produce re- 
sults, while a cbance blow now and then 
is just a8 likely to make no perceptible 
impresMon. This ik from Faine^ a new 
advertising journal, edited by the man 
whose brilliant advertisement writing 
made millions for the owners of Sapolio : 

There are few brighter men in the ad- 
vertising bnsiness than James T. Pyle. 
who. notwithstanding the brusqueness 
with which he receives many a visitor 
who bothers him or who proposes systems 
against which be has shut the door of his 
mind, is a modest fellow, fully conscious 
of the difficulties which beset the adver- 
tiser, imd willing to learn from any one 
who really has anything to impart. 

A few stray samples of his views of ad- 
vertising may interest the fraternity. 
For example : 

Talking of the necessity of continuous 
advertising, he said : " When a man is a 
hundred miles from shore in a rowboai-, 
in freezing weather, he will not freeze to 
death as long as he keeps rowing and he 

ing long enough to freeze to death. Now, 
I don't believe in stopping advertising 

long enough to freeze to "death. 

" Get on top in your business. There is 
only one top to each business, like the 
point of a pyramid, and the man who gets 

I'"""'!" ..Ill ufl on top finds it easier to keep other peo- 

^^■'' ^ '" "' pie off than before he got there." 

Thr I 117 

\vf,!,'.'\': ^^''".'!?"'!.^f!!'."I'.*iu ^"Honal Unndwrttina Charart^rUttc». 

niri- .1.. i',,.t.-^,„„ .....118 The Journal hasinpreparationaseries 

Auunl.l' I ,1 u'!."?'".^*^'.''.?*'*' 118 of articles relating to the handwriting of 

oi'ioill^' ^!i'u,L'.o''i.u.V.u,i',?'ilaiTy.''-.-.- '■':.'.!'. i3o ^^"^^^ nations. Thisisground that has 

iLnisTKATioKB." hardly felt the turn of the penmanship 

nhiTnuolI«iw?'h^M%*iilG?ru£;^?SD p^^ '**" plowshare, and it seems rather inviting. 

nm^'?MTlf""wlIllt^yf'"^uV. Drawing u'sio^^ lio We have experienced considerable diffi- 

"ni*i'n''"M ,"'"-" "'^''■""'''^" ''"'" " '"'""'■ 1,1 culty in collecting the proper material for 

*'&)!"-''' "''"" ' " ''""'ill illustrations and cannot now definitely 

*"au''',',V.' I 1" ' ' ' ' " "" n: ^*^ ^'^*'" *^^ ""^^'^ ^"^^ ^^ sufficiently 

bJ«.'i''.i' . I ui.i!« vVlii'ttiio .r "" well in hand to waiTant the beginning of 

Mni"'i I uim'icwikwo " " lis the series, but it is pretty safe to say that 

^J^, ^.[', _ _ , _ .,,,, lillip''.* 119 '^'® articles will begin in the course of 

iKf.iii IK ' \\ . ^iHf^T. o. Littie. two months or SO. In this connection we 

oru'Mvi.'.itiMii.(.\ . 1 ■.,:■•. !■ w desire to express our acknowledgements 

etni^tiuw . Ill , 1IM -•''* "■ p'c for generous aid rendered by Mr. Henry 

ab^i!im*^f('m''.'< ' " ■' ..M ,'. iwiilJir'p^ Sykes, Prin. of the Grammar School. 

AimsrTfuifTe-.Ki'. ' <■•--•■ w.TKB. K^ Manchester, England. Mr. Sykes has 

.JriV.'.^' '. ' " ' ' '. ' :Z"i'/orK^€-^»^l kindly placed at our disposal a variety of 

"■ "' * ' ' " ' ' ■■ ^ excellent material, both in written and 

W)l•^ . > I I ...ui.K-^s ,'M4Kun>. you engraved specimens. Our friends who 

Jk ViV .\ '",'. V'^'-rh'" il*«''4Ki lia-ve access to material of this kind from 

Ji^vlV" : , ' iVi^HsTUAT "ther countries could render us great 

oiinV ]'. "\.u\ I j'v'l M Yin^LiT assistance. 

— - - B. E. A. Proceedings. 

TopicN DiNrUNiied at Hie Lale neeliiit; 

We gave last month some brief notes on 
the fourteenth annual meeting of the B. 
E. A. at Saratoga. July 7-13. The con- 
vention met at 2 p.m.. Thursday. July 7, 
but on account of the small attendance 
adjourned to a later hour, when the pro- 
posed union with the National Educa- 
tional Association was discussed at length. 

Vice-President R. E. Gallagher, who 
presided throoghout the convention with 
grace and dignity, read an admirable 
paper at Friday morning's session on 
"Reciprocity of Ideas." It was wai-mly 
commended by Mr. Packard and others, 
and was unanimously accepted by the 
convention as a substitute for the Presi- 
dent's address. "Habit in Writing " was 
the title of a paper by J. P. Byrne, which 
was discussed by Messrs. Brown. Hamium. 
Smithdeal, Hiuman. Bartlett. Palmer. 
Ames and others. Byran Smith read a 
paper on "Rapid Calculations," which was 
highly commended by Col. Geo. Sonl6 and 
others. At the afternoon session W. E. 
Stipp discussed the teaching of commer- 
cial law. 

At Saturday's session Mrs. Sara A. 
Spencer read an excellent \^a\wt on "Mak- 
ing a Life, not Merely a Living." Messrs. 
R. C. Spencer. Packard. Wilt and Sonl^ 
si)oke to the subject. Following was a 
paper by J. M. Mehan. the subject being 


I /.li's Erhtbit Agreed Upon. 

WK ARE pleased to learn that the 
Executive Committee of the 
World's Fair Business College Elx- 
hibit have settled upon a definite plan, 
and that the work of preparing for such 
an exhibit has been actually begim. An 
entirely harmonions meeting of the com- 
mittee was held in Chicago last week. Dr. 
Puabody, chief of the Department of Lib- 
eral Arts, Iwing present and cordially 
approving the plans itgreed upon. The 
exhibit is to be ou the lines laid down in 
Mr. Packard's paiwr. published in the May 
Journal. In other words, thei-e is to be 
a genuine live exhibit and not a dumb 
show. TiiK Journal heartily congratu- 
lates Mr. Packard and his associates of 
the oonmiittee. and it congratulates the 
bnsiness college interests of Americo. A 
most cordial invitation is extended to all 
commen-i»l schools to co-operate. In- 
stnu'tionsfor making application in due 
form may l>e had by writing to S. S. Pack- 
ard. 101 E. 'JSd street. New York. 

Thr Srrret of .4ilr<-rtl»<np. 

EvERVBonv is familiar with the Pearline 
advertisements. They have cost hundreds 
of thousands of dollars and made millions 
for the Pyles. who own the washing com- 
Itouiiil. A man who has spent so mnch 

■ Teaching Manners and Morah. in a Busi- 
ness College." Mr. Mehan treated the 
theme broadly and intelligently. In the 
afternoon A. N. Palmer gave his views 
on the theory of accounts, and a number 
of others s^ioke to the subject, including 
Messre. Atwood, Bartlett and Wilt. " The 
Business College Teacher " was the title of 
a well-received pai)er by J, W. Warr. Fol- 
lowing this came the report of the Memo- 
rial Committee, to which we give much 
s|>ace elsewhere in this issue. 

Mniuiny, July I i.—G, W. Brown rea<l a 
paper on the " Scope of Business C»)llege 
Instruction." Mrs. Spencer and Messrs. 
Sadler. Osbom, Mehan. Packard and 
Soul6 recorded their r>pinions in favor of a 
brofld-gauge course. A short and pithy 
paper on "Business Women" was read 
by R. C. Spencer. The same subject was 
ably treated by Mrs. A. H. Hinman. Many 
membtrs joined in the discussiou, includ- 
ing Messrs. Champlin, Childs. Gaines, 
Porter. Dement and Haskell. H. A. 
Spencer delivered his well-known lecture 
on " How to Get Rich." The rest of the 
evening session was devoted to making 
the association a department of the N. E. 
A., which was done without opposition. 
Shorthand and typewriting topics were 
discussed at the afternoon session by 
Isaac M. Dement, C. M. Miller and 

Tuesday, July 12.— After listening to an 
interesting address by President Harrison 
at Congress Park, the convention met and 
discussed at length plans for a World's 
Fair exhibit. Mr. Packard led the fight 
for a live exhibit— model banking, insur- 
ance and other business offices, conducted 
by relays of business college undergradu- 
ates. Colonel Soul6 and others doubted 
the feasibility of such a plan. The entire 
matter was finally put in the hands of a 
committee of fifteen, of which Mr. Pack- 
ard was made chairman. 

The publication of the convention pro- 
ceedings verbat m in pamphlet form was 
mov»d by J. R. Carnell. The motion was 
opposed by Messrs. Brown, McCord and 
Wiit in favor of Business Kducadon, and 
favored by Mrs. Spencer and Messrs. 
Williams, Osbom, SouliS and others. It 

The penmen were accorded an inning 
ai this state of the proceedings. D. H. 
Farley read the excellent paper which we 
print in our Public School Department. 
C. P. Zaner read a paper on " Mind Influ- 
ence in Writing," which we intend to 
produce, and A. N. Palmer discussed 
business writing in a clear, vigorous 
manner. A paper on the supervision of 
wi-iting in public .schools was read by H. 
Champlin. So much time had been pre- 
viously consumed in discussing other 
topics that the penmen were allowed 
scarcely any time to discuss the papers 
enumerated, and this was a source of dis- 
appointment to them. Messrs. Dyke, 
Fish, H. A. Spencer, Childs, Lyon. Osbom 
and Hannum spoke in connection with 
this subject. 

Wednesdmj, July i;j.— The convention 
listened to a number of interesting ad- 
dresses on "Civics." by gentlemen not 
identified with the association. Among 
the speakers were Dr. Charles C. Bonney, 
an officer of the Columbian Exposition : 
Henry R. Waight, President Institute of 
Civics : Francis Bellamy ; Prof. Johnson. 
New Orleans ; Dr. McAllister and Dr. 
Brooks, Philadelphia. Among the mem- 
bers who spoke to the subject were Mri>. 
Hinman and Messrs. Mehan, Osbom and 

At the afternoon session W. R. Will 
treated "Rapid Calculations," Messrs. 
Taylor. Goodyear, Christie, King and 
others joining in the discussion. Col. 
Soul6 instructed the convention with an 
able paper on the science of higher 
ag:ounting and auditing. Then cama 
the election of officers. Col. Soul6 and 
Mr. Gallagher were proposed for Presi- 
dent, but the latter gracefully declined 
and the election was made by acclama- 
ation. as follows : President. George 
Soul6; First Vice-Pres.. J. M. Mehan : 
Second V.-P.. J. R. Carnell ; Third V.-P.. 
C- C. Gaines: Sec'y and Treas., W. E. 


M(l^»rd. Hereafter the conventions will 
be held in connection with the N. E. A. 

On Tuesday evening some of the pen- 
men present got together and held a 
pleasant little meeting of their own. Pres- 
ent, Messrs. Hinman. Lyon. Champ- 
lin, Taylor. Dalrymple. Ramsdell. Fish. 
Zaner. Farley. H. A. Spencer, Curtiss. 
Childs. Ames. 

The official reporter of the convention 
was C. M. Miller of the Shorthand Dep't 
of Packard's College. Mr. Miller made a 
very acceptable report of the proceedings 
at Chautauqua two years ago. 

Pacific Educators* Meeting;. 

The Pacific Coast B. E. Association 
held an interesting and profitable session 
at the roomsof the Aydelotte's Bus. Coll.. 
Oakland, Cal.. on the three days ending 
July 2. It was the association's third an- 
nual meeting. The overshadowing topic 
of discussion, as at the late Saraloga meet- 
ing, related to the proposed business col- 
lege exhibit at the World's Fair. It was 
finally decided to hold the nest meeting 
during the winter holidays, and to make 
it largely a World's Fair Convention and 
take definite steps to co-operate with the 
B. E. A. in this important cause. 

Here is the official programme of the 
meeting : 

1. H«/cor/if.— J. H. Aydelotte, Aydelotte's 
Business College, Oakland. 

2 Itemarks by the President.— 'V. A. Robin- 
son, Pacific Buaineffi College, San Francisco. 

'i. Arithmetle in Smsitwss Collef/en.-^ht^mas 
F. Campbell, San Jose Business College, San 

4. .4 Tatk (in Banftiiify.— Charles G. Reed, 
Union National Bank, Oakland. 

5, Commercial Ethica : Whatcan the Bust ■ 
nt»» College do to Improve Theml'—H. B. Wor- 
cester, Garden City Business College, .Son 

li. What ahalt the Shorthand Course include 
besides Shorthand and Tupetvriiitiy ,' — E. R. 
Sbrader, Los Angeles Business College, (.os 

7. Public Opinion of the flusineas College 
and how to Elevate t"(.— Fielding Schoflelii, 
Heald's Business College, San Francisco. 

K. Commercial Law.— P. Longwlth, Stock- 
ton Business College, Stockton. 

». Business Orammar— How much shall br 
Attempted y^F. C. Woo<iwortli, Stocktou 
Business College, Stockton. 

10. Business Penmanship — W. H. Beacoiri. 
Heald's Business College, San Franci-ico. 

11. Modem Bookkeeping.— J. R. RuokBtfll, 
Pacific Business College. San Francisco. 

I-' la Anything Gained bu ftHsiVws* ioHeues 
Abvsnig ajie Another .'~A. P. ArniHttong, 
Portland Busioera Collei;e. Portland, Oregon. 

These new officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : President, Frank Long- 
with. Stockton ; first, 8ec<}ud and third 
vice-presidents, respectively, H. B. Wor- 
cester, San Francisco; E. R. Schrader. 
Los Angeles : Miss Helen Cnrtis, San 
Francisco: secretary. H. W. Cadman. 
San Francisco ; treasurer, J. H. Ayde- 
lotte, Oakland. Executive Committee : 
A, P. Armstrong. Portland. Ore.: W C 

Ramttey. Stockton, and T. A. Robinson, 
Han Francisco, together with the presi- 
dent and secretary of the association, who 
are ex-officio members of the committee. 
Socially the meeting was also a decided 
success. A feature of the entertainment 
enjoyed by the visitors was a delightful 
musical *ntertainment given by Ayde- 
lotte Bus. Coll. 

■ Ibe W. P. Con 

Tbe Executive Connnittee (Frank Gooduian, 
Nashville. Tenn ; J. W. Warr. Moline, III., 
and C. P. Zauer, Columbus, Ohio) of the 
Western Penmen's Assoi-iatiou are now ar- 
ranging the programme for the next meeting, 
tvhiob will Lte held iu Columbus during the 

From present indications it will be the 
largest gathering of penmen in one place at 

C/c/unaM QyCtOoJ'oaAfLa/P 


on u» point 

Skillful, slight-of hand perfoimames are 
simply feats of deception. The execution of 
beautiful productions with the pen are mar- 
vels of wonder to the average individual. 
Whatever the explanations of how such fanta- 
sies appear, the legerdemain has no trouble 
in clearing the mind of any hallucination. 

I would not clamor or raise my voice were 
not these explanations too often misleading, 
tbuB creating a sentiment wbich is hurtful to 
the immediate student and harmful to the en- 
tire profession, hecause of heaping unwonted 
stigma upon our beloved cause. 

While I de-'-ire to claim that the explanations 

~ With some teachers, finger action is admis- 
sible in fact, yet they do not teach it. They 

believe it exiaU:, yet also believe that it is ac- 
quired indirectly— ■'. «., by itsstrictpreveutfon 
(advocating purely fore-arm movement), the 
Bugers will eventually assert themselves and 
become active iu the proper degree. 

Against these two positions I wish to take 
my stand and die protesting their evil. 

That they do movecan be demonstrated to a 

That they should move is in accordance 
with physical law. If the fingers move, then 
their action should bo scientifically taught. 

He who declares that they do not. let him 
apppar befora us and prove his wonderful 
power. Chandler H. Peirce. 

Qate City Bus. Coll , Keokuk, Iowa. 

Our long-time friend, J. E. Depue of Chi- 
cago, late of Oakland, Cab, well known in 
commerrlal teaching circles, is the inventor 
ani] patentee of a combinalion Ledger. Sales 


sheet of note paper with a reference care- 
fully made in the left-hand corner to the 
dispatch remarked upon, inserted by him 
into it. and returned in it to the depart 
ment, and afterward sent by the Utter in 
original to the embassy or legation con- 
cerned, with the next batch of dis- 
patches." In a niemorandum in 1851, 
Palmerston wrote : "Tell the gentleman 
who copied this dispatch to write a larger, 
rounder hand, to join on the letters m the 
words, and to use blacker ink." But it 
was not on handwriting alone but like- 
wise on spelling and construction that 
•■Palmy" kept a sharp lookout. An 
amusing memo, waa sent to the legation 
at Berlin. Our charge d'affaires at the 
time had occasion to use the word bat- 
talions, and inadvertently spelt i; with 
one "t" and two "I's." "batallions" in- 
stead of '■ battalions." This brought 



ICrntiiple of Onmli- Pen Work as AppUoci to the Making of Certijicates, Diplomas, etc. Made in tk<- o,ffi -.e of The Journal. Sizi' of Fn Uriginal, 2i 

They are expected from the North, East, 
South and West; professionals, amatem's, be- 
ginners, aspirants 

You cannot well afford to miss this meeting; 
it will be made up of all classes and of all 

It is the committee's desire and intention to 
have upon the programme the names of those 
who are specialists, leaders, experts, teacbere 
and artists Those from whom can be expected 
the most recent investigations and the highest 
development of skill. 

Instruction will be the fii-st and foremost 
thought; eutertMinnieut will be an important 
feature, and novelty will bo infused to seasoa 
tht goiMl things presented 

We want to see you with us, one and all, 
and we feel safe in suyiug that you will never 
regret having journeyed hither at that time. 
C. P. Zaneii, 
Chairman Executive Committee. 

ColumlMis, Ohio, Augvst i, lsi)2. 

Glossy Ink. 


Answering many inquiri 

! wish to say 
handle glossy iuk for card 
writing, nor indeed liquid inks of any kind 
exceptnig prepared India ink, gold, silver and 
white inks in small t>ottles Those who ore 
r fine glossy 

another column. 

of T. J. Sharp, Aur. 

, III., 

are j3er se evil and only evil, I do not wish to 
create the sentiment that those who entertain 
adverse views are willful falsifiers. 

We all err at times in our judgment, but I 
cannot uudei-stand why some of the brightest 
can be so deceived. It is an easy matter to be- 
lieve an untruth if you have confidence in its 
author. Telling a falsehood with good inten- 
tions — I. e , believing it to be the trxith — dues 
not make it such. 

It requires an expert to detect shades of dif- 
ference and determine with accuracy points of 
contact. Connoisseurs of om' art are supposed 
to be our professional teachei-s, and yet I am 
in possession of evidence which should mark 
their teaching with disfavor. 

'' The world do move r ! ! .' ! ! 

The flngei-s do move ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! 1 ! ! 

I am amazed; I am dumbfounded; I am 
horror-stricken; I am simply paralyzed at the 
thought of a number of our honored sons 
promulgating the idea that the /inf/er* do vot 
move in the free fxectttion of tvriting as it is 
understood to-day. 

Let us not deceive ourselves ! That the fin- 
gers move olmost imperceptibly does not an- 
nihilBtft the idea that they should not move at 
all. Salt is as essential as sugar, but the ef- 
ficacy of each is not in tie same ratio 

and Billing Book, which is said to be one of 
the most practical tabor-saving arrangemeuts 
ever devised for bookkeepers. Some idea of 
the book may be had from the advertisement 
in another column. We learn from outside 
sources that the book is having a remarkably 
cordial reception. 

Lord Palmerston's Views on Writing and 

In the recently published ■' Life of 
Lord Palmerston," by the Marquis of 
Lorne, reference is 'made to the Foreign 
Secretary's rooted dislike for bad writing 
and bad spelling. Hestrongly objected to 
anything "slipshod," whether in expres- 
sion or in orthography. He wrote an un- 
commonly good hand, and was always in- 
tolerant of any one less blessed with that 
description of manual skill. The secre- 
taries at home and abroad "caught it 
hot ■' when a badly-written dispatch 
came into his hands. The scathing mem- 
orandum which he penned for the benefit 
of the delinquent was written, as one of 
his old subordinates pays. " on a half 

down the following remark : " Tell A. B. 
to direct his amanuensis to place his bat- 
talions on the English and not on the 
French footing." The attache who had 
made tiie copy was very indignant, and 
said that Lord Palmerston had himself 
used an expression. •' amanuensis,'' which 
was not English. — The Count iiig-Iinmn, 

Where the Gold Is Stored. 

A writer in Ar((eHii7/a/t'j< Magazine notes 
where some of the world's gold is .stored. 
Usually the Bank of England has #125,- 
000,000 in its vaults : the Bank of Ger- 
many has $200,000,000 gold and silver ; 
the Bank of France $475,000,000 ; the 
United States Treasury and the National 
banks about $700,000,000. The increase 
in the United States of this reserve has 
been remarkable. In 1(476 the gold bull- 
ion in the United States Treasury was 
about $75,000,000; in 1HH9 it was $300.- 
000,000; the banks in 1873 bad about 
$3,000,000, andiu 1889 they bad $80,000,- 

« Jr 



prietur *bu witbtiold 

tbuD bf hnnii^ lii» einpiojtf. 

— Edwin W. HariiB. b [>roEr««ive youug 
commercml U-acher of Hranchport, N. Y., has 
©ngagod to U och at the Jtrsty Cny B. C, for 
the coniiug year. C.J. ilali. Prtsbo, N. y., 
in anoihcr iiow mpiiii)er of ih.- fuctilry. 

-C. W. Slocuin. wbof..t riK ,,,-[ t, ,, ^, .,, 

ha-t served accf ptublv ii^ i" i' . m 

„ ,.ub]/ 


.., 1 be«<n L'ttlled to (i -ili > ; i i i '' 

Uolunlbu^.. O- Mr. Hl-inni I- ^-l III. .AM 
as an enthU).ia[)lic and>liil tca:ljer uf 
modern penninniihip methous. 

— Seventy-nine graduates rooeived diplomas 
on June -^fi Ht IN-!. A Ohb.irn's K. C. Indmu- 
apolis Th'- W1-- ili<- f'ut^-tliird annual grad; 

thehali .1 ...... I ■ ... . M 

; the 

[i much dvmand al Teucb- 

peumau, both m <'.. i i .>i uauK'Hinl 

Barre Collegt* un \i i ll i . i: n A liilluiji- 

— Warrta Wood, who has charge of the 
com. aud peninuusbip duptw. ot the Middle- 
buuroe, VV. Va., Normal ^tcboul, is an excvl- 
leot wrlt«r, aud docs good f«uoy work besidvs. 

— We take pleasure iu adding to our list of 
the gentler Hex who are prolicieut with a pen 
the name of Mitrs Muybel Eidk of Albany. N. 
Y . who bus II ojui-u HI ibo Albany 
B. C. andcont.-i„|.l,i. . ., m|.|.:. ,,.,„[;,,■>■ m\, 

well illiulrate<l, < 
kin, Pa., B. U. 

— Our actfomplished young brother of the 
quill, V. P. KuMiCil, who for bovernl years bos 
ucct'ptttbly diitcoor^ed tue rGap.m^ii>ld duties 
ol thi; Head of ihe peuiiiauship work at ur. 
C'urueuier's B. & :j. H. c, Ij . Louis, Una taken 

Verruoutville, Mich., 

tjaiuiug. He is a 
that and other 

conn- 11 ;,.,,. , < I uU-do. O. 

Ham I 'HUM>nime 

Iniiiiil- \M.i .1.. 1..^- ■M.I _!■. iii- I...I.' ;niii bright- 
nths tu .1 111,1.11. ol,.. II Ml tlii^ be 
ahouliiseiiUiMuiui;!. lur u i.\>pi ol ibe Bt»!ad- 
mau b. C. publication. 

— The prt>sp*-ctus of the New South B. 
C, Humboldt, lenu.. Indicau-s a i,ali»fBc 
tory Biale ol HiTairs at thnt Institution. I'be 
school hu» u Kood penman In the person of 
Jamtti U. Couius. 

— K. (J. Johnston, New Castle. Pn., Is 
another member ol tue cVrle ol bi ight yuung 

front by i 

■ eumiug to the 

[^puitbuud fuuiiliarily 

— C F Paik.s-' 
steuograpbie iei.o 
bMU en^„ed fur the ^horiLaua dept. of 
L'atuu's Nutional B. C. Clrveland, OLi^>. 

— W. W. Moore has disposed of his interest 
iu the Home, Ua., B. (J. to K £. Kuhus, 
Canal Dover, O., an exp«>rieuced t«acber and 
school uinuttgei*. Mr. Mooie stands well m the 
profossiou Hiid will doubttuss suvn cuunect 
biuibell With aLOther MTbi'ol. 

~- The Commercinl Educntor is the name of 
a now pubhcatiou devoied to the interest of 
the Wayn^boro. Va.. B. C. of which J. W. 
Cook is the beitd. 

— We cuugmtulat« Priuei|jil E J. Coburn 

town, N. Y.. lo take charge __ _._ 

dept Mr. Byrne is one ul the brlEhtest of 
the younger cemro.ioii of peumambip and 

— P. B. S. Peters, for 
-onuM-ted with th 

has been elected s 

Buena Vlst« Collesc, Storm l..Bke. la. 

— Kerr & Pringie are making a success of 
the St. John. N. B . B. C, of which they 
recently assumed control 

— F. E. »lrou^h has purchas-'d a half i 

shorthand. Mr. ^trough has managed the 
buainess dppartment for the past year, and 
made himself very popular both with the stu- 
denta and the peoble of Zsnesville generally. 

— E. E. UtU'rback, one of the Zcinerian 
rtihort aud a very clever man with a |»en. has 
been engaged to take charge of that work at 
the Salina, Kan . Normal Uni. 

— A liberally illustrated circularci 

under the business-like adminis „ 
of O. M. Sroithdeal. 

— W. J. 0>boriie his accepted a position as 
first assistant of the teaching s'alf of the Ont. 
H. C. Belleville, Ont. He goes from Sack- 
ville, N. B. 

— Au attractive cata1o>£ue came from the 
Lone Star B. C. San Marcos. TeJt.. of which 
McGee & yiUm are proprietors. 

— R. J. Maclean leaves Albert College. 
Belleville, Ont. where he had charge of rtie 

presented him with a valiinl.le n-'k] c 
no end of good wislic 
good work at Albn 

Thomas Coiigdon, a graduate from the ii 

Mich., Normal School a 

— Couard & Richmond, whose purcha.'ie of 
the Ofawa. III.. Bus. Uni was recently noted 
in these columns, also conduct the tjtreator, 
111., Bus. Uni. 

— We have in the past few weeks had the 
pleasure of meeting; in our office a number of 
proressiiinal friends who were visiting in this 
part of the country. Among them WMie Mr. 
and Mrs, H. T. Loomis. Spenceriau B. C, 
Cleveland, O. ; H. S. DeSollar. proprietor of 

rncnd »v, J Klusl'-y hi 
bo«i-d. G. W 
t equ'ppcd In tlic 


'arable a 
llac" htt 

« And wishes t 

IliirKf of th-- Slice. Ill i.i'rimunsliii 

THKjuuK>Ai.saluieit tht eiiuri 

of prosperity which their plm 

^. I known. Our old 
,.v UN I ircrtsorer of the 
iLi.iiriment. which Is one 

, push and brains richly 

nrde<l to cIjsscs oI good -he, both in 
the bookkeeping and shorthand d^pai'tuicuts. 

— About 6fiy shorthand an-l typewHiiuE 
diplouias and nearly as many for ttruduuies of 
the com. deitt. were awarded et the recent 
t Childs'a tl. C., Springlield. 

Mr. Cblids has built up a fine 5>.-hool and de 
serves tbo success he bus commandi d. 

— Fraok Goodman of Nashville, who foi 
mauy year's has bad a i-eputitioi 

1 Coll.. McPbei. 
H. H. Fubuest(K?k teaches the commercial 
brauchi-s ai tuls in>iituiii>n. 

— The Bryant & S'rdtt<>n B. C, Providence, 
R I . Issues a hitih-grade cattijo^jue illu-Htruted 
with a poiirait of tue pioprleior. T. B. Stow- 
elt. and some large i^en designs by Penman E. 
I,. Buruett. 

— One of the handsomest and most expens- 
ivrly made commercial sch< ol catnloj 

work are of toe best. The catalogue is nchly 
illu-trnted. and several colors are used in the 
piinting. Such a catalogue 

Des.".Mc.n..s;.r. SI. M'" piopiiftot .,i Capital 
City ( om. I oil., Des Moines; Frank Goodman, 
Nashville, Teon.; C. S.Perry, pn.prietor of 
Wiiifield. Knu . R C : K. .r, Hr-eb, B. & 
S \< r i..,ti.,„->po).- ht.l ■ 1> W llMfr. Des 
M.-.r,.-. I . . \V il :■;. II. N ..: uMii.i^Bud 


— J. L. Williams has b<mgbt the interest of 
his late partner. Air. Ulue 

and N< 
$ a line peumau. 

jllcgew bc Hu:chiu- 
an. Besid*^ being an 

al leacber, Mr. Wdliams 

exceptiiiuully bright youim peDiuan, has been 
engiged to teach at the Lorry, Pa.. Bus. Cotl. 

— Geo. RUBM.-11. a W»8l«-ra [/enman of note, 
will try his hand iu the East, teaching the art 
at theSchiisIerColiegcof Business, Maoajiink, 

— The Hymeneal harvest among our profes- 
sionnl friends seem^ to be i-i no way anected 
by the seawn's torridily. 

— Mr. Charles M Miller and Miss Mory K. 
Knight were married at the home of the bride, 
Jewett City. Conn., on July I'J. Both c<>n- 
tractiug partitj have t>e.-n connected with the 
shorlhaud dept. of Packard's College, New- 

— Mr. D n ■Wiinr.i,,- i.i.-.prietor of the 
MiUvaukti' I' ' ■ ■ ■ iiv^rried to Miss 
Carrie E. M ■ ■ i - 'vville. Tean.. on 
Juau'>.'{ I -i.*-i>t'*ome weeks 
traveling in r i < -i li, V. illmmsgave 
bis fneods tlic u-n. nr ..t his sght seeing 
throagh t(i« medium ol Ihu Milwaukee pre»s. 

— Mr W. J. Musser. proprietor of i he Wash- 
ington, Pa., B. C, and Mi&a Mary S. Hoysa, a 

o, were united in 
L had the 
lire or a call Iroiu them nbile cu their 
I tour shortly after, but al that lime was 
are of the tuippy event. It lakes this 
tunity of extenutnij congratulations to 
and its fortunat« friends nouied above. 

— The painfnl intelligence reaches us of the 
'ifftih of W, H. Sbrawder. penman of th" 

renchiT. good comrade, and a i 
The JocbnaL. One of his late a<s<>c.aUs, 
F. Wildish. in a peraonal note to the Edit 
says ; " I was punonally aiss<iciBtcd w 
Prof. Shrawder for a >ear past, and know h 
to be a man of houe-<t "" " ' "' 

irrrtjhoiiij who knew 




ur^the Eri^uivhrd 
Journalist, Murnt Hal- 
stead, is an uduiirnble 

tbrep youog gentlemen would make a valuable 
man for a school in need of the services of a 
competent penman. 

- W. A. Rich, penman of Yadkin Coltege, 

(i.n. DavLLpiiit.ln.Hii.l H U . Benton, Con- 

— Photograph of nn elaborate ornamental 
pen design bos been received Irom W. J. This- 

dm B. v., Memi-bis. Tcuii.; f, W Sbi.un, 
Princeton. Ind.; Wm, Marker, Champaign, 
III, ; P. E. Holley. Wateibuiy. Conn.; h. Mc- 
C'Blvcy, Weaulleau, Mo. ; J. L. Williams, B.C., 
Hutchinson, Kan. 

Animals That Live Without Water. 

Mr. Blanford, in his bookon AbysHinia. 
says that neither the tlorcas nor Benett's 
gazelle (allied species) ever drink. Dar- 
win states in liis " Voyage of a Natural- 
ist" that unless the liuunardcs, or wild 
llamas of Patagonia, drink salt water, in 
many localities they must drink none at 
all. The large and interestinR gronp of 
slothe are alike in never drinking. A 
pitrrot is said to have lived in the Zoolog- 
ical Gardens. Regent's Park, for fifty-two 
years without a droit of water. 

It is often said thut rabbits in a wild 
state never drink. The late Rev. J. G. 
Wood doubted whether this idea was 
correct, and recorded the fact that they 
feed on the herbage when it is heavy with 
dew. and therefore practically drink when 
eating. In the autumn and winter, when 
sheep are feeding on turnips, they require 
little or no water. 

Hour to niake Kloner. 

I rend in your valuable pauer how WItllam 


of h" 

1.. r. , ., ,. . . ! , ,-,. itiucbmc thai 

<i I....I .il iiiLii. I... ckare<l$a). 
i d' » 'I'jjtijr )i liir^-f aiiinuiit o( platinir. I 
ted ihc machine i.y plntinic a braM rln^ In 
I minuU's. Any oi'Ocan mnko money selimir 
.■*e piiitei". or they can get all tl.ework they 
I do a d m^ke from SS) to 830 a week. Iu piur- 
n KOld._e.lyerj»r nickel. Every farm li u-.: 

profli by my u 

I visited bud 
I hopeolhirr 
have proQtedby Mi 



The Penman's Leisure Hour — Continuing The Journal's *' Galaxy of Flourishers " Series. 


t_yi'/iman^i Qyvt&dydu 



The Title aieetloa Acroee the Oceaa. 

The title " proftmor " tronbleo Cani- 
bridge men little ur not at all. " Mr." 
JK the favorit*; title at Harvard, aod even 
the Pr«*ident of the University \» nraally 
»>pokf-n (if 80 Mr.: that iw. when the i-peak- 
ers are not affe<'tinK sojihnmoric ways. 
Profe»*s«irs from small fresh-water alleges 
are moch snrpri»e<l at this al*ence of 
Itrof€««iiona] insirttence when they come 
for Bpecial study to the Univerrity. It is 
faid that " Doctor " particularly troubles 
EnKlish LL.D.8 wheit it is applied to 
them. Professor Freeman was very 
broMiiie to Americans who tried to call 
him "Doctor." Mr. Hnxleysays : -From 
the time I finit procured a nsiting card 
(a proud day even with a philosopher) it 
has borne ■ Mr. T. H. Huxley," but I have 
no objection to the ' Professor ;" the only 
thing I cannot stand is 'Doctor.'" An 
English comment ujion this in: "He is 
doubtlesB riKht about ' professor.' In 
Scotland it is still thought a good deal of. 
but in England it in too closely iwsociated 
with mii.ssage, ballooning, and patent 
ointments ; bnt that he shonM object to 
■Docrtor* strikes one as a little hard on 
the medical calling." It is particularly 
hard, a* Mr. Hnxley won some of his 
first honors as MD.— iS<w/oti Traiincript. 

r antuim hu mml- 

rte-|j|ufnr, iMttui ntui mintnkr* arr antiiUn hy utiU- 
itig atiti itamjitin/ Ihc rvfrftra rtaiiyfur nutSiinoaiui 
irrUUiQ the niiin-<U-idumf in a rrtmcr, thm in- 
' ctiminfj nuh K^iU/l rrlilk* In an rnrrbiiK tublroKtt 
tn The I'enman'ti Art JiMU-nat, SOS BrfOdwatl. 
A'«r l*or*. I'lwtiiifc mwt Ik ixnt U>r fimcanUng 
iiitaUiout*, ^etnj^ifien, VlvtU^pVflu^ .t-r . 




One Page of Good Literature Dally. 

One page of good literature a day. 
thcmghtfully read, must produce benefi- 
cial intellectual results, even though the 
reader find it difficult to recall at will the 
full thought of the author, orto reproduce 
a complete sentence in which that thought, 
or any part of it, was expressed. Of ( 
the results of one page a day will be 
*ly appreciable. One day's toil will 
build no temple. But seven days make a 
week, and four weeks make a month, and 
twelve months contain 86» days. One 
page a day will, therefore, grow in one 
year into a volume of 300 pages. One 
! read in ton years twelve stout vol- 
who in a decade reads, with 
interest and iiKiuiring attention, twelve 
columes, is no mean student : and if the 
reading in five minutes of ii single page 
should stimulate thought, that keeps 
hammering or digging or singing in the 
reader's brain during the day, when he is 
at work and his book is shut, at the end of 
ten years such a reader and thinker will 
desei-ve some reputation as a " scholar." 
He may be, in some sense, a master of 
twelve big books. And if they be the 
right books, no master of a large library 
can afford to overlook the claim upon his 
recognition of this man who reads well 
one page a day. -Our Youth. 

d other bnncbe*. Uest 

Moderate mlarj- ■ 

1HAVB bad n kocI . 
clnl ■.'>lu(;ntlon. witli n 
fng B prorcisiuii. and li 
tejicIiirigex|>(.Tieiic(>. ^|>< 
commerotal Inw and urti: 
fectly L'omtM'teiit ti> hm 

-I. Uest of 

c. a. A.. 


LI- I'L." c(i 

re Fk 






ii t«aclier 


and is 


.ART JoniTtAL. 

J^.T. ..ION „VM,.. 

d EiiKlish 
by Idiitf 
cIttvB n-f- 


FANTl-Dby competent and 
ing (catcher; specialties, peo- 
Heeplnv, but 'an ulso handle 

sptcialisl. \* • 

i :.!Rr, 

a departmei 
time to it, bu 

it, but could If ivqulrei) lead a bund at 
" r l>roncbcf». iipf>clm(fn3 




iDiT oDd buoklceepiDir. Address Ur. W. 

M. CAKPENTBR, Principal U. & S. CollesP. St. 





C*OK NILB At HKrent haivRlo. oDP-half in- 
" tt'M<«>t la onv of the original Itryiint ft 
.'^traliun business colleBC-s in one of the large 
fitlca, t'oniparativi'l)- no opposition. The twst 
cliy foraacLooIln iht* UulttHl St»tw. Over 000 
students last jcar. Half lutorcst wilt Iw sold 
to a mnn capable of manaeing the business de- 
purtmoutsfor flOOOcasli. Possession September 
1 or October 1 If rteslrwl. Have full cfiuiprnfliit 
new antique oak banks and ofllccs, ai type- 
writers. Over irau expended this summer to 
fl<lDK rooms up, Adilros* " II. ft S. COLLBGE." 

Gem City Business College 


The Gem City Business College Offers a Thorough Course 

In Bookkeeping. Penmanship. Actual Builneis P/acllet. 
Shorthand and Typearltlng. 
Illustrated catn^oinie u 


in our new Collene Edillce, which 
the largest and Unest bulkliiiti: evi 




The 1...-1 pla.i- to l.«-..nic ,1 Penman, an.i Teichtr. Mo.lern, Pra> ticil Mctlioas. Sensible. ProgrcsaiTe Theories. Superior, SkiiUiil 1 .nmen an,l ArtlsLs eiving entire tune to school and «ork. Six hours inslruciion daily. Class Diilh, Lectures and Inditid.lal Instruction 

1 ehoap. More upplicaliona tor Graduates than »e can till. Finest Penman's Supplies obtainable. Les...n3 bv Mail a decided success, iligl, class , 

Illy Illustrated Catalog, le, showing work of Graduates, etc., sent for 10 cents in silver <ir stamps, circul rs free. 

titled " Progress," 22 x 28, worth *100, mailed in tube, postpaid, for .50 cents, 
.ys: " I believe it was engraved from the finest specimen of Flourishing ever executed." 

.hort I 

Original Work. 
llrK.d board and 
b work done on 

IT" f-V<:'> 



An Old School in a New Location. 




1 Building. 366 


B3auti(Hl, healthy loontion. maarniflueDt buildinars. line efiiiipmenta (wate 

) Christian 

iru la ctiarseorftkiiled 
11-;11C1AL department 


G. WALT WALLACE. Principal. 
G. Walt Wallace is principal ol the depMrtment and makes u spcciulty of desiffiii 
iig and onmmeotiil work, with the principles ol de-ii^ninff and drawinir as the fou 
8 ably assisted by n. H. Lockwuod W. J. Ki^lej^hns plain penmaQship^and 

. Perkir 

Mrs. «. 

. Waili 
, Rrofenwlo 


We will pay the rnilrnart fare of all student; 
B present on the opening day of the FmII Terra. 

Fall Term Begins September, 1892. 

KlTli FOlt PAliTieULAHS. 

Catalogues and Circulars FREE. 

WM. M. CROAN. Pres't. or W. J. KINSLEY, Secy and Treas. 
Western ITorma.1 Oolleg©, 




Good posit ions arc always open for all that ure proQcioatiu pen drawing and text lettering, 
If you wish to become a pen artist. Neitrly all of the young pennen that are coraingso rapidly 
to the front have taken it or aie now pursuing it. Consists of 30 lessons covering every deuart- 
meut from a simple line lo a finlslicd pen portrait. Price %'i. 


dly the Ijest published. More alpbatiets and tinting than in all other courses in Testing 
*" ually adaijted to automatic shading. Marking, Doulile. Triple and Droad 

combined, ta equal 

plicltand u 

1 If ( 

1 and practical— instruction uu( 



These arc fine pointed, verv 
clastic and are specially adapted 
for professional use and orna 
mental penmanship. Writing 
masters and experts should not 
he without these pens. ..u 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co,, 

Work., cnn.rt,n,.v J. 26 John St..NewYorl(. 

E. r>. matth;e"ws. 

Lock Box 338, Cedar Rapldl, Iowa. 



A Thorough. Graded, Common Sense Sys- 
tem of PeDmansbip. coinprisiDg everything 
pertaining to Practical and OrnameDtal Writ- 
ing, Desi(;nefl fur Self-Instruction and for Use 
in Scho'iK-. Ainiitoiir nnd Professional Pen- 
men will l.e |.l.-,iv. d ivitli this book. One Hun- 
dreii I'(\;.'i-, -x/y <'■ Iv i iihIr-s, elegantly bound 
nnd I .(1 If 1 1 -1 I V I II 1 1 -t ] : I h 1 1 with photo-zinc 


Commercial College. Rockland. Malm 


the . 

. flourJEihed 
Two, diffeienT, 

\- of the PciimiiH'd LciUier 

One dollar will bring 
lUx U, suitably for nhnto-pnifrnvi 
$2 r will send you 

will be sent to any address for Sl.KB Addi 

L D. TETER, Davenport, la. 

Carp lowii Com. roll, 5-12 

r/T/y IV/(/BBF. 
y^ ^ /a/ TREMONT S T, 

\D ~-^^ BOSTON. MASS. ~^^ 


This new and elegant book presents 
the principles of Grahaill phonography 

It saves tinie and labor and prevents 
discouragement. Position taught from 

The simplicity of the rules and their 
freedom from exception insure higher 
speed and greater legibility. Number 
of word-signs greatly reduced. Large 
type, elegant paper, beautiful engraving. 
The cheapest and best text-book. Sent 
postpaid, securely wrapped, for $(.85. 

To teachers, with a view to intro- 
duction and privilege of returning. Si ,00. 

Bryant & Stratton FuliUBhlng Co., 



4 years the STANDARD. 


Send I 

- book containing alphabet, and 
rorks by Isaac Pitman, the Invi 
of Phonography. A discount of 40i< allowed 

loguc of works by Isaac Pitman, 

, ... _ _, ^ discount of 

■hers. Address : 


The Phonographic Depot. 3 East 1 4th SI.. New York. 

Take lessons at "The Metropolitan School of 
Isaac Piiiiiau shorthand and Typewriting," 85 
Filth Avenue. c«.rner 17th. vt.. New York 3-li' 


guichly I 

s and reliable. 

Circular. Machines rented 1 


Prive Rid\Ketdto%-l^. (11-13) 8l. I.outs, Mo. 


I A thousand years as a day. No arith- 

mcihod by E.C. ATKINSON. Principal of 
Sacramento Business College, Sacramento. 
Cal. Bv mail, so cents. Address as above. 


For $1 I will sell you six large 
bottles of the finest Glossy Black 
Ink in the world 

T. J. SHARPK, Aurora, 111. 

IKT of Penma 
Bale at The 

■ Supplies for 

#3SK^W A.«^I> ! 

his whereabouU. «< 

The Secret out! 


school employ 
bis country as tvou 
o and F. H. CriBer 

■.«„ i 

' Ufin,, 




I. W. PATTON, Rrln., 




Send me your name written In full, and 9S oent^ 
and I wUl aend you one dozen or more wayi ol 
writing It, with Initruotlons ; or send me a 3-oenl 
atamp, ajid I will send von addresaed In my own 
ti&nd. price list desorlptlve of Lessons by Hal 1, Bx- 
tendcn Movements. TraolDg Sxerolses, CapltaLs, 

P- S —No postal cards need apply. 



'wo distinct courses: (1.) For Pi-ofessioi 
amen. i2.) For Teachers of Drawing a 
iting in t^e Public Schools. An advant 
,iniDg schoot in Writing and Drawing and 
;iT possible branoh of pen wori, Roo 
ndsoraely equipped. Only uineicenth w 
-y methods used, resulting In a most tborou 
i practical couiae. VVr,te for Catalogue a 



'H/fict/'^>ia/Ofirc&. St. Louis, Mo. 

apted for Poultry. Vi'Ketables ami Fn 


•Fl^H <B^OOX>-S'Z:.A.X1. X^TT.^XiXS^XZO'Gt- OOahXZ'.A.SJ-S' 



(JUz/lyi^ U&iiAi^-2M^y {J7^.^y/ 


"Woleo publlsli'Bookk'^epVuB fti^rAciimi BiiMin«HB^>tilll'|B for ftillea* 


JS-gr^ ' ' /cnman^yCLTVitoJ^uznalP 

Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of them, make books which they try to palm off as superior to 
the originals. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater e.xtcnt, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

-W HIT ? 

Because it is the best text-book on the subject ever published, as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books preceding it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from it. 

What evidence is there that it is a standard work ? 

// has bten published 33 years without change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
the country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of All About Phonography, the 
hirgest and handsomest shorthand circular ever published. 


Author and Publisher, 

744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting 

744 Broadway, New York. 


Larfnvt like «etabUshment In the world. Fimt' 
oas becond-hand InstruaieiiUacbalf oewprices. 
Unprejudlcwl odvico Riven on all makes. Mft- 
i Bold on monthly payments. Any Instni- 
ijfflctuivd shipped, prtvilenre to examine. 
iN'JASPEClAI.TY. Wholesale oncea 
Illustrated Catolo^es Free. 
TYPEWRITES hi Broadway. New York. 
EEALHTJAETEE3, (aOWabashATe-.Cliicago. 

cloas Hecond-hand I 
chines sold 

C ^ \ 


mpblet of infor- 
, br the ertiiopof 
ZlrotmcV PhimiiffTopMe H*«AIv- that tells how to 
learn ihe art in thu sQortcst time. M'nt free by 
addieulntt D. L SaJTT-BHOWNE, 251 W. )4th 
Street. New York. *-tf 


Do NOT spPDfl a lifetime In iParninK the old 
SHAnKO. Pu>TTUl^ Fy'tcms, wiion fWRT-VF. 

XSetrolt, - . - 

HACK NlinBKRS of The JOURNAL con. 
tnlnmii .*irp. Hackard'a Complete l-essim! 
in Munpiin shorthand for salu- Price $1.75 pei 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 

The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 yeai-s' experience, author of "Aid to Graham," 
"Shorthand Copy-Book," &c.. President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
System in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unequaled in the history 
of shorthand teachers. T he publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than "Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully ])rinted and bound in cloth, will be sent 
by mail post-paid to any address on receipt of the price, $1.50. 



THE BURRO\\"S BROTHERS CO., Publishers. ,.,, 
23 to 27 Euclid Avenue. - Cleveland, Ohio. 

1 he lienn r itman System of i honography 


American oystem of Shorthand. 

To suprlT the infrPn.«iDff (Tcmond for etenoKraphers, »choiil» 
of rfoTihnrnan'l tyrewtninirhHV beer»«OiblteheA in various parts 

of ihecm ntry, (ind w ih few esceptione. all bU9ii>t.-ss ctillegts now 

that of Ben 

ouniry, and may be 
...."-Krtmrl Vrora the R. 
\r<uhtngton. D. CA. for the i 

Syst-m."— Krtmrl Vrora the Rrpnl of thr 

F. ,V«n'ftV. OHfrtal Rrp 


to learo PhonoirraphT now. T should irot 
ind other books, and follow them.— I>etinfo 
'. Senate (See Phonograptilc 

poflflrft-vtjMnV. IKII.) 

ba« siucc ISS.") htcn the sta^tliinl t- xt-book of shorthand irstruction in America. It 
li -s been twif c revised and re writ en (in 1800 and in 1885)— the hist time by n.nn 
Pitm'nand Jerome B. Howard in cnllahoratinn— and it is now more largely used in 
American schol^ of xhTthand, business coUeires. seminaries, academieg. public schools 
and CO hces, 'ban a''c all other «horthand text books combined. It has reached its 
27nih thousand and is now issued at the rate of over 25 000 copies a year. It contains 
144 duodecimo pages and rttails at f l.OO a copy, in cloth covers, or $.80 a copy in 

Jeroire B Howard, is thp only t.ssintial t- xt-book besides the Manual, and conducts 
the s-ud nt tn the bnefest stile of writing us^d by professional reporters, 12nio. 
187 p!;;cs. Price in clolh. #1.25; in boards, |1.00. 

B. Howard. Larfrc 8^o. 44 or more p^pes monthly, among which ar eight pages of 
bcfiu ifullv lithoeraph'd phni'etic shorthand. A periodical comolement to the text- 
boobs ard the authentic organ of the Benn Pitman sjstem of Phonography. Sub- 
scription price, 11.50 a year. Now in its sixth volume. Vols. I-V in cloth covers, 
$2 50 each. 

Send for complete catalog and specimen pages of all phonographic publications. 

A liberal discount will be made to all schools and to teachers 
of Phonosraphv. •^nd special prices will be quoted for introduc- 
tion and exchange. 





ExpoBltlon and SEPARATE BUILDINGS LjTllnEi, 

""AlaWwORLp'S FAIR ALBUM, coiitninihL^ 


engive scnes of fletianlltJ writtrn aivi/v, fresh from the pen, oa hea^-y. ^ 
iin si/x'. there lie\t\!i hftceu sheets packed in ii aubstantial case and sen 
', or one eeut postai^e stamps Address 

W. H. PATRICK, 643 N. Fulton Ave.. Baltin 




Better made. 

Runs easier, does 

Better Work, and 

More of it, than any other 

Constantly improved. 


IVycko^', Seamans & Benedict, 

337 Broadway, New York. 


learn Shorthand? 

I have applications conlinually for 
youDg men which 1 cannot fill. I could 
iiave l.cated two or three times as niitny 
young men the last year if I had the 

There is no better field for smart yining 
men than Shorthand Writing. Let it be 
a stepping stone for something higher. 

SPANISH taught by mail and person- 
silly. Spaniards t-mght Engli!*h. Bus- 
iness men furnished competent Sten- 
ographers without charge for 

OSWECO. N. Y. l-l 

Sr^^ ~'Jcnrnan^(27uXyOJvtouia/9 



GOLD MEDAL, PARIS exposition, 1889. 







Adapted foruse with or without Text-Book, 

and the only set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 




Favorable arrangomentB made v^th Bualness 
" - " ■ ■= nQd Private Sphoo!s for Intro- 

Descriptive List now readr. 

Colleges and Public and Pri 


Tue best Pen In the U.S., and best penmen use them. 


This Pen, known byttie above title, is manufac- 
tured of the best steol, autl c;irefully selected. They 
are parti<.'iiiarly adaiUfd for Public and Private 
SuliooU and Bookkeeper's use. Put up In Boxes, 
coutaiuing 80 Pens. S*^ut i'ost-pnid, on receipt of 


119 i 121 William St., N, Y. 



Commercial and Shorthand Schools! 




Good Writinc is Capital i 


Books that are the outgrowth of highly successful school methods, and Books that will 
be wanted where'/er the brst results in teaching shorthand and spelling are desired, 

The Niiw Praciical Shorthand Manual presents the Amcr can Pitman Sys'cm in an 
entirely new light by methods that have been tested for eight years in one of the most suc- 
cessful Shorthand Schriols in this country, and are now for the first time embodied in book form 
and offefed for general use. A Complete Shorthand Insiructor. containing more thvn foriy 
piges of beautifully engraved shorthand outlines ; gives a pciajary dnll in phonics ; insiruc- 
tions for beginners ; a series of carefully graded lessons and valuable review, and dictation 

148 Pages. Price, $1.25. Sample Copy to Teachers, 75 Cents. 

The New Practical Speller contains nearly words, embracing selections from 
every line of business, all carefully graded, and alphabetically amngcd for ready and con- 
venient reference. The best spelling book for Commercial and Shorthand Sc'-ools ever 

96 Pages. Price, 30 Cents. Sample Copy to Teachers, 20 Cents. 

special prices will be quoted to schools for ins.ruct'on or exchange. 






(Complctf edition.) 360 pages, octavo. Generally ac- 
cepted by commercial teachers as the standard book on 
this subject. Used in the leading business schools of the 
United States and Canada. Retail price, $1.50 Libera 
discounts to schools. 


(School edition.) 300 pages, i2mo. Containing the 
essential part of the complete'book. Retail price, $1.00. 
With proper discount to schools. 

3. Packard's New Manual of Bookkeeping 

and Correspondence. 

160 pages, octavo. A logical, simple and complete 
treatise on Bookkeeping, arranged for use in Business 
Colleges, and a most acceptable te.xt-book. Retail price. 
$1.00. With proper discounts. 

Any one of these Books sent to teachers for examination 
at one-half retail price. 

S. S. PACKARD, P ublisher, 
101 East 23(1 Street, New York. 



pondeoof " to iht- uutlior, J. M. MEH IN. Des 





to A. McLees, Engraver of Speoceriaa Copy Bocks.) 

Copy-lines on steel, copper or zinc for photo- 
engraving. Engraving flourished signatures 
on steel for penmen a specialty. Correspond- 
ence solicited. " '•^ 

Typewriting by Touch. 



Typewriter Opcralors 

E. E. CHILDS. Childs' Business College, Springfield, Mass. 

c/e/imoA^ Q^^iit dJciLZna/^ 


U/illia/T)8 9 l^0(5ers' ^ommergal Pijblieatio95 


IA« Bit 

4daplel to geho 

or fill 











;ed), complete edition, - $1.00 

PEN-WRITTEN COPIES (Reproduced), abridged edition. 


BuslnesH Practice for Commercial School*, Blank Books, BuiinesH Forms, College Ctirrenci/, Commerc 
and Shorthand Diplomas and other Comni'ircial Srhtol Supplies, 

prices, introductioo rates, and one thousand teslimonials, sent free to teachers o.. application. Address 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Publishers, Rochester, N. Y 


IGHWATER MARK of the penmakers art. 


Spcllilli; aud Letter-Writilljf :— 204 pa^es. Price. $i.oo. Sample. 
teachers. 50 cents. A handsome and popular book. 15,000 sold. Typowritlll 
Iu.striiclor and Stciiogrrapher's Haiid-Book, 96 pages, two c lors, *i ' 
Sample to teachers, 65 cents Specimen pages of either boolc free. 

IN PREPARATION:— PlalQ Ellglltill, a practical work on languac 
SllOrtliand, a model phonographic text-book. Coillinercial Law, a compic 
treatise on business law and leRat forms Bookkeeping:, a book giving mode 
forms and methods, illustrated with elegant script. Write for full information 
the publishers, 



9-^ ^^^^t&^^/i'i^g^ 


FELIX CAMP, Manager 



^ -^z 

'^ -^.S=^ 



■■'■' "'■'-''■' " 

cber. "^""J "^;«J_^J^° ^ 

OER, P. U. Box na.), l-htlrideliiblu. Pb. 

PAYS THE FARE for all students 
who take a course in any of the Col- 
legta belonging to the Caton Syateni ; 
it iDatters not what the distance may 
be. Thorough Departments of IJusi- 
nc89, Shorthand, Penmanehip, En- 
glish Training, Elocution. Mechanical 
and Architectural Drawing in each 
School. For a Course of Study, 
Ability of instructors and Systematic Management these Schools have no superior, if 
an equal, in America. Send fJ cts. in stamps for an Sfl-page Illustrated Catalogue, 
a 12-page College .lournal and other circulars, 


Address RI. J. CATON, Prea-, Clevelsixl. O. 

,..^ipcmuSHED MONTHLY AT£02DK0flDW/\Y.N,Y:*lflYEAfV.-ENT£REDrtTN.YR0.;^5EC0HD<LJ\55MATrEK-C0PYWGHT. 139^^ 


Vol. 16. No. 10. 

Schools for Teaching Business— An 
English View. 

We find the following in onr bright 
London contemporary. The Coimtivg 
House, for September: 
To tJie Editor of the Count htg House: 

Sir.— In yonr July issue there isa brief 
but suggestive paragraph entitled '-A 
Striking Contrast," which directs atten- 
tion to a state of things of which commer- 
cial men of this country have reason to 
be ashamed. The present commercial 
supremacy of Great Britain is generally 
admitted, which is some satisfaction to 
national pride ; but that satisfaction is 
considerably discounted by the revelation 
that, until very recently, there has been a 
very inadequate system of commercial 
insti-uction. "With regard to tiie means 
provided for commercial tuition, Great 
Britain seems to he at the bottom of the 
list among mercantile nations. 

In this country the education of our 
youth for mercantile affairs has hitherto 
been conducted in an unpractical and fit- 
ful manner. For example, any unqualified 
pedagogue or self-styled bookkeeper, or 
uncertificated accountant, may start a 
class or school, and dignify it with the 
title of " Commercial College," '■ Mercan- 
tile Institute," or other such high-sound- 
ing name. There are some of these so- 
called " colleges " even in the metropolis, 
where students are under the delusion 
that they are receiving what is described 
as a "thorough commercial education," 
although the course may be limited to a 
few months. 

If we Inquire as to what our most active 
national competitors are doing to secure 
practical commercial training, our eyes 
are soon opened to the conviction that we 
are a long distance behind. One reason 
for such an unsatisfactory state of things 
is that British merchants appear to be 
so much absorbed in earning wealth and 
enjoying it as to have neither time nor 
inclination to devote to the consideration 
of systematic commercial instruction for 
the benefit of the rising generation. Here, 
in the metropolis of the leading commer- 
cial nation of the world.can any one name 
an institution worthy of the title devoted 
solely to systematic and thorough train- 
ing in all commercial branches? There is 
perhaps not one which can be compared 
with the ordinary mercantile school in 
France. Germany or America. 

As evidence of the way in which com- 
mei'cial education receives encourage- 
ment in France, official gi-ants and sub- 
sidies are made for the purpose ; prizes are 
also offered by French societies for special 
knowledge in commercial subjects. The 
leading commercial institute of Paris, 
•■ L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commer- 
ciales," is imitated by many smaller but 
most useful examples of the *' Ecole 
pratique de commerce," all doing excellent 
work in training youth for mercantile 
life. In Germany the mercantile schools 
are numerous, some having been in exist- 
ence for 50 years. The result is that Ger- 
mans are thoroughly equipped- in foreign 
languages and commercial science. In 
Am<.*rica special attention has been given 
for many years to efficient instruction 
necessary to make good men of business, 
traders, merchants and commercial trav- 
elers. Ill the United States alone " Busi- 
ness Colleges" may be counted by hun- 
dreds, the first being started some 30 years 


since. The practical resultis that Ameri- 
cans are far ahead of the British in the 
attributes that build up capable and pro- 

jmmercial men. 

! but a few years ago that a cer- 
tain section of the mercantile community 
in this country suddenly woke up to real- 
ize that there was something deficient in 
our means and methods of commercial in- 
struction. One outcome of this was the 
scheme of commercial education promoted 
by the London Chamber of Commerce. 
The junior examinations under this scheme 

Old-Trme Writing Materials. 

Some persons are of the opinion that 
the first writing was upon thin pieces of 
wood. From their convenience this 
seems probable. Such boards were used 
at an early period by the Greeks and 
Romans, and were frequently covered 
with wax. which was. of course, more 
easily written upon than the bare wood. 
Where was was used errors were readily 
erased by rubbing with the blunt end of 
the piece of metal which served for a pen. 
To make the writing more Wsible it ap- 

r C. P. Zaner, nivstratir 

have been held for the past three years in 
succession, but for some reason the senior 
examinations have not yet been started. 
It is still an open question whether the 
scheme referred to will make any head- 
way until there are efficient institutions 
provided for a specific course of training, 
undertaken by competent men, having 
practical knowledge of the commercial 
branches they profess to teach. London 
ought long ago to have had a teaching 
commercial university, which has been 
advocated by a few leading minds inter- 
ested in the matter, but as yet without 
any prospect of success. 

There is undoubtedly need for the com- 
mercial community in this country to 
wake up and make more effective exer- 
tions than have been made in the past to 
advance the cause of thorough commer- 
cial education. We cannot expect to 
maintain our position in the mercantile 
world unless our means and methods of 
commercial instruction are as practical 
and thorough as those of our national 
rivals, CAi,ciiL.\Toit. 

AuKUst, 1892. 

pears that some black substance was 
smeared over the surface of the white 
wax and remained in the scratched 
marks.— Sr. 

Statesmen Who Object to Verbatim Reports. 

In the English House of Commons re- 
cently Henry Lnbouchere. speaking of the 
qualifications of shorthand reporters, said 
that members in that House wanted re- 
porters who could put the reports of their 
speeches into decent English. It often 
happened that in the hurry of debate their 
nominatives and verbs were a little dis- 
connected because theirproceedingsoften 
partook, to a certain extent, of a con- 
versational character, and he was afraid 
that there were scarcely half-a-dozen 
speakers in that House whose speeches 
would bear being reported verbafhn. In 
view of that fact, it was necessary that 
very superior reporters should be engaged 
in performing this wotU.— Shorthand Ue- 

Business Coriege Exhibit at the 
World's Fair. 

Editor Penman's Art Journ-al: 

Sir.— I desire through your columns to 
answer various queries that come to me 
touching the proposed Business College 
Exhibit at the WmM-s F.iii . 

The plan of -■.xUii.u win, i, was pre- 
sented in my pap. r l„ I tli,- Business 

Educators' As-snoatlnn at Saratoga has 
already been published in Thk Journal, 
and need not here be repeated. 

Upon the reading of that paper, 
supplemented by remarks of approval 
from Dr. Peabody, chief of the De- 
partment of Liberal Arts, and Dr. 
Bonuey, president of the World's Con- 
gress Auxiliary, a Committee of Fif- 
teen on the Worid's Fair Exhibit was 
appointed, with power to act, consist- 
ing of the following : S. S. Packard. 
New York, chairman ; R. C. Spencer, 
Milwaukee ; George Soul^, New Or- 
leans ; Geo. W.Brown. Jacksonville; 
C. C. Gaines, Ponghkeepsie ; L. L. 
Williams. Rochester ; W. H. Sadler, 
Baltimore: O. M. Powers, Chicago; 
R. E. Gallagher. Hamilton. Out.: C. 
C. Curtiss, Minneapolis; H.T. Loomis, 
Cleveland ; A. D. Wilt. Dayton ; Mrs.' 
Sara A. Spencer, Washington ; G. W. 
Elliott, Burlington, Iowa. 

At the first meeting Mr, G. W. 
Brown was appointed secretary, and 
at a subsequent meeting the following 
committees were created, the mem- 
bers thereof being appointed by the 

Finance.— Wilt. Curtiss, Loomis. 
ExaiBiT. — Sonl^,* Gaines, Galla- 
gher, Powers and Williams. 

EQUipaiENT.— Bryant, Elliott, Cur- 
tiss, Browni, Spencer. 

Publication.— Brown, Mrs. Spen- 
cer, Sadler. 

Executive CoarMiTTEB.— Packard, 
Wilt. Powers,* Bryant, Brown. 

At the first meeting of the General 
Committee the form of exhibit was 
very thoroughly discussed, a majcrity 
of the members expressing grave 
doubts as to the feasibiltity of what 
was designated the " live exhibit." It 
was voted, however— three members 
dissenting — that "the committee fa- 
vor the live exhibit if, on thorough 
examination, it be found feasible." At 
a subsequent meeting of the committee 
it was voted to abandon the live exhibit ; 
which vote was subsequently rescinded, 
leaving the matter in the hands of the 
Executive Committee. 

The rescinding of the vote to abandon 
was occasioned by a desire to meet as 
fairly as possible the constructive pledges 
of the preliminary committee in their 
effort to secure space for the exhibit. 
The plan of the " active" exhibit, as it 
was subsequently called, had the hearty 
approval of Dr. Peabody and Dr. Bonney, 
who have in charge the department of 
Liberal Arts and the World's Congress 
Auxiliary; and to Dr. Peabody in par- 
ticular — who has the awarding o^pace 
for educational exhibits — there was a 
charm in the plan suggested of business 
houses in operation. with a bank complete 
* At themeetlugof tile Kxecutive Committee 


: ^ Cyen/fiOAS Q^Tu^t oJcwtna/o 

in its funrtioDB, and a burean of corre- 
Bpondence connecting the daily transat- 
tions with the «M>peralinK Bch'«>ls. all 
being w/ndncted by undergradontw*. 
It Beemed to solve the problem. How 

the facts as they now exist before the col- 
leges, with a view to getting as soon as 
ix«8ible such a consensns of opinion as 
will enable the committee to go forward, 
if such is the desire, secnre the space 

An Open Letter to Bill Nye. 

This is from the I'hunoijniphic WorUl 

Bhall we ii/ioir ) 

flo afl to arreet the attention of the Wsitor 
intereeted in unch matters and lead to 
infiuiry and investigation? For, ahide 
from the kindergarten and mannal 
training eihibita there had seemed to 
be little opportunity to show pupils at 
work, or to give an alequate idea of 
what the schools were accomplishing. 

At a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee, held in Chicago. August 3. the 
following communication waa received 
from Dr. Peabody in answer to inquiries 
made by the chairman : 

CutCAdO, August *i, ISiK. 
rro/, S. S. fachard : 

Deab Sib.— I Iblnk I fully underaland the 
Hitualion in «hieh you are placed, and 1 iibnll 
bo happy to aid in relieving itK difllcultien. 

Ah y<iu are aware, I bnve frum the outset 
favored a collective erbibit Ulu«rating the 
i>s)«Dtml elements of buaineiiB education. To 
a'-complii>h thlx colUctive exhibit rightly, there 
Khould be a subordination ot individual int*r- 
i>Ht« to the general iidvttntflge,aEd this courfec 
Mill, I believe, in turn promote individual iu- 
terests in the fullest measure. But it dues not 
njniear that all are, or can be, convinced of 
thin fact. 

A " live " exhibit will be uuique, novel, oud 
in the highest degree impressive. AMuniiug 
that there Is enough of agreemeut, enough of 
mouuy and enough of wjlllngnebs lo work, the 
lettult nioy be a Brand success. If well done, 
it i» the bf»t thing that can bo done. Some of 
these conditions can be determined only by 

I am now dis|iow.>d tn tbink that Ibe exhibit 
of this interest will bo best made in two sec- 
tions or iu two phases: The one a still exhibit, 
iu which those who desire may display the 
Uhual material that con bo sent for this pur- 
Iit)se. The space must be limited and the ex- 
hibits concise, and each institution must care 
for its own, either directly or through a com- 
mon representntive. The other, an active ex- 
hibit, iu which as many institutions as may 
agree to join may carry out a plan based upon 
that presented by yourself to your nsnociatiou 
at Saratoga, with buch modlllcations as the 
progress of the work may mdicato to be neces- 
sary. My Hrst thought would be that the 
agreeing institutions should form their own 
orgauitatioQ for this puri>ose, in order to 
eliminate any inharmonious or conBicting ele- 
ments. But a new aggregatiou would take 
time which cannot now be spared, and it may 
be that the eomnnttce organize<l at Saratoga 
hBH enough of cohe^iou and agreement to ac- 
complish the end. It so, no belter arrange- 
ment can be deeirod. 

But if there are ten colleges whtcb go Into 
this enterprise let thorn unite, working to- 
gether as a unit, and if the eleventh does not 
wish to join heartily and zealously, let it stay 
out, and either take its place in the still ex- 
hibit or retire oltogether. 

All intiTested in either form may lie assured 
that the chief of the department has no wish 
in the matter other than that this interest may 
pi<esent itwlf before the world iu the best pos- 
sible form, and that he will lend any aid in bis 
|)oner to the realisation of such a purpose. 

Thuuking you heartily fur your many ex- 
prtMsious of contldenco and esleeai, which I 
fully appreciate, 1 am ever siucorely yours. 
Relih H. PKABOnV. 

Chief Deptirtmeut Lilwral Arts. 
The propositions of this letter were 
fully discusited in committee, and a con- 
ference of some hours was held with Dr. 
Peabody, the result of which was that the 
plan here so plainly set forth was adopted 

f edncation permit the exhibitors to get at the work for September 

of prepaiatioD at the earliest moment 

The space for which the committee has 
asked is 2000 square feet of floor, with the 
wall space which this would permit. The 
plan, as presented tothe department, con- 
templates a measurement of in4>;C feet on 
the main aisle by 19 feet in depth— the 
active exhibit, including space for stenog- 
raphers, to take ."54^^ feet, and the still 
exhibit, .■)0 feet. Although the double ex- 
hibit has one general presentment to the 
public from the ontside. both in its con- 
formation and the signs which call atten- 
tion to it. it is yet separated into two 
sections na suggested by Dr. Pealwdy— 
the active exhibit occnpying one section, 
and the still exhibit the other, with a 
connecting eimce for stenographers and 
special clerks, and serving also as the 
oflSce of administration. The active ex- 
hibit will contain the business offices and 
the bank, with an attractive front of panel- 
ing, plate glass and open brass railing, 
giving ample space for twenty clerks or 
more, who will be seen at their work 
from the outside. Tlieae offices, under 
certain restrictions, will be open to visit- 
ors, who will have the privilege of in- 
specting the work. The still exhibit will 
contain attractive cases for the display of 
students' work, each case being devoted 
to the work of a single school, and so 
designated. Opportunity will be given 
here for such competition as comes by 
comparison : and especially for exhibiting 
specimens of practical writing on busi- 
ness books, in forms of various kinds, and 
in copy lines. Also, any peculiarities of 
the schools as shown in published courses 
of study, school literature, text books, 
etc. In fact, every school is expected 
within the limits given to put its "best 
foot foremost." and whatever accessories 
are necessary to this end will be aflEorded. 
The detailed plan of these exhibits by 
drawings and illustrations is in process of 
preparation, and will be ready to mail to 
applicants by November 1. At the same 
time a statement of the full work of the 
committee, with an estimate of the cost 
of equipment, superintendence and other 
expenses, will be ready, together with the 
cost to, and requirements of, exhibitors. 

Meanwhile it will atford to the under- 
signed the greatest pleasure to receive 
suggestions or inquiries from those who 
desire to participate in the exhibit. 

The question which comes to us who 
have chosen this field of labor and who 
care for its usefnlnei-s and standing is, 
Can we afford to stand aloof from the ef- 
forts which tlie country is making to 
show its progress in .irt. in manufactures, 
in science, in education and in general in- 
telligence during the past 400 years? 
Can we who stand for a specmlty in educa- 
tion permit all other educational special- 
ties to be exhibited under the best condi- 
tions, while we, who have within our 
means the most attractive form of exhibi- 
tion, refrain from using the opportunities 
that have thus providentially come to our 
hands ? 

As American citizens even, having the 
common intei-ests and honor of our coun- 
ti-y at heart, and being intrusted with 

Dayton, Ohio. August IS. 1893. 
Dear Mr. Nvb; 

I was glad to read in the Phonographic 
World for August that yon had purchased 
a typewriter. Not that I thought you 
couldn't afford it. E.lgar. for I was just 
on the point of twrrowing a couple of 
hundred from yon, but refrained. I am 
glad now that I refrained, and thus en- 
abled yon to join the rank of typists. 
The thrill of plejisnre I experienced at 
finding you there is probably a more sat- 
isfactory thrill than your reply to my re- 
quest would have incited. If it was not 
for my short hand. I would extend it to 
you in fraternal welcome. No doubt you 
will also become a short-hand man shortly : 
and when you, too, are crippled in that 
way we can extend each his short hand 
in mutual recognition, and fall on each 
other's necks, and weep out our sympa- 
thies with impunity. If I can borrow 
your handkerchief, I will also use that. 

The World kindly suggests that wo all 
remember you with some useful present 
and a word of welcome and encourage- 
ment. I send congratulations. They will 
come by express, C. O. D.. in a small, 
pale blue package. I send these because 
you have, no doubt, received them before, 
and can use them readily without direc- 
tions. And the expressage on them will 
be less, anyhow. 

I suppose you have your book of direc- 
tions bv this time, but will venture a few 
general suggestions, which really do not 
amount to anything, and for which I will 
make no charge. 

First, Edgar, never let your machine 
sit iu a draught long without a cover, as 
it is liable to catch cold— and dust. How- 
ever, this caution is unnecessary, as I 
note you have promptly remitted to cover 
your draft. (A full set of directions will 
be sent with this joke, if required.) 

Do not allow the children to carve out 
name.'* for themselves on your machine, 
Edgar, for tliey will also be carving out 
an untimely grave for your beloved Kem- 
ingtou at the same time. Let them reach 
dizzy heights of eminence and affluence 
by other means, the game as yon and I 
have done. 

And when you write, Mr. Nye, do not 
use the persuasive touch of the gentle 
but firm pile driver. It is unnecessary. 
The light, ehistic touch you would use in 
borrowing one's watch will insure far 
better results. 

Your machine need not be served in oil, 
Edgar, to make it appetizing— it isn't 
olives. However, to keep it healthy, it 
should have a nice bath every morning, 
and its teeth well brushed ; and every 
month yon might give it a Turkish bath, 
a new ribbon, and any other knick-knacks 
you may be able to afford. This will re- 
turn the bloom of youth to its cheek.* 

graphic World, Edgar, to be a successful 

And lastly, Edgar, do not let sonlid 
people disc<»uragc you by pointing with 
warning finger to the gr^at numlier ot 
women in the jirofession, and tothe many 
annoying expenses connected with rapid 
work, such ILK the hiring of small boys to 
throw ice water on the )iaper to keep it 
from igniting. You will not find this 
necessary for a long time, and as you 
have been married some time yon will no 
doubt be able to cope with the women. 
So keep bravely at it. Edgar, and you 
will some time accomplish something, 

And in closing, let me recall (slightly 
modified) those humble but graphic hnes 
of the poet, Mr. Creelman. wnicu fiiint ap- 
peared iu the Fliomtgniphic iroWd alM>ut 
two years ago : 
'■ Si»ll. William, spell with care. 
Spell when you punch the lyi»ewrilain 
Don't striki' the 'o'fnr the'l* lettaif. 
Ncir imnch the 'q' for the mark cl<'lli»n. . 
Nor the lower-case ■ « ' for the eUx-tiiuv 
And bctweeu the 'x' and the ' v' be^an- 
, spell with c 

In doing thi: 
on your fingi 
fame endea' 
imbued witi 



Spell. Willis 

Sjwll when you write on the typew 
Always place the right flORaire 
Upon the proper chaructairc, 
And you will print a eleau lettaire. 
Fit for the eyes of the diclatairw. 
Spell. WlUiom. spell with care. 
Spell when you handle the ty|)ewritit 
bet your touch bo even every when- 
Upon the bonrd of your typewritaire 
So that the inipre«8ioD of «ach lettun 
Will be just like its next ueigbbaire. 
Strike, Ediiar. sirike with earo, 
Strike on the keys of the Typewritaii' 
Yours truly, 

Snobbery in Shorthand. 

The entire social structure is so per- 
meated with snobbery that it would be 
strange if the shorthand profession es- 
caped it. That it has not is evidenced 
by occasional articles and items which 
creep into shorthand periodicals. 

Glancing over a file of Frank Harri- 
son's Shorthand Magazine, we chanced to 
notice an article entitled " That Smirk;" 
we read it, and we haven't recovered 
from the nausea of it yet. "Timt Smirk" 
is doubtless the most aggravated case of 
snobbery it has ever been our misfortune 
to be behold. 

As the story goes, an old time expert 
reporter, Mr. Ashamed of Himself, was 
introduced to a gentleman. Mr. So-and- 
So. and it chanced to be mentioned that 
the former wa« a stenographer by profes- 
sion. "Yes," says he, "I have That 

The writer takes this for a text and pro- 
ceeds to dilate upon the high e.'-te em in 
which the shorthand writer of the old 
time was held, to the dis*i.;nag.meut of 
the present, claiming that the introduc- 
tion of the amateur into the shorthand 
field has attached odium to the profession. 
To show the utter falsity of this deduc- 
tion, we have only to cite the fact that 
shorthand occupies a higher place in the 
estimation of the community to-day than 
ever before; that it is now regarded, and 
justly so, as one of the greatest labor-sav- 
ing devices of the century, and that it 
will continue to grow in popularity until 
it becomes one of the essentials of an En- 
glish education. 

From the tone of the article, one would 
naturally infer that th*» cnniplniimnt ex- 
pects tu d.iivi- rt-spctiiliilitv from his 

ule of action, and the committees grave responsibilities touching those i 

on Exhibits and Equipment at < 
coeded to prepare a plan for the di- 
vision of sp,tce, and elevations of desks 
and fittings, with estimate of the cost 
thereof, in order that the whole matter 
might, as soon as possible, be laid before 
the colleges for consideration. The com- 
mittees have acted with what speed they 
could ; a plan of the floor division has 
been presented to Dr. Peabody. and speci- 
ficatioiW for desks and fittings are in the 
hands of the committee. It has required 
lime and lalwr to accomplish this, and it 
will require still more to settle the matter 
of detail and cost so a^ to present a clear 
final statement. 
It is proposed, meanwhile, to preeeot 

e Morgan's Sapoli( 

prove irkso 

Another wayi 
which ■ 

you would prefer this pla 
are a patient, persevering man, I didn't 
think you would. I wasn't paid for say- 
ing this. Mr. Nye, but, if you should 
happen to .see Mr. Morgan, "you mi^ht 
tell uim I said it, aud also that I am will- 
ing to repsat the recommendation at 


terests and that honor, have we the right 
to withhold our hands from the plain 
duties which are before us? 

As already stated, my object in pre- 
senting these facts is to know who among 
our commercial teachers care to be repre- 
sented at the Worid's Fair. The proba- 
bilities are that there will be more than a — „ . . 
sufficient number of applicants to fill the reasonable price per i 
places which can be set apart, especially forget this, and I will do as much for you 
as the department find it impossible to some day. 

grant space for exhibits of commercial I think I will first send thisletter tothe 
school work outside of the space which I editors of the Phonographic World, and 
have designated. It will be quite neces- they can send you a marked copy of the 
sary. therefore, that the names of exhib- World for your reply. In this way the 
itors be on the list before the first day of journal should not cost you anything, and 
January next. S. S. Packard, ' if you will be diligent in your replies you 
Chairman of General Committee, 101 can thus keep up your subscription in- 
East Twenty-third street, New York, definitely. Yoxx mast take the Phono- 

\ wiping 
them on your nmiuiscniit. it will thus 
absorb a large portion of the ink, and 
then you will merely have to remove it 
from the manuscript. This has been 
tried by thousands of stenographers, and 
always with success. Another good way 
is by meansof a buzz-saw. I have known 
the most obstinate cases of ink stains, tar, 
etc., to be removed in this way. After 
one application of the buzz-saw they en- 
tirely disappear. If you haven't a buzz- 
saw handy, the best thing to do is to let 
it wear off. This ^vill take two or three 

days, and as you will get it on fresh every ^ _ . ^ . 

morning, the dull monotony of life will Juurnal\ will throw a halo of responsi- 
be thus relieved, which might otherwise bility abinit his calling and command 

t^> em 
We nv 



whether he be a laborer, 
follower of a profession 
Mouth'tj Steiuigrapher. 

i:I.e to bi 

ceived for plutlnir !•« nenrljr all profl 
work is very nioe. Every pi^rson has i 
or nickel platlnv to do. and I hope to 
tie store soon. If any of your boy re 
beoeStby myexperleace In startiri); I 
I shall be very glad. Jambs As 

(lye/ima/i^ QytttOJvu^inxcaP 

Initials and End Pieces. 


■utll 11I 

CENERY is a branch 

/^"' -^ rarely toxiched by 

,,") the average peu- 

man. I doubt not 

=— but that it is be- 

~ cjiuse mechanical. 

symmetrical ami 

.f but little use in thifi 


In fact they are just what are not 
needed, but instead short, broken aiid 
detached strokes are those best suited to 
foliage and rocky surfaces. 

Then, too. it requires a good knowledge 
of light and shade, aerial and linear per- 

Five of the drawings herewith [see 
illustrations on the front page] are 
wrought somewhat in detail, while four 
are but outline sketches, the main elfort 
in which was to produce the most in the 
fewest lines possible. 

Notice the vast difference in the clouds 
and water ; they are but suggestions as 
to 'the various shapes in which clonds and 
waves are formed. 


This closes this senes of lesiions They 
have been constructed ha.'-tih — not with 

There is no such word as "'wended;" 
the past of " wend" is "went." A man 
cannot be said to have wended his way. 
fle either went his way or he has went his 

"Likewise'' is often erroneously used 
for "also;" Ukewiae couples actions or 
states of being ; ntso classes together 
things or qualities. 

" Commence " should not be used when 
■' begin " can be instead. 

"Transpire" is never a synonym of 

" Weary " is a transitive verb only : it 
is, therefore, highly improper tosay " One 
wearies of life." 

Do not use " in our midst" when you 
mean " in the midst of us." 

Do not use ' ■ anyhow " when you mean 
" anyway." 

Be exceedingly careful in placing that 
small but potent word "only." Nine 
times out of ten it is misplaced. 

Do not confound " evidence" with 

Never use "above" as an adjective. 
" The above extract" is a barbarism. Nor 
should you ever use " then " as an adject- 
ive— c ff.. " the then king " — awful ! 

Do not confound "try" with "make." 
You make — not try — an experiment. 

A common error is the use of " excess- 
ively " when ' ' exceedingly " is intended. 

Do not confound ne\er and ever 
nevei is an adverb of time ever 
may be an adverb ot degree 

out thought, however. It has been my 
endeavor to say something each lesson 
which would prove of benefit to young 
workers; us to how well I have succeeded, 
perhaps DO one can tell. 

Comment and CritieiBtn. 

Mr. BlstoD of Missouri sends si-cnic aud rosy 
desigus which indicate first efforts fairly 
directed. The "blacks" and "whites" in 
druwing of scenery are too opposite and de- 
tached. The rose has too many thorns repre- 

" Nature's Tenants," reveals no small amount 
of observation and study. The effect would 
be heightened were the tree in the foreground 
some dai ker aud a trifle rougher. October js 

The Right Word in the Right Place. 

There are now, we think, 120,000 words 
in the EugHsh language ; the possibilities 
in the use of synonj-ms are remarkable, 
and we should say that to the study of 
synonyms the young writer should apply 
himself dilisently. To the newspaper 
writers we are looking with solicitude 
and hope, for the reason that outside of 
the columns of the press our literature 
does not appear to be making any prog- 
ress at aU. Our literature of the press 
is, on the other hand, constantly improv- 
ing, and in the last ten years that im- 
provement has been marked. Still there 
is a chauce of improvement, and it occurs 
to us that the besetting sin of our news- 
paper writers at this time is a devotion to 
absurdiams— for example, the too com- 
mon usage of that negroism "like "for 
"as if;" "It looks like it was going to 
rain." This absurdity runs riot in print 
south of Mason and Dixon's line, and has 
crept across the line here in the West to 
shock us with a sporadic appearance in 
our diurnal publications. 

The sun " sets" and a hen " sits." 

A " proposal " and a " proposition " are 
different things. 

Be careful not to confound "allude" 
with " refer " or " advert." 

"So" is an adverb of dcjfree and " such " 
is an adjective of kind. 

Webster justifies the use of " than" as 
a preposition — "Than whom no better 
man lives." Webster means well enough. 

There is no such word as " jeopardize; " 
the word is " jeopard." 

"Lurid" means ghastly pale, gloomy, 
or dismal. 

' ' Restive " must not be confounded with 

"Indices" are algebraic signs; "in- 
dexes" are tables of contents. 

Never say " in this connection " when 
you mean " in connection with this." 

That is comj)lete which has all its parts; 
eyitire which has not been divided ; whole 
from which nothing has been taken. 
Total refers to the aggregate of the pans. 

"With" denotes an instrument and 
"by"acau8e. He killed w^if/^ a sword ; he 
died bi/ an arrow. 

Never separate parts of the intinitive ; 
example ; " He promised to speedily com- 

Do not suffer Mr. Addison or anybody 
else to bluff you out of the use of that 
noble word " that." 

Never use, except in a humorous way, 
those hackneyed and htmry words 

of which notorious specimens are : "Light 
fantastic toe," "mine host," "his good 
lady." "beautiful and •accomplished." 
"wee sma' hours," "groaned with the 
delicacies of the season," " speckled beau- 
ties." " dull, sickening thud," and " re- 
cfu-rdie."—By Eugene Field, in The Chi- 
rago iSVtM. 

The Late Richard Esterbrook, Jr., of Steel 
Pen Fame. 

Many a muu in middle life will feel a 
twinge at his heart as he reads that on 
August 6 Richard Esterbrook, Jr., passed 
away. The loss will be like that of an 
old friend. The picture we present on 
the opposite page is eo life-like that it 
seems to speak, and as the older members 
of the trade, and even those of the 
younger generation, who used to call at 
26 John street, look at the well-remem- 
bered features they will recall the hearty 
grasp of the baud and the winsome, whole- 
souled voice which always met them. No 
friend ever left his presence but with 
pleasant thoughts; and yet this man, then 
in the prime of life, had done the work 
of two ordinary men. 

That he did not break down under the 
load and become a physical wreck from 
his immense labors was due to a sturdy 
frame, aa indomitable spirit and that 
happy faculty, so few possess, of throwing 
off care and responsibilities, of leaving at 
the store all troubles wheu the door was 

Bom in Liskeard, Cornwall, England, 
in 1836 of old Quaker stock, he received 
a solid English education, supplemented 
in later years by a wide course of read- 
ing He came to this country in 1860 
with his father, and established at Cam- 
len N J , the firm of R. Esterbrook & 
Co for the manufacture of steel pens. 
Richdid Esterbrook. Jr.. took a prominent 
ind active part in the business. He was 
the one with whom the trade generally 
came in contact. He was then in the full 
flush of young manhood, full of pluck 
md perseverance, fertile of resource and 
ever rising to the demands upon liim. — 
Geyer's Stationer. 

The Columbus Anniversary. 
The World's Fair buildings will be 
dedicated on the 21st of this mouth in- 
stead of the 12th, Cougress having passed 
a bill to that effect. October 21 is the 
exact anniversary of Columbus' landing, 
allowance being made for the correction 
in the calendar made by Pope Gregory. 
The change of date of dedication was 
made in the interest of chronological ac- 
curacy, and also to oblige New York 
City, which will have a Columbian cele- 
bration on the 12th inst. One of the first, 
if not the first, to direct public attention 
to the fact that October 21 is the correct 
anniversary of the discovery of America 
was Mr. Wilmott H. Thompson, princi- 
pal of public school No. 2, Orange, N. J., 
who explained the matter in an interest- 
ing communication to The Journal, 
printed last March. 

Mace of the House of Representatives. 

The mace of the House of Represent- 
atives consists of a bundl-^ of thirteen 
ebony rods entwined and bound together 
with silver bands. The thirteen ebony 
sticks represent the thirteen original 
States of the Union. They are surmounted 
by a globe of silver.upon which the hemi- 
spheres are traced, while a silver eagle 
with outstretched wings is perched upon 
the summit of the globe. It was made in 
1SS4. and weighs twenty pounds. 

Pen- Lettering: and Engrossing. 

BV H. W. KIBBE.— NO. 6. 

We will attempt to give a practical 
lesson in sketching, showing a fac-similu 
copy of an original conception in its 
crudest form. A customer comes into 
our office, says he wants a head of 
Mephistopheles to be printed in red on 
the cover page of a piece of music he has 
written, but cannot give us an idea or 
even a devil's face of any value to work 
from. We turn to Carlyle's description 
of Satau's right-hand devil, and from 
that make a sketch, endeavoring to em- 
body in it the qualities described, which 
Carlyle sums up in these three words : 

onlemptible." A 
critical student may aay the mouth is 
not devilish enough, but we reply that he 
is about to dance and has put on his best 
expression ; in other words, made up his 
mouth for a good time. Another will 
note that one cheek is larger than the 
other, to which we reply that the deform- 
ity helps to give the sinister expression 
sought ; and again he is not well balanced, 
which was the cause of his fall. Why 
are his horns crooked 't asks another. 
Because the ways of devils are crooked. 
Why is the top of his head flat? 

We propose next to give a series of six 
(6) jiractical lessons in album engrossing, 
provided there is a fair demand among 
The Journal readers for such lessons 
from our hands. If such is your wish, 
make it known either to ourselves direct 
or to the Edit(u- of The Journal. 

The Value of Spare Moments. 

Wide Awake gives the following story, 
which is all the better for being true : 

Two men stood at the same table in a 
large factory in Philadelphia at the same 
trade. Having an hour for their nooning 
every day, each undertook to lise it in ac- 
complishing a definite purpose ; each per 
severed for about the same number of 
months, and each won success at last. 

One of these mechanic* used his daily 
leisure hour in working out his invention 
of a machine for sawing a block of wood 
in almost any desired shape. When he 
completed his invention he sold the pat- 
ent for a fortune, changed his workman's 
apron for a broadcloth suit, and moved 
out of a tenement house Into a brown- 
stone mansion. 

The other man— what did he do? Well, 
he spent an hour each day during the 
most of a year in a very difficult under- 
taking of teaching a little dug to stand on 
his hind feet aud dance a jig. At last ac- 
counts he was working ten hours a day at 
the same trade and at his old wages, und- 
ine fault with the fate that made his 
fellow workman rich while leaving him 

Leisure moments may briug golden 
grain to the mind as well aiB to the puree, 
if one harvests wheat instead of chaff. 

i-.-l> TUB HEHT 

End-Fiece by J. F. 

^"^^ ~C^enJfiand CI^UC QJoivznalP 

'J Reports from Supervisors. 

13. Yra 

U. Twi'iity-ftvc tiiiuu(«8, Rrndes 1. 2. 3, 

Habit in Wrillng. 


Eiincational worlt in any line i« liaWt ; 
training of the mental or pliysical powers 
into correct methods of thinlring or acting. 
Even withont ocholastic training, habita 
are formert through force of circumslancca 
or wilbout thought In writing there in 
a combination of mental and physical 
powers, wherein habits are formed which 
aometimes arc detrimental in the written 

In writing there must bo a conception of 
form before the physical powers come 
into action, the physical powers then 
taking that form to actual results on 
paper. We believe, in the school which I 
represent, that the physical powers of the 
student must first be trained to eiecute 
with ease before the mental conception 
can be placed on paper with rapidity and 

Students who come to us have a fair 
idea of the form and character of letters. 
Our purpose, then, is to train the physical, 
to produce the mental conception, and in 
the combination of these two powera 
coincs cur c.iilv ,liffl<Mlty. 

the dv^k.' 'J'l.. I' ■•''••■ : I ' ' • '•^'" ';■'! 

writing. Au'iii" i i in- ■ '■'- i i i- i in- 

side, gripping H" i ■■-''' ' ' '' " "" 

with him is ^'mvv ill. .'piii. .■. -i i. i "'I'l 

the shoulders (■'■ni. Iii..! i.l 111.1.. .Ill 

from the fm • " i i" 'I''-'' 

lightly, cran. . -I ,"";-':,; 

and from tin- i^'-iii^n "i 'Im' ii.iiiu .mn 
fiiiKersconu-. ll^,'illll>■ss ;ni.i m..,.- in ilif 
written form. 

Our aim, then, is to trnin the student 
into hnWls in execntion that will produce 
a light, eiisy and rapid movement, which 
wilTresnlt m the style of writing such as 
is generally demanded by the business 
community, which calls for a rapid, legi- 
bli* writii. FsL-^f in execution and natu- 
ral Til iti. !i will I' i'l to direct results in 

(1,, -\:,\ ,: ;■ i> .ii'y work. Wepay 

but III ! Ill' t'li-m when he first 

(■oiiir - 1.. II- Ih.i 'i.iih liim into position. 



The i\m hoiiom. (inei ahont iHutirait the 
gimpter exeroUirs vxed, in contrast with 
the flourtshrd ones above them. 

Grade I. 
Orade 2. 

\\s I . u;iin a kuowledne of 

b,.\v Ml' iii.n 1,1 . ill most easily use his 
mu>' U'-. ^-^ >.w 'lull him in conformity 
to liis aliility to u^e them. W<? allow him 
to um' the* easiest motion he can. but 
gradually correct it to the freest, nat- 
ural motion used in producing a written 

We get g»»od results from adapting a 
holder to the student's fingers, some 
being able to use a small, others a larger 
one. according to the length and forma- 
tion of the fingers. Students lack con- 
fidence in the pen and holder, and if they 
HIV not awkward in their use it reassures 

In onr drills and methods we follow the 
general methods and exercises of most 
schools, but give no flourished exercises. 
We drill imrticularly on the form which 
will be used in after work. We grade all 
the work presented, and this gi-adation is 
jiccording to straight and curved lines iu 
the small letters, aud ovals and stems in 
the capitals. By this gradation, from 
simple to more complex letters, we follow 
principle, believing that drill on prelim- 
inary work brings sure and even reealts. 

In cla«i drills we allow no iudiscrimi- 
oat* practice. T)ie copy must be followed 
hy careful work according to the teacher's 
s\ij;geistions. If a disposition is shown \jc\ 
do otherwise, we exciise the student from 
that class for the day. By making this a 
rule, aud impressing it upon the student's 
mind, we believe that habits of careful- 
ness and strict attention will be formed. 

In onr general business work we do not 
forget the great im)>ortance of penniau- 

A praiseworthy undertaking is referre*! 
to in the self-explanatory letter below. 
Bro. Ware deser>'es the thanks of the 
profession for his enterprise in collecting 
this information, which is intensely in- 
teresting as well as useful for reference, 
too modest to include bis own 
city, and knowing that every reader will 
want to know these iwints regarding one 
of the best in our ranks, we have added 
Ft. Worth to the list. 

FoBT Worth, Texas, September 8. ISOT. 

FniEtO) WiTTEE: I send you iu tabulated 
form the information received through the me- 
dium of a list of questions pertainiug to writ- 
ing and drawing in public schools iu cities in 
which these branches are under the direction 
of a supervisor. 

This information was not collected for pub- 
lication, but for my ovm individual inrtruc- 
tion. However, as I have t>een earnestly so- 
licited to make a rei>ort of this isearch through 
The Pekmak's Art Jocbsai.. 1 heivwith offer 
this for that consideration, supposing ihero 
will be no objection to its publication by those 
who furnished it. 

I sent out quit« a number of blanks with 
postage last year, and this aud only those who 
are here report«d complied with my rotiucst. 

g'. W. Ware. 

^ _.. t of the mechnnienl dllfl- 

culties of prescntlo? so complicated a table, thi* 
publisher of TnEjoirRNAi,flnda It aclvlsulilo to 
substitute for the tubulated form the subjoined 
arraogemcnt. The questions iirop(niu<ied by 

Grade 6. 

ard of his abilit; 
otherwise we a 
fore going furtl 

Barnes' writine fl-iid, «0 cents per gallm 
ly. <m nnd 404 Glllott's 
W. Oblique |Mjnbol<kT», grades', 9, l*. 
22. Better in tvery n»i>ect. 

Lorn JlNiret*'*. Cni.t 1809. i'oputalin 

' aO,394. 
1. L. B. Lawsoa, t\'i^ per month. 
•J. Good. 

3. No. 

4. Payson. Dunton & S. 

5. BradBeld's. 

6. First grade. 

7. Allowed in the flrA grade. 
S. First aud second gradw. 
^. First grade. 

13. Yes. 
13. Yes. 
U Fifteen to thirty r 

IS. Analine black. 

interested than tin nVcrag*? student. 

1. D. W. Hoir, $I,'-'0(). 
4. None, 
li. None. 

1. Name of supervisor and salary. 

3. What satisfaction has the department of 
writing and drawii •■>■'■"' 

3o ynu have priu 
teachers' reference . 

4. What copybooks in use i 

5. What system of drawing ? 

6. What grades Ui^elead pencils I 
T. What grades use slates ? 

8, "What grades use space lines ? 

9. When do you begin with " muscular i 

10. How much time do yon give movemeut 

11. How often does the supervisor visit the ii. Ouce each week, 

BelleC. Nolt, «l.aOO. 


Eclectic and Slocum, 

First Rrade, 

, First live gnidt's. 

. Fourth grade. 

About one-hnlf the Ie» 

absent i 

ire the rt*, — — 

when the supervisoi .a ... ^..« ^^^^ . 

14. How much tmie do you give to writmg 

lessons ? 

15. How much time do you give to drawing 

lessons ? . 

10. What qualiflcation is required of regular 

teachers if . , . , 

17. AVhat raateiial is funushid by school 

IS. What Ink in use f 
10, What pens iu use ( 
'.W. What pBuholdoi*s in use '. 
yi. What pencils in use f 

22. How do you find the work ot students using 
the oblique holders * 
To the above questions by Mr. Ware, 
answers were received as follows : 
NaghviUe, Tenn.. ISO'i. Poputatton 

1. H.Champlin, »1,800. 

. Yes, if the »ii>ecial teacher wishus 
. About thirty minutes. 
. Pens and ink. 

eokuk. Fawn, IHtH. ropulatlon ii 

. C. H. Peirce. ?1,'J*K>. 

. Most excellent. 

. Yes. 

. Electric No. 1 for form. No. -J for 

meut only and practice paper. 
. 8econdHudni)artof third. 
, First grade. 

\ No, general supervision of order and n 

ship, and the benefits accniing from care- 
ful work, and that the habits formed in the 
writinc; class will dominate, to a certain 
extent, t!i'> stnd'-iit's work in other 
clnss.'^: r.m-i.pi.iiilv WO aim to make 
hini(;Mrtnl ■^u^ iiM ilindical. Wedonot 
drop wntin- .ni-^nii of a three-quarter 
hour-- .ititl, iMil wr tr;iin hiui to bring 
his accounts and lli^ cl.i-- wiil. m <! 
respondence, in the \''' in 

shape. He must reach ii.' ■ '' ■ ' "i 

. First grade. 

14. Thirty mmutes every day for two wfeks, 

15. Thirty minutes every day for the next two 
1(5. Ti> lio abk' to write and draw well upon the 

the flrst grade, pens nnd 

1 II 

Jill other grades. 

m public school work. 
Cliilitruthe, O., ItlOlt Poputatton t2,0 

1. C W. Slocum, ?14,0(K). 

2. Excellent. 

3. No. 

4. Blaukbooks. 
fi. None. 

7. Fii-st grade, 
n. Third year. 

10. Almut tcu minutes. 

11. Twice a week. 

. 1,. -I i..-.-uU.sthat 
limn ihis outside 
ml. ut ;tt the time 
with the" fact that the ..l.-- is for the 
purpose of giving him a knowledge of the 
methods of writing. In all onr work we 
simply endeavor to carry out the prm- 
ciple that iu the class and out of the 
class habits are formed for only the very 
best work, consequently we demand 
careful and thoughtful work. 

Whether we are successful in this or 
not we do not know, further than we can 
see of tberesulta of the students who have 
gone out from us : but we do believe that 
lif a correct habit in this line is once 
formed, it will dominate his writingafter 

Oood. especially in HJgh School classes. id. The ability to write well and tea.ti "-I 

17. All but blank booki*. 
Sprlngfiel'*' .««*"-. »•»»-■ Popufatlon js. Thomas' Ink. 

44.194. V.t. 4IM and 1^)1 nutott's. 

rniiiht iu I')wer grades. 

x.>i)\SL'h»<il M. 

tUT wnrk I.-* dnne with oblique holtLer 

... Fir^tandfirsthalf second year. 

7. For writing the readiog and uuml>er work. 

S. Use spaced paper in connection with trac- 
ing hook. 

9. First grade for exercisc-i. 
10. Ten or fifteen minutes each leiwon. 
11 Grades 1, 2 and 3 once in four weokw. 

Ii. Yos. 

4, Barnes'. 

•*). Whil«'H (nuwcourae). 


0. About one-lbird of lessi 

1. Once in tbre« weeks. 
a. Yes. 

8. Yes 

4. Ten to twenty miaules, 

5. Same aa writing. 

6. No special qimlilicatio 
these subjects. 

30. Straight. 

AHron, O.. 1909. J 

!. J. O. Wise, *1.0U0. 
a. First rate. 
S. No. 

4. AppletouV 

5. Prong's 

according to grudp. 

. Yes, in the lowererades. lu other grades 
the teacher is required to see that pupiJs 
carry out insti-uclious of supervisors. 

, Fifteen to thirty minutes for four days. 

. Fifteen to thirty minutes for four days. 

. To pass an examination in these brunches 
tne .same as in other branchijs. Tliey we 
taught and examined by sup'r. in charge. 

. Gillott's 404 for third and fourth grades; 

604 for all othwr grades. 
. Strnight generally. Oblique optional. 
, Dixon's MH for writing lesson ; MB 

for general writing; SM for drawing. 
, Without exception the students using 

them are the best writers in school. 

The Journal wonld be glad to hear 
from other writing supervisors on the line 
indicated above, together with any other 
points in connection with their work 
which might be of interest to the profes- 

the indiceu 

18, Thomas^ ink. 

19. 604 Gillott's. 
30. Straight. 

1. S. S. Pui-dy, $1.00 

2. Good. 
S. Yes. 

4. Harpers' and Ban 

5. White's. 
<J. Do not use them ii 

7. First grade. 

8. First, secoui 

9. Thu-d grade. 

10. About one-third writing period. 

11. Once a week. 

12. Yes. 

l(i. Must write well and must undei-stand how 
to teach it. 

17. Everything. 

18. Black. 

11). 004 GiUott's. 

20. Straight, some oblique. 

21. Eagle. 
23. Good. 

Cleveland, Ohio, J'opuhition 2<ii,r,46. 

•Ji. Fifth and sixth grades. 

10. Five to ten minutes daily. 

11. Irregulai-ly. 

17. Ink. 

18. Analine and soft water. 

19. 604 Gillott's generally, and 100 E.le.::tic. 

20. Straight. 

21. Dixon 3 ; Faber 3. 

Hart ford, Conn., 3S9S. Foiiulat(oii,)l 

[N'OTE,— Hartford gphonbiu-ecoinliictpd on the 

1. Lyman D. Smith . 
a. Good. 
3. No. 

Appleton's standard 

5. Prong's and Wliite's (new). 
0. Tbii-d for wi-iting lessons. 

7, First and second by dcpartm 

I do not visit these grades. 

8. Thii-d to seventh. 

'.I. At about the age of twelve to thirteen, 
or two years before going into high 

10. Nearly one-half the time devoted to writ- 

14. Average forty minutes weekly. Some 

grades have one thirty-minute lesson, 
others more. Not half enough. 

15. About the same as writing. 

10. To be able to instruct in the Kuglish 

17. Everything except penwipei-s and rubbei- 

18. Barnes' fluid. 

19. 004-351 Gillott's. 

20. Moitly straight. 

31. Praag M. Eagle No. : 

Fort Worth, Ttueas, IS93. 

1, G. W. Ware, «0.t0. 

2. Good. It has received the m 

port of the School Board. 

8. First and second and flrs 

In teaching letters of different heights 
or spaces it may interest and help the 
cliildren if you speak of letters one space 
high (short letters) as being one story 
high ; two spaces, two stories ; and three 
spaces high (loops and capitals) as three 
stories high ; p and q go down cellar the 
distance of one story and a half. The 
inverted loops a distance of two stories 
down cellar. 

Capitals may he captains at the bead 
of an army made up of the small letters, 
and they are to show they are good sol- 
diers by keeping a proper distance apart 
and standing in line. 

Teaching Children to Write. 

JODRNAT, — NO. 11. 

( Words and seuteuu 
I Po&ition of body, arms, hands Au- 
gers, feet, pencil aucl paper or 

Command of arms and bauds. 
I Body. A 111], Hiiud and Finger 


Lack of space will not permit continu- 
ing the outline by lessons. The essential 
features of each week's work will be 
given throughout the first grade. It is 
not intended that nothing else shall 
be given. There are many simple exer- 
cises that will occm- to the teacher 
which she can use in connection with the 
work of each week, and thereby add 
much to its eflScacy. Neither is it in- 
tended that the exercise, word or sen- 
tence given be written only once or for 
onelesson. The work laid down will be 
suggestive a.\\A the basis for the work of 
that week. Take one or two exercises, 
words and sentences, as the occasion may 
deuijind, and practice for one lesson, the 
nest lesson something else, names or 
something else in the same line which 
you think better suited to the needs of 
your class, only do not violate any of the 
principles laid down. Some one exercise 
may be profitably practiced upon every 
lesson during the week, but remember 
there must be snflicient change and 
variety to keep up the child's interest. 

Length of Leaaona. 

During the first year, one fifteen-minute 
lesson should be given each day, or if 
possible two ten-minute lessons, one In 
tlie forenoon and one in the afternoon. 

I have given full and explicit illustra- 
tions of tlie method of teaching or de- 
veloping the letters. So from this time 
on, instead of giving the process for each 
letter in detail, I will leave you to apply 
tlie principles and methods already ex- 

Every teacher should practice on the 
hoard carefully until she can make the 
exercises and forms accurately and suffi- 
ciently large for the pupils to see the shape 
of every stroke as previously explained. 
She should also be able to make the forms 
ftccnrately on the slate or paper, as it is 
impossible for many children to carry the 
form in their minds from the hoard to 
their slate or paper, and as the child has 
no copy book the first year, he must get 
his ideals of form from his teacher. 

Second Wtth. 

Review work of six weeks, from close 
of first four. Give special attention to 
position, as per instructions for Tuesday, 
fifth week, first term. Do not overdo "po- 
sition " for one lesson or one week, and 
then neglect it for a month. Remember 
"c/er/ia/ vigilance"' is the price of good 

TAIrrf treeh. 

Review work of last six weeks of last 
term. Continue giving special attention 
to position. Continue ban<l drill through- 
out this term ; also other light gymnas- 

Teach figures as fast as re^nired in 
number work. For their forms see plate; 
also teach punctuation marks as needed 
in reading. The elements already learned 
will apply to figures. 

The teacher may introduce the 
. personal pronoun / and figures 
■ at her discretion. Perhaps as 
the pupil learns it in language, 
he may write sentences beginning with 
/, and containing such letters and words 
as he has learned to write. The words 
given for each week and similar ones 
after they have been practiced upon 
should be combined into such sentences 
as the children can comprehend, and 
written several times; but this work 
should be freely interspersed with simple 
movement exercises. Practice a great 
deal upon exercises throughout the course. 
They are indispensable. Those given are 
meant to be suggestions; the teacher can 
devise many others just as good. 


The teacher may use capitals as they 
become necessary in connection with the 
language work. At this age capitals can 
be taagbt only by imitation, and only good 
forms should be placed before the pupils 
for them to copy. If you have no en- 
graven capitals for pupils to copy and 
cannot make them correctly freehand, 
rule all of the spaces (like the children's 
paper) on slips of paper and draw the 
forms very carefully, or get a penman to 
do it for you. You can buy copy slips or 
cut them from old copy books. 

At the begiiming of each lesson practice 
one or more exercises, and the elements 
and principles of which the letter to be 
made is composed. At least one-thiid of 
each lesson throughout the course should 
be devoted to this practice. The teacher 
need not confine herself to the exercises 
given, but may, if she wishes, devise 
others just as good. 

Materia ts. 

See that the pupils m all grades have 
good materials, and as nearly as possible 
uniform materials. 

'■ It is a bad precedent to have apart of 
the class using materials all do not use, 
and such as you could not highly recom- 
mend yourself. Uniformity in every 
particular is conducive to best results." — 


Every possible influence should be 
brought to bear upon the children and 
parents to induce them to iirocure the 
prescribed materials. 

Review work of first four weeks, in- 
cluding thorough drills, for ease of posi- 
tion and freedom of movement. If you 
find a pronounced disposition to turn the 
hand and wrist over on the side too much, 
placing pennies, grains of com, card- 
board disks, etc., on the wrist occasion- 
al/)/ for a few minutes may be more 
or less effective. But it should be 
used only as a diversion, for the purpose of 
showing the pupil how his hand and wrist 
should be, not as a remedy. The pupil 
must learn to maintain a correct position 
independently of any mechanical con- 

Count for elements, principles and ex- 
ercises. Count for the strokes in the let- 
ters at times, then let tbem try to keep 
up the time without counting. As a nile, 
count only one for an upper or lower turn 
or oval forms when in a letter, as count- 
ing for both the upward and downward 
stro'ies tends to cause the children to 
pause between counts, thus making 
angles where there should be turns. 

If you are in doubt as to whether you 
give the correct time in counting, you 
can correct yourself by watching the 
movement of the children's pencils closely. 
Watch a child who writes about the cor- 
rect speed for the grade and adjust your 
covint accordingly. It may also help you 
to hold a slate or book and pencil in your 
hand and make the forms yourself as you 
count. When letters are joined so as to 
form an exercise, count one for each let- 
ter and "slide" for the long connecting 
stroke, or name the letter and " slide." for 
the connecting stroke. For instance, ex- 
ercise 99, n, sftV/e n, n slide n, etc. For 
exercise 104, slide n slide n, slide, begin- 
ning with slide and ending with slide. 

Occasioitalty have children count with 

The Award of Certificates. 

The award of certificates has been de- 
layed on account of its being impossible 
for those who are to decide the contest to 
get together during the vacation season, 
and the many duties incident upon the 
opening of a new school year has made it 
difficult thus far, but the result will be 
made known in the next Journal. 

Many specimens have been received, 
and such a large proportion of them are 
fine that a decision \viU be difficult. 

Howard Champlin bas resigned as Writing 
Supervisor in the Public Schools of Nashville, 
Tenn., to accept a similar position at Cincin- 
nati, where be has four assistants. Ue is an 
excellent man and a warm supporter of Thk 

Ornamental Articles from Wood Pulp. 

The utilization of wood pulp has lately 
taken some new and interesting forms, es- 
peciallyin the lineof ornamentation. The 
pulp is taken as it comes from the mill, 
and after being fii-st fully dried, or not, 
as circumstances may require, it is im- 
mersed in an indurating piclcle, so called, 
with coloring if desired. This pickle is 
composed of any compound or solution 
capable of indurating the mass, and, after 
the material is taken out of the pickle 
and thoroughly dried, it is run through a 
mill and ground sufficiently fine to insure 
a mixture of the particles which have not 
absorbed the indurating substance with 
the particles which are fully hardened. 
The powdered pulp is then compressed, 
with the application of heat, in a mould 
or die, with the result of producing an 
article of manufacture composed of a 
homogeneous and cohesive mass of thor- 
oughly Indurated particles ; and the ob- 
jects produced in this manner may he 
polished or otherwise improved in their 
appearance, according as may be desired. 

Never lose a chance of saying a kind word. 
As Collingwood never saw a vacant place in 
his estate, but be took uu acorn out of bEa 
pocket nod popped it in, so deal with your 
compliments through life. An acorn co^ts 
nothing, but it may sprout into a prodigious 

bit of timber.— IK M. Thackeray 


' tyen/nan^ d/ut&oJvwuiaC^ 

r^^ERAL/l\l5CELlAN/ G 

For Ethical Culture. 

The gnbject of ethicil cnltnre is receiv- 
iDg very carefnl conrideration from 
thonghtfnt edncatore thronghont onr 
land, and many progressive schools have 
made it a part of their cnrricnlum. If it 
lie admitted that soraething more than 
mpre intellectnal development is efsential 
to right living and good citizenship it \* 
difficmlt to sec what valid objection can 
be raised to the inculcation of moral prin- 
ciples co-ordinately with the training of 
the intellectnal faculties. At a special 
meeting of the public school teachers, 
school commissioners and others inter- 
ested in public instruction in the city of 
Elizabeth, N. J., held on September 19. 
the editor of Tuf, Jouhnal made an ad- 
dress by invitation, which is reported as 
follows by the Eliznbtth Daily Herald: 

School Commissioner Ames' address 
was upon the subject of ethical culture, 
mid was of such interest that we give it 
in full. It wa« as follows: 

Wisdom lins been defined as the " child of 
ihe accumulated knowledge of the ages." No 
man is wiw frotu liis own kuowledge aud ob- 
•orvation. To be truly wise one must reai- his 
superetnicture upon tlie observations and re- 
searcli of those who have gone before him. He 
wbo most fully utilizes pastand contemporary 
knowledge and experience is in the fullestseuse 
wise. Especially is tbis true of the t«acher. 
Upou tbu teacher rest two great duties: 
First. To equip himself to the higbest degree 
for the performance of his duty us a teacher 
by gaining a dear understanding of all 
branches he presumes to teacb, and the most 
successful methods of instruction. Also he 
should po.'isess extensive coIlat*^ral knowl- 
edge as a resource for illustration. Second, 
He should study to understand the pecuhar 
cboracter of his pupils, that the methods best 
adapted to reach the susceptibiUtii-s of each 
may he «mployed. 

I bavo been asked to say a word respecting 
wbat I beard and saw at the late convention 
of the National Educational Association at 
Saratoga. Let me say right here tbat I deem 
it exceedingly unfortunate that every teacher 
and school olllcer of the land did not attend 
that conveiitiou. The proper work aud prog- 
ress of our public schools ]ag% for lack of the 
fullest unden.tandlng ot what is best respect- 
ing metbods and the eftlciency with which 
tbey may he carried out. Of all places 
such a convention furnishes the best ex- 
amples for both. There are met the spe- 
ciah8t« in every line of educational thought 
aud work. What ai-e specialists i They are 
our inventors, discoverers, the pioneer leaders 
in every line ot human eudeavor. They moke 
our text-books, formulate our scfenees, give 
fi>rm to art, and are examples for tbe multi- 
tude. Teachers need this coming in toucb 
with their fellows, whei-e ore presented tbe 
highest examples and best criterions for tbcm 
in tbeir own work. But what I specially ob- 
served, nnd with much delight, was tbe in- 
creasing consideration giveu to ethical or 
uioral science. Numerous ]Mii>ers were i-ead 
by the leading educatoi's bearing upon this 
subject. A paper read bj- Irwin Sheppard, 
president of tbe State Normal Scbool at 
Winona, Minn., upon the " Kiudergarten" 
was eminently worlby the tbougbt aud coD- 
sideralion of every pai-vut, teacher and school 
olllcer in the laud. In substance he said: 

The mon> clearly we umk'r«tand tbe [thilos- 
ophv of cdui'utioir the ue«rei- to iiil'tiutv liu we 
11xlhetime«beii^vst.nii.ii, i, -iii n n -l,>.iil,l 

■.implcte. At best i 

hindtr ethical growth, ' 

earliest concoplion to duty tbe clearer will be 
our onward view. No one visiting a true kin- 
dergarten can fail to note the abounding pres- 
ence of the good, ibf beautiful and the t— 

world largely through : 

^ _ _ beautiful ethical 

L-ulture m au atmosphere in which " Love 
is the fulhlling of the law." 

It is impossible to give anything like a fair 
impression of tbis able paper. 

Another paper on piimary and secondary 
schools, read by Delia Lothrop Williams of 
Delaware, Ohi'i, was of very great interest. 
She said, in effr-ct: 


' nf the proctica- 
»tical moral train- 
I is also practical 
I be principles of 

central function of education, aud cLaracter 
the supreme test of the school. It would seem 
to follow from this fact that moral traininc 
should not be crowded into a comer and given 
tbe odds and ends of school time. One essen- 
tial condition of vital ethical training is char- 
acter in the teacher. The supreme ethical 
need of tbe school is an inspiring life back of 
lessons and soul-inspiring manhood back of 
words. The unwritten law of the schools 
should be, " No man or woman shall enter 
here as a teacher whose character and life are 
not fit models for the young to copy.'" The 
will should be so trained as to act habitually 
from high and worthy motives. The true 
practical outcome of moral traiuiug is right 
conduct, and right conduct is right motive 
carried out by an act of will into a deed. 

These are but few of the important paners 
read upon these and kindred subjects. Many 
of them elicited the highest degree of interest 
and enthusiasm on tbe part of tbe bearers. 
I have myself l>ecome deeply imbued with the 
feeling tbat there may be and i^ yet to be 
adopted some method of moral or ethical 
training in our public schools tbat shall work 
a great and wonderful reform, one that shall 
educate and habituate pupils to do tbe right 
because of their love for it, and avoid doing 
the wrong because of their hatred of it, and 
shall rear a character and a personality before 
which there shall be an ever present conscious- 
uess and belief that ''who wrongs another 
clouds his own sun," and that who sins in 
secret instantly stands accused and condemned 
before at least oue judge, ever present anil 
ever condemning — his own self. 

'&o,:-t.'L-t^i5''^^t^^K--z,<i-«i^-'''-^ . 

of temptation, tin i ■ i _ im u in 

theconcret* bv m ii.n< i.^il 

life. Tbey shoulil I" -| nnFu .ii !i siu^ie 

phase of cbarai-t-u. 11ji.> -.IkjuM iLacli the 
value of motive and tit- tact <>£ jM.>rsonal re- 

Another paper was by Jas- H.CanSeld.Chau- 
cellor of the University of Nebraska. He held 
that the cultivation of the intellect alone will 
uot answer the purpose of wise education : 

Education may lift a man above the more 
common crimes, but it often seems to present 
unusual b^mptations to greater wickedness. 
All true education, therefore, should Jiave an 
ethical purpose. The main pui-pose of educa- 

B pow 


bonorable. It must make them beneficent. 
The thre^ powers which are conditions of this 
life are righi thought, n'oAf ffelxng and riuht 
action; tbe greatest of these is right feeling. 
TbougDt aud feeling go together, like light 
and heat. Tbe power of influence of the indi- 
vidual instructors touches tbe student most 
keenly and helpfully. 

Another very able and valuable paper was 
read by Dr. E. E. White of Ciocionati. Per- 
mit me to say right hero that probably the 
most earnest effort for introducing ethical 
training made in this country is now twing 
made in the public schools of Cincinnati and 
Philadelphia I was informed that the work 
of the famous French wiiter upon morals, 
Paul Janet, has l>een translated and modified 
somewhat to suit the circumstances of Ameri- 
can schools and n being introduced in the 
schools of Cincinnati. 

Mr, White considered ethical training the 

What Home Student 

" lu the name of religion mauy protest* 
have been made against the present system of 
popular education for its lack of moral train- 
ing. All sound and successful teaching, it is 
contended, must repose upon a basis of 
theology, and to confine ethical teaching to 
the reeiou of the na(uro( is to deprive it of 
' all warrant, of all authority and of all co- 
ercive power." It these views were correct it 
would be difficult to see bow ibe wfakuessof 
om" schools on the moral side could ever be 
remedied, for nothing is more certain than 
that any attempt to teach theology in thom 
would be predestined failiire. This is obvious 
from the fact of the numerous religious beliefs 
and sects that prevail throughout the country. 
No theological training could p-jssibly be 
adtipled tbat would be acceptable to more 
than a single belief or sect. Shall all attempts 
at moral teaching in tbe public schools Y>e 
abandoned, seeing that it cannot be admin- 
istered as au adjunct of theology, or shall a 
brave effort be made to ^ive it an independent 

sof i 

I and a fair t 


inducted ' i 

I would not underrate the value of the 
moral influences of a good home, but nothing 
is more obvious than that not all homes are 
good. In some the example is demoralizing to 
tbe extreme. Neither would I disparage the 
advantageof religious instruction, but nothing 
is more obvious than tbat there is a numerous 
class, and mostly the very class that are with- 
out good home influences, wbo do not come 

within the reach of religious 

is there auy power to fort-e them to do so. 

Now, my position is tbat bylaw wlucutinn 
may be compulsory, aud by making a proi>i-r 
degree of ethical culture a part of the IcgiilU 
required course of public school educati-in. 
every child of the nation will be sure to reoci^ e 
at least some moral training. Nc parent or 
Christian will urge that their traiuiug will t<' 
any the less complete by being reinfopceil by 
any ethical culture that may be given in 
school, while they must admit the great a.l 
vantages to those wbo are not iu the way t" 
receive either home or religious moral train 


At the conclusion of the professor's ad- 
dress the assemblage repaired to an ail- 
joining room, where a collation was pnr- 
taken of. after which tbe pleasant evout 

A cordial invitation was extended to Mr 
Ames to treat tbe subject more exhaust- 
ively at a time to be appointed by the 
Superintendent of Schools, who wnsunr 
of the most interested auditors. 

Queer Method of Making a Medicine. 

Did you ever roll a pepsin tablet undt-r 
your tongue by way of iissisting digestion .' 
If so you may be interested to know tlwit 
pei>sin is the product of au animal's 
stomach, and generally of the stomach ot" 
the hog. One factory in New York has 
the oddest method of preparing the article 
tliat ever entered into the human mind. 
A number of perfectly healthy hogs are 
fattened for market, aud for 3B hours he- 
fore killing time are deprived of all food, 
not even being allowed a drop of wnter. 
Then the trough from which they aiv ;i( - 
customed to eat is covered with stroii;,' 
wire netting, and the most appetizin;^ 
slops aud hog delicacies, smoking hot. an- 
poured into the trough. The fumes Hsrtn.l 
with grateful fragrance to the porihn' 
nostrils, the hogs all run to the tron^;!! 
and stand over it. ravenous with hunjicr. 
squealing and fighting with each other fur 
a chance to get at the food. The iron net - 
ting prevents thera from tasting the foud, 
and while they are still thinking abdut 
the matter they are killed, and their 
stomachs being taken out ai-e found per- 
fectly full of gastric juice, from whitli 
the pepsin is prepared. 

A Talking Clock. 

A wonderful clock is exhibited at St. 
Petersburg. It has a phonographic attach- 
ment, and at auy set hoiu- will deliv. r 
itself of such orders or announcements ns 
have been intrusted to it. It couM Ik- 
made to call the children in the nursery, 
or remark to the cook that it was time fur 
coffee, or tell the head of the house tbat 
the coast train wa.s duo in ten minutes. 
An improvement will doubtless be made 
in time in the form of a watch to be set 
by the wife for her husband's benefit, that 
will remark now and then, "Remenibir 
the groceries — lard, beans, sugar," ur 
••Don't forget to order the coal." Thm 
the era of matrimonial felicity will bavt- 
dawned. — Via Shorthand Kcrieii: 

EnfllUh Mixed, Sentiment All Right. 

A Gemiun who went to Chicago a few 
months ago. wrote the other day to a 
friend in the old country, ."aying: 

Meis Friend. — Oxkoose me dat I 
wride you in Engliche. Ich kan nicht 
more Deutsche schriben, ueider sprecben. 
Ich habe so long bei dat Amerieke 1)hii 
standen Ich habe das Deutsche ferget 

You shall 

der Vorlfs Fair, unt Ich bet i 

as zwei tollar unt lialp v 

kondry b. 

.11 not kun, 

Fair cidy unt da* been alle rec 

So long vat I lif I haf ben 

B drooly. 



nby n periodical. 

To Remuve Ink Stains From Linen. 
Clerks and otbers who write in their 
shirt sleeves are often annoyed by getting 
their immaculdte lineu ink stained. If 
the stain is allowerl to remain until the 
garment reaches the laundry the process 
of washing will produce an indelible 
brown mark, but for a few cents any 
writer can guard against annoyance and 
loss of this kind, for a little chlorinated 
8oda will remove every suspicion of ink 
stain almost instantaneously. It is only 
necessary to rub the soda in and then 
rinse it «r wae>h it out with a few drops 
of water, and all trace of the ink is gone. 
But the remedy must be applied im- 
mediately after the accident to be ettect- 
ive.—Geyei-^s Stationer. 

An Oriental Industrial School at the 
World's Fair. 

An industrial school at riuutoor, India, 
will make a notable exhibit at the 
Wcrld's Fair. The exhibit will be en- 
tirely of articles made by Mohammedan 
women, and it is stated that none of their 
work has ever been exhibited at an intei"- 
national or national fair. A small draw- 
ing room in the Woman's Building will 
be furnished with articles made by the 
pupils of the school. Among the articles 
to be sent ai*e a very handsome velvet 
portiere embroidered with gold, velvet 
embroidered with gold for upholstery, a 
table cover of white serge embroidered 
with gold and silks, a piano cover, cur- 
tains of Indian material embroidered 
with silks, fancy waU decorations, hand- 
some picture frames with gold embroid- 
ery, table covers, rugs, tea cozies, cushion 
covers, center pieces for tables, trimming 
for evening dresses, altar clotlis, &c. 
Some of the articles, it is announced, will 
he for sale. 

Paper Money for the Latin Republics. 

Much of the paper money used in the 
Bpanish-American republics is engraved 
in New York, and it not infrequently hap- 
pens that the same firm of bank-note 
makers is called upon to furnish currency 
for successive revolution ai*y governments 
in the same republic. The engraved notes, 
wanting the signature of the proper oflS- 
cial, are sent by express to the Govern- 
ment ordering them, and the plates are 
usually kept in safe-deposit vaults in this 
city. The engravers take care not to ac- 
cept in payment for theii- work any of the 
notes that they turn out. 

^^^'^rJen/na/iA QTlk/yClJvtunalP 

Good riaxims for Youn^: flen. 

R.-^CTICE combined with 
ly gives perfecliou. 
Tiiowled^e is the power 
the world. 
)pportunily for improve- 

Rmulat« the highest standard of excellence. 
Be diligent and thoughtful in your practice. 
Much pain lends to great success. 
Study hard, as idleness is the burial of the 

DiligoDce is (he passport to success. 

Engraving by Sand-Blasts, 

According to Gcycr's Stationvr, a re- 
vival of interest is to be noted in the ap- 
plication of the well-known sand blast to 
engraving on stone, the reason assigned 
for the exemption, heretofore, of this 
process from such application of the blast 
being the difficulty of providing a cheap 
paper material to apply to the stone — one 
capable of resisting the cutting action of 
the sand for a suflBcient length of time to 
allow the unprotected portions of Jhe sur- 
face to be cut away to the required depth. 
The prepared paper for this purpose is 
gummed to the face of the stone, and the 
design to be cut outlined on it, after 
which the outlines are cut through with 
a sharp-pointed knife, and the pieces of 
paper removed which cover those parts 
of the stone to be sunk ; the blast is now 
applied equally over the whole stone, and, 
in cases where a greater depth is required 
to be cut. the blast is made to act on 
those parts for a greater length of time. 
By this means designs are produced 
which possess a far greater degree of 
sharpness in the outlines, including even 
the most delicate tracery. 

Regular Premiums. 

Every subscriber for Thk .Todrnal, at the 
price of one dollar is entitled to choice ol the 
(ollowiuK valuable premiums free : 

Works of Instruction in Penmanship. 

Ames* Guide to !!ielf-IU8trDCtlon In 
Practical and Arllstlc PeuinaiiHlilp.— 

This useful book is whnt ii 

r pHper binding. Price wh< 

paDjr the Sh|i- < 

_The Lord^a Prayo 

iirUlicd EoKle 

X 34 i aches); 

[liRl Plc'tii re ot Proe- 

re«H (» X iSi; Uraiit nomorial (£^ x ^i; 
Garfield memorial (19 x 2\); Graut and 
Lincoln Eulogy i^* x 30) j marrlaee Cer- 

tiHeaie W x JS): Family Record (1» x ■m. 

Oxford Handy Helps. New Premiums for 
One New Sub. er for Renewal. 

Mo9t of The Journal readers hnve doubtlesA 
heaitl of the Uxford Hnody Helps which have 

For two subscriptions ($2) we will send 
three of these works as special premiums. 

special premiums. la every 

fi renewer) will be eniitled 
;8tricted that we cbii only 

books OS follows: 

Ith the 

> deilnltely and i 

inff. but nolhir 
person »f alt Int.: 
wrttlnpr will bo tt 

Kraphy and the 
support. The w 
sinnnturvs ami ' 

troauced bv the i 

» by hnndwritinir pouullntlties 

a for t 




how' 'in Kr.\li (MTITE AND MAKE A 

-;. ETC, 

m PAY 

\Y FEO- 

.VB, when 

_DHrc irom ontmiums. id xb e«i -- ' 


liriS[NG : 



sold apart from promii 

IS. is ^ K 

of the Ox n 

for fid ceoTs,' eight f 

hU choict of iht abovt doths ar /ieturf 

FREE. PrtMiums shoHlH bt ordertd 

are unt. To any prts*nt tukteriier viho 

f ont iWEiytub. (H6t a rtmtwal), wt wiU 

of abovt beokt. tie., as Ait */«'«/ >"- 

■rEtt^tuL. (ta). w t«iUgivtany 

tmiuMt: /or threr NEW tuht. 

tbovf/remiumt: for fivt NEW 

^/ abin,f preminrnt. 

BcMldea thene iipeclal prcmlunia to 

' " takcrof the 8iib«erl»tlon«, 

bNcribcra will aUo be en- 

0/ abo7 

ard the tak 
the n 
titled to choln 

nt lull 

D. T. AMES. 202 Broadway, New York. 

C3-X^ES.A.n[? ^ES^VIT 

gouvenip SpQQns, 

as every well-informed person knows, are " all the rage." Besiijes being beautiful they are eminently 
useful. The Journal has made arrangements to offer, by way of experiment, one of the most 
beautiful Souvenir Spoons ever designed. The time makes it especially appropriate. Every one wants some little article to keep or give 
to a friend as a memento of this four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of our country. What could be- more appropiiate than a 
beautifnl, serviceable article like this? 

This spoon is made by one of the most reliable houses in the trade. The portrait of Columbus is from the painting that has been 
accepted by the Spanish Government as an authentic likeness, and our national emblems, the American Eagle and Star Spangled Banner, 
appeal to the patriotism of every American. The spoon is pur, st grade of Sterling Silver, extra plate, upon a nickel-silver Imse, and is the 
finest wjrk of skillful engraver.'*. IT IS A WOKK OF ART, and every lover of handsome silverware and collector of spoons should 
possess one. It makes a particularly elegant gift, birthiiuy present or Eouveuir of a visit. 

We will send one of our Coluinbus Souvenir Spoons to any present subscriber for The Jocusal who sends $1 for one ««o subscription, 
including choice of onr regular premiums. Or we will send to any present subscriber who renews his subscription before November 10, and 
sends IS' cents extra ($1.13 in all). This is one of the most attractive offers that has ever been made by a periodical. Remember that it is 

No matter whethor ynnr subscription has expired or not, we will extend your time a year; but if that is the case please call onr attention 
to it when you send your money. If you want the spo-Mi sent by registered nniil, sctkI ten cents e^tl■a. 

D. T. AMES, 

Penman's Art Journal 202 Broadway, New York. 

tL/enmcuid Q^^^CIC Kjyototna^ 

Penmans Art Journal 

Adw^itinQ ratfM, 30 cmtm jprr nonpartit 
tin*. t^.SO jirr inch, earh inaertion. t>iaC€>uM» 
far tfrm and mpace. Special etHmateM fur- 
nitKtd on appiicalion, So adfrriinrm^nt 
tuktm for W>m than |3. 

SubMcripHon : (Mr yrar $\ ; one numl>rr 10 

tt'i- •■ ''i'rrt,to aid Ihem in 

An»ual l.,<!rr. in December JoCBHikL, 
'tiat premium Hat on pat/e 147. 

.New York, October, 1893. 


< BRaBOMMO — ^ 

bo Riffbt Place 

■not; npiKirU f 
irpulp. . 

Ill Leuons 
b Qutckir 

Again; ProffHorRotT'ii 

itm Llioraluro ; New PubUckUuna. 

■ of tho ProftMRlon 130 

iooluidPrbhokal; Bditob'k Soiuf-book, 

liiuwluK Hull— Comic 


TiiK Journal has iirrHngeil with Mr. C. 
P. Zimer of Columbus, O., to give a series 
of lessons iu iinicticAl writing, beginning 
with thp neit issue. The matter has 
lu't'u carefully discussed and considered 
by both Mr. Zaner and the editor of Tiik 
JoiRNAL, and we feel safe in promising a 
course of lessons that will make every 
reader whose handwriting is not as good 
as he could wish fee! that he never wade 
a better bargain than when he subscribed 
for Thk JoiRXAL. The lessons will be 
Vrofusely illudtrnted. Mr. Zaner has 
earned a national reputation as one of the 
mi>st skillful penmen of our times and 
one of the most successful teachers of 
penman^up. We doubt il there is a man 

of his years alive who h»Aso many gradu- 
ated papilH who are doing good wurk as 
professional penmen and teauher». It is 
pcrbaiH nnneces&ar\- to a'ld that Mr. 
Zaner is to be well paid for the lessons he 
is to give tbroQgh The Joi-rnal. He has 
promised to give os the best work he has 
ever done, and we have entire confidence 
that he will do so. 

ausinett CoU*gt> Erhibit at the Ner-M'* 


Olr readers will be gind to see in the 
present issue a somewhat full letter from 
Mr. Packard concerning the progress 
made in the World's Fair Exhibit of the 
commercial schools. 

The task of perfecting the plans of 
this Exhibit is a great one, and beset with 
difficulties not nt fii-st view apparent. 
but the matter is in capable and faithful 
hands, and no fears need be bad that any 
part of it will be neglected. 

One of the greatest difficulties has been 
in securing the proper space of the right 
kind. There seems now to be little or no 
doubt that this requirement will be met, 
and it is now of the first importance that 
those who wish to be represented in this 
exhibit make it known at once. A de- 
termining meeting of the committee will 
soon be held at Chicago, when the names 
of exhibitors should be known. All com- 
munications should be sent to Mr. Pack- 

Ti//,rirf ««• roryery hxpertt. 

The ■' nANDWRiTiNo expert," as the 
public usually calls him, in spite of what 
he may call himself, has a new profes- 
sional brother, it seems, in the "typewrit- 
ing expert." As is well known, the detec- 
tion of simulated writing usiially results 
from the tracing of characteristics which 
from habit had become automatic and of 
whose existence the writer himself was 
unaware. That a similar process may, 
at least in some instances, be followed in 
the examination of typewi-itten docu- 
ments, follows naturally. Indeed, in some 
particulars it is easy to see how the man 
who uses the machine may be traced 
more easily than the man who uses the 
pen. In the latter case the writing im- 
plement is capable of producing an un- 
limited variety of fonns, while the ma- 
chine is confined to a single frrm or im- 
pression for every letter, and the peculiar- 
ity of this form or impression, if it depart 
it any way from the normal, as in case of 
a defective or badly aligned tjTie, would 
naturally repeat itself with such pi-ecision 
that the identification of manuscript from 
a particular typewriter would be a mat- 
ter of no great difficulty to any one 
familiar with the "habits" of the ma- 
chine. We do not remember, however, 
a case in which the testimony of a type- 
writer expert was so far-reaching as that 
embodied in the subjoined extract from 
the Stenographer, Philadelphia. The 
witness was the well-known stenographer 
and teacher, W. W. Osgoodby. of Roch- 
ester, N. Y. 

Have ;ou had your attention called to 
the question of the claim made by the 
ooDteataut in regard to the matter we 
have been coosideriug i Xly attention bad 
not been called to the matter before I 
came in about an hour ago. 

Did you lifitcn to the testimony of the 
last witness with regard to the page of 
typewritten matter which it is claimed 
was inserted in this document after its 
execution by the testator i I did. 

In your opinion, is it possible for an 
expert to distinguish between the writing 
done upon different typewriters of the 
sime manufacture ? As a gentral rule, 1 
»>hould say it would not t>e difficult. 

If you were required lo examine a docu- 
ment written by the t}pewriter and to say 
whether or not alt the sheets contained in 
it were written by the same machine, 
could you answer that question with any 
degree of positiveness i It is pocsible 
that two machines may write so nearly 
alike as to make it difficult to determine 
upon which of tbem a particular sheet was 
written; still, there aic many little marks 
of difference in the writing of dilTereot 
machines, and even in the writing of the 
same machine at different times or whtn 
used by difft;rent operators, by which an 
eipfrt ought to be able to saj with sjme 
degree of certainty whether the sheets of a 
document were written consecutively upon 




1 the others. 

Gttinsand furnishing of a 
I matter that should have 
'ul consideration and at- 


I show you exhibit one, and I call your 
attention to page seventeen of that docu 
mtut, and ask jou whether, in your 
opinion, that page was written upon tho 
same machine which wrote the other 
pages ? It was not written in the order in 
which it appears here, nor by the same 
person. It is possible that it may have 
been written upon the same machine, but 
if it was, it was written at a different 

Why do you think it was not written at 
the same time? The type used on that 
page are clean; on the other pages, many 
of the small letters are filled up so as to 
show in the print. This appeals in a very 
marked degree in the letters e and a, iu all 
the pages preceding and following page 
seventeen. The ribbon on that page is not 
so much worn as on the otheis, and the 
writing is more uniform in color, but this 
is to be partially accounted for by the fact 
that it was written by a more practised 
writtr. The type seem to be in more per- 
fect alignment, while the letters t and c 
are badly out of alignment in the othtr 
sheets. The letter i is properly centered, 
in page seventeen : in the other pages it 
strikes lo the left of its proper position. 
The letter p stands upright: in the other 
sheets it leans a trifle, owing to its being 
slightly turned in the bar. I notice, also, 
that the margin of that page is about two 
spaces wider than in the balance of the 

What do you discover, upon which you 
base your opinion that that page was writ- 
ten by a different person ? The writer of 
page seventeen is a much better operator 
than the person who wrote the other pages. 
His touch is more uniform. None of his 
letters seem to override each other, as fre- 
quently occurs fn all the other pages. His 
punctuation marks do not perfoiate the 
paper. The color of his writing is more 
uniform, due not only to his more even 
touch, but also to the fact that his ribbon 
is less worn. The indentations of his para- 
graphs are tix spaces, while the others are 
but five. He usts three spaces between 
his sentences; the other but two. He 
places a space after a comma; the other 
never does. He understands the rules of 
punctuation ; the other docs not, but makes 
many mistakes. A very noticeable thing 
in that respect is the fact that in page 
seventeen a period and colon are placed 
after the words "to wit," while the other 
writer always puts a comma after them. 
The word ' ' supersede " is spelled correctly 
in page seventeen ; but I have noticed three 
places in the other pages where it is 
spelltd with the letter r, in place of the 
second 8. For the figure 1, in the paging 
of page seventeen, a lower case I is used, 
while a capital / is used for that purpose 
in all the other pages. 

Do you notice anthing else i Page 
seventeen was written on a larger sheet, 
and afterwards trimmed down to nearly 

teation of the school proprietor. The day 
has passed when a teacher could hire a 
back room, run in a lot of rough board 
benches and hang out his sign for scholara. 
The successful school of our days has an 
abuadaLcc of room and good, neat desks 
and furniture. It issues a neat, clcnitly 
printed, not necessarily expensive, < it.i 
ogue. It knows the value of thisc 
accessories and knows that it will in a 
large meisurebejudged by them. Whether 
that judgment be just in all cases is a 
matter of secondary importance; the pub- 
lic is very wide-awako nowadays to the 
charm of pleasant surroundings, and the 
school proprietor must fall in line with the 
public view if he expects to profit by pub 
lie patronage. 

l.e!t»nnm iu Album Enaronnlna. 

Mr. Ivinnii says in another column that 
he will give a series of illustrated papers 
in album engrossing if there is suflicient 
demand for them. This is a phase of the 
penman's art that has been very little ex 
ploited iu the penmanship press, and in 
which every penman who does ornamental 
work is interested. There ought to be a 
hearty rcsjionse to Mr. Kibbe's offer, and 
we should like to hear from Journal 
readers by letter or postal at once, as it ia 
desired that the series begin without delay. 

6tf ( 


TflE article printed in the September 
JocRNAL under the heading "In Touch 
with the Profession" has elicited many 
cordial lettersfrom proprietors and teachers 
in commercial schools, also from our con 
temporaries of the press. The editor of 
TifE Journal returns thanks for these 
kind words and pledges himself to abate 
no effort to keep The Journai, in the 
place it has occupied for sixteen years — 
the representative paper of the penmanship 
and business teaching profession. Turn 
to our " School and Personal " columns in 
this issue, for instance. They give the 
news of business and penmanship schools 
from California lo Nova Scotia and from 
Texas to Manitoba. Where else can you 
And so much news and so fresh news 
of the piofessioD ? And it is the same 
story every month. If one wiabca to keep 
posted on these matters — and what in- 
telligent, progressive member of the pro 
fesaion docs not ?— it has got to bf ;i 
positive necessity to read The Joiiinm, 
regularly. Of course, there are some who 
read the paper, and pretty regularly, ion, 
without buying it, but that is a mattc-r of 
taste that uped not be discussed. We are 
proud to say, though, that our subscription 
books show that the great majority of 
business and penmanshi p school proprietors 
prefer to subscribe and pay their money; 
and while a large proportion of these arc 
appreciative enough to see that clubs arc 
sent from their schools, it is especially 
significant that more than half prefer lo 
send their individual eubscriptions for nur 
Permanent List at the full rate, though 
they give their students the benefit of club 
reductions. These are the things that 
warm the heart of an editor and smooth 
over many dirticulties aud discouragement*. 
The main reward in conducting a paper 
like TnE Joi rSal is in the feeling that 
this work of years, begun when the 
"practical education idea" had no such 
hold on the popular affections as now, has 
the hearty approval and appreciation of 
the profession it represents. It is letters 
like this which cheer and encourage : 

"Detroit, Mich., .Sept. -JO, Is'.tj, 
■' D. T. Ames : 

"Your Penman's Art Jot rnal for 
September, with article headed ' In Touch 
with the Profession,' has just reached us. 
Shall be very glad to notice jour admir- 
able paper on account of its superior ex- 
cellence." We have known you from way 
back and appreciate what yon have done 
to interest young men and women in prac- 
tical education. 




** Your fight has been a noble one, and 
you should be strongly su&taiocd by bmi- 
nes8 colleges all over the land. We regard 
Tub Penman's Art Journai. as the beat 
of its kind, and «hiill be glad to eay so in 
the next issue of our Bntintu WarU. 
" Cordially yours, 

P. R. SPKNCEll.- 

Wc have had many kind letters of that 
character, coupled with assurances of act- 
ive support. There is not a business col 
lege, commercial department or penman- 
ship school in America that could not 
send The JontNAi. a good club with a 
little effort. Of course, it requires some 
trouble and attention; some one has to 
tJike the matter in hand and see that it is 
carried through. But a glance at our 
clubbing announcements for years will 
show that in hundreds of schools there 
are men who are willing to contribute 
whatever time and labor may be necessary 
t(i showin*;; in the best way their appiecia- 
tion of and sympathy with the work The 
Journal 19 doing. 

Oun BRIGHT contemporary, the Amer- 
iean Journal of Education, published west 

quoted, by the use of larger type. Here are 
the portraits and aut(,igrapli!<, reduced about 
one-tiair : 

The first portrait represents H G 
according to the Penman's O 
GaskcU's own paper, of ten y g 

other is the portrait of W. F. Ea 
the Fyu(A's Companxon ad 


Of . 

_nytliing of penmanship matte k w 
■• Oaskell's Compendium" is de d nd b d 
beyond tbe possibility of res b 

this iate spasmodic effort to ga ze 

WW iuto the corpse is not with a 

amount of interest of its kind. eem 

What is the finest pen made i—J. G. B.. 
Xorjolk, Va. 

If you mean the pen that wPI mnke the 
finest, most delicate line, tbe " crow quill" is 
probably what you want. This is not a 
genuine plume from a crow (which, however, 
were used in the days of quill pens, and may 
yet be had, wo think), but a small, fiue steel 
ppii, used in very delicate line work in draw- 
iiii^. They aro unsuited to writing. If by 
" liiiest " you mean the best pen made, we can 
confidently recommend — but modesty forbids, 
further than to say that the uami? starts even 
with the alphal>et. 


of penmanship if you can stamp |3. $5. $10. 
i20. in gold or Silver or furnish plates. I 
would like to become your Agent iu this state 
feeling I could give you a wide trade, hope 
to hear from you soon, itnd if you decline to 
fill my order or request. I hope you will not 
do nie any barm, and destroy this letter. 
Let me hear from you soon. You need not 
sign if you choose. I wdl know by tbe reply 
Your Friend 
(Signed) ,f. W. Fi,ow 


There are 216,330 school houses in the Unitetl 
States and only S.5 per cent of them are in 


Ml d b p d p mp 

3i^(iordiciil and >V|i1u:(l(')jjt|Q^ 

O^/W^m&V^ >0., 

^'-Qi^i'z^. .S^u*^ 

Example of Ornate Diploma work, made in The J 

Full size of Diploma, 16 ; 

of the Mississippi River, was awarded the 
diploma of merit and the silver medal at 
the world's fair in Paris for what it has 
done in the past <iuarter of a centurj to 
build up the schools and the interests of 
education iu tbe South and West. We 
congratulate Brother Merwiu on the ex- 
cellent work he is doing. 


when Mr, Oaskell was in the fiesh his wildest 
claims did not go beyond the development of 
a jinrfet't copy plate hand from the traditional 
" hijn tracks," Under its new promoters, how- 
ever, the magic of the "Compendium" ap- 
pears to have grown so potent thatit"evo- 
Intes" the subject^s signature iuto a brand 
new name and turns back Time's page ten 
years to give him a chance to get used to it. 

r. Boff'' 


Oaahntt'K C'otnpendlam Aual». 
An old friend of The Jodknal, a wel 
inown profeFsiunal penman, recently wrote ii 
IS follows: 



Tm Jc 



sod cl 


of Jau 

kelI'M C 

1 the 



W. F. 
lislii..! 1 



How many of Tde Jodiinal issues contain- 
ing Professor Hoff's lessons on teaching writ- 
ing in the public schools can you supply and 
what will they cost i—J. it. tf., Lajayetle, 

These lessons began with April, 1889, and 
ended with April, 1S90. April, 1889, May aud 
October are missing. The cest will be sent 
for $1, but some of the numbers are very low 
and before long we shall be unable to supply 

SealB for niploinat. 

the place designated for a seal. Isitn 

have a seal o 

1 diploi 

-rt. L. r., Mil- 

• be 

The clippings refeired t« i..ii 
fact£ stated in the l>-tt«r. Th • 
^an^on contain > 
tcstimoii-als and specimens of 
which Mr. Ciuskell used in hi^adve-'iiseJicals 
years ago, while the advcrlisi'meut brazenly 
states that they are speciniL>a.s of " recent ini 
" laying special slrcss on the words 

It is not necessary to have a seal, though 
most commercial colleges use them. The 
difilcnlty you speak of is easily obviated. You 
can procure ready gummed seals at a trifiing 
cost, and all yon have to do is to stamp the 
seal and attach it to the diploma in its proper 
place. These seals comein red, gilt andassorted 
colors, and give a pleasing accent to tbe 
diploma. A bit of ribbon inserted under the 
seal, a free end of two inches or so to 
bang down from it, also helps the effect. 
These seals are als:> used by many schools that 
do not employ a seal press or stamp. 

tu k 
whil H 

beauty, and will he accepted with gratitude 
by Muuson teachers, who are so sparsely sup- 
plied with helps. This addition to Mtinson 
literature -s homethiii;; to be thankful for. 

other ■• I'll.' M.n.'li;,iit •■( 
'■ Selections from America 
lag Emerson. Holmes, C( 
Hawthorne and Bmt Hwt 

Wants to Get Rich Quickly. 

The following letter, reprinted exactly 
as to spelling, punctuation and capitaliz;i- 
tion, was recently received by The Jodk- 
nal : 

Clay Hill York Co S. C. 

Sept 5th 161)2. 
Mr. D. r. Ame» New ^rk 

Dear Sir : 1 wrote to you some time a go 
Asking for a position feeling that I could be a 
benefit to you and my self, t observing through 
Professor Scott you were equipt for di"awmgs. 

Teacher: "Johnny, take the 
vent home.' Is 'went' a verb or noun'f " 
Johnny: "A verb." 
Teacher: "Next I" 
Willie: "A noun." 
Teacher: "Johnny is right. Willie, you 

"How many kinds of time ore there J" 
asked a music teacher in one of our public 
schools the other day. 

"Two," ou-iwered a small boy, after some 
hesitation on the part ot* tbe class, 

"What are they f" asked the teacher. 

" Day time aud night time," replied the boy. 

Teacher : " What are tbe names of the seven 
days of the week ? " 

Boy : " Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thui-sday, Friday, Saturday i" 

" That's only six days. You have missed 
one. When does your mother go to church V 

" When pa buys her a new bat." — Ti^tth. 

./iiiiniy : "because when pop was puttni' 
lowu the carpet this moruiu^ and hit bis thumb 
ivith the taclc hammer I laughed." — Boston 

Johnny: "Papa, I'll have to have a new 

■ Mil-key) : "Now, Mickey, yon 

1- ;id.) "Get onto de 
I iMi ,' Betcher life she 
> up do horse a runnin' i 


Many people suppose that rosewood 
takes it name from its color, bnt this is 
a mistake. Rosewood is not red, nor yel- 
low, but almost black. Its names comes 
from the fact that when first cut it ex- 
hales a perfume similar to that of the 
rose, and. although the dried rosewood of 
commerce retains no trace of this early 
perfume, the name lingers as a relic of 
the wood.— 5f. Louis Globk-Democrat. 



— n 

. Hill, the liriHiantyounn petm 

— U Wf*enian, Suiwrvwor o( Wntiog in the 
Public Schools of Colo. Springs. i» a warm 
friend and coostaut reader of The Jocrnal, 
which acoounb) in a measure for his being a 


Waltermire, whu was the penman of the Butte 
City College, goes with him. 

— F. F. Wildish, wbost- excellent work in „„ ..„^ .. 

the line of omflmeotal peumaanbip has been magic penmanHbip 


to the list of the " wonderful juniors." lnu^ 
yet under 1» .vt-Ars of a^e- His sptvm.> "> 
would surprise you. 

— Chas. A. Hinchee is Supt. of tli.- Bu*. 
Dept. of the Searcy College, also IhcCliII^Miy 
Pemnle Coll.. Iwth locat«d at Searcy. Ark 
Be has been doing good work in this capavuv 
for several years. 

— An evening school at C'>vington. Ky., 
has l«een oiMnM by A. E. Foster and Claude 
A. Rlter. 

— ThbJouRSai .1 !.■'. ■!- - 'li i>lifl-.ur\' 
of an iuvitatioii i>> I i-mdih^'o 
of IfOrenzo D. Hi i i! ^ '"■ '■■ 
Bouquet, which or, u; ■ i ^ i- -, r:il.. 

August 'ii. 

B. C. 


tobc fairly active, and new Kchool« are »priug- ^ Billlnghom. arc of the best. An attractive 
ing up elsewhere. We think it wiU be a gooa (.„t,ji„gne has been received from this institu- 
BcBoul year. tion. 

— LI- Gatewood, whose excellent work 
has been shown in TnK Journai.. has accepw*! 
a teaching podtion with the Ohio Bu«. Lui., 

— A late addition to the teaching force of 
Trimmcr'ii National B.C., Roanoke, \a., i» 
A H. Ca«.ell, lot*, of Dixon. III., whose work 
we rec^^ntly had occasion tu commend. 

— E. I-. Oiick reports business as good a' ''' 
Hudson, Mich, b, 
(Jllck. i* a teacher 
maniihip neemn ' 
those we have i 

shown in The JouR 

institution. Ihe t 

.._.„ _ _ , . J informed, is double 

1 tlie penM>n of L. responding period last ye 
ixperieoced shorthand t< 

..._^., ^ , \Vv .iir.-r o>ii^:rntU- 

connertod « ilh jatlons and best wishes. 

— The I liter-Mountain B. C. Oi;d<m. Utah, 
is well pati-onized by the cItisonR of that com- 
munity. J. A. Smith is prettident and W. H. 
Wright, pemuBu. 

■ T. J. Bisinger, the well known p-ti man 

any indication, the 

i brother. O. M. 

Briscoe is manager and L. W. Arnold assist^ 

A large, well illUHtratod catalogue 

A, C. 


catalogue from Ihe Erie, Pa., Shorthand and 
B. C. Another comos from the tlreeu Bay, 
Wis B. C, of which J. N. McCunn i« piopri- 

brieht leading paper from the Auburn, N.Y., 
B. C.. J. A. Willis and A. W. Dakin, propri- 

Bennett & Greer ure the proprietors. This Southern Shorthand & B. C, Atlanta, Ua.. 

schiwl. it may be recalled, was wrecked by the -■—=— ^■- '-« ->- ' ='-• 

never-to-be-forgotten Johnstown flood, as was 
noted in The Jour.val at the time. 

— J. E. Tuitle. who has b»en brushing up in 
his penmanship under the tuiliou of L. Mada- 
rasi, has accepted a pohition as principal of the 
Com. Dept. ol the Mo. Weeieyan Coll., Came- 
ron. Mo. 

— The Commercial Uludent is the title of a 
unique and well printed publication i-«uedby 
the Southern Bus Uni., Lynchburg, Va., of 
which Messrs. B. A. Davis nnd J. W, Uiles are 
principals, and W. A. Kosa, iwuman. We have 
also received from this iustitulion a catalogue 
containing a stylish pictorial cover and other 
illustrations by Mr. Ross. 

~ J. H. Bachtenkircher is back at Lafayette, 
Ind . and is one of the proprietors of the Union 
B. C. He is also Supt. of writing in the public 
schools, in which capacity be has charge of 
about 3.000 pupils. 

— Some of the most substantial and elabo- 
rate school catalogues that we receive come 
from the Canadian side of the border. One of 
these has just reached us from the Belleville, 
Out., B- C, of which Bobt. Bogle is proprietor. 

._. Kome. N. Y. His worl; i 

luented by the Home t/attii "• 

— Mr. and Mt^ H. H. K. i 

misfortune recently to Uty 

— The ninth annual 
Ohio Bui. Uni., Cleveland, 
tember 16. Diplomas were awardert to vi 

— D. L. Stoddnnl is back at Kalamaxoo. 
Mich., as the penman of Parson's B. C. 

- J. H. King, proprietor of tho Greenville, 

a brinht. well-edited jouinal btsides the regu- 
lar catalogue. 

— An art souveuirand catalogue coiues from 
the Upper Peninsular B. C, Marqui 

of the Normals B.C.. and is rated i 


hich E. C. Glenn is president and F. M. 
Londy secretary . 

— One of the largest and most elaborate 

City B. C, Quincy, III. It is illus*rat«d with 
scores of portraits and nenmanship cuts, 

— The new Spencerian B. C , Louisville. 
Ky.,has for its president Enos Spei 


the well- 

F. Fish, one of tho I 
North America. J . 
known penman, is also connected with the 

The secretary i: 

, olcan. N. Y., 
rilling the ser- 

Tboinpson was 
I ri>r a consider- 

- tiKO to engage 
u.nal welcomes 

. prosperous 


liiia 1':ilL t... 111. 

— Cuomod & ■-." - - - r- • ,. 

bus. colleges in Kansas— one at Atchison, the 
other at Lowreaoe. The joint catalogue of 
these institutions recently received indicates 
a gratifying degree of prosperity. 

— The prospectus of Warriner'sColl. of Com., 
Toronto. Out., has a busineai air about it 
which ought to and doubtless will, attract 

— S. D. Forbes, lat« of the Cincinnati, B. C, 
has been encaged to have charge of the com- 
mercial work of the Lynn, Mass.. High School 
at a libei-al salary. 

— G. E. Snyder leaves Porter B. C, 
Plain, N. Y., to teach at the T< 
Com. Coll. 

— C. V. Fulton has 


— J. R. Anderson of Barnesville, O.. has en- 
gaged to teach at Brown's B. C. Peoria, 111. 

— The third aiiiiuiil I alalot,'""-- of the Highland 
Park, Nornml ''..ii it, - M-.m^'v, In . is fuU of 


flourished il 

ient«l c 

— The Decatur, III.. Bus. Uui., has got i 
its new quarters, Gosbcrt & OwiJn, the ei 
getic prourie ' 
congratu ' 

— LaSalle, III., ho-s a well equipped business 
college, uf which B. J. Toland is proprietor. 

— l.i.iii- T I' i- ii Hju head of a well at- 

tenil'>< ' I ' 11) Cincinnati, and has 

aimiii. I Kv., which has growth 

iu II I' I ! I rijil shorthand reporter 

inted in Tn 

iL iinl Ueitniber. 
ViJttnliny Housf. 
comphmeut to ib 

Haute, Ind., 

)ept. of the 

-copt the y 

supervisor of penmanship in the public schools 
of Butte City, Mont. His successor at Bucynis 
is J. W. Hooko. Both are eulhusiBsiic pen- 
men and ten('lji>rs 

— A h>iiMl-.>piM' i!lM-t, III. .1 prospectus 

reprinted iu tl 
don, which is quite 

— A lively lookiug catalogue with a particu- 
larly handsome cover explains the advantages 
of the Ft. Worth. Texas. B. C, of which F. P. 
Preuitt Is pi-esident oud J. W. Ware penman. 

— Prin. W. E. Drake of the Jersey City B. C. 
occupies a full column in some of the local 


— W. J. Ives is now solo proprietor of the 
0:*kaloosa, la., B. C..C. E. Blgelow having re- 
tired from that institution. 

■ All the commercial branches, including general tine pern 

— W. F. Giesseman had a largej 
exhibit at the Iowa State Fair, liel 
The exbihil oyu>.ist.-d nf engrossii 

bestowed, t^iv 

— In a letter that would attra' 
anywhere for the quality of its penniauship, 
Geo. I. Fuller. Waterbiiry, Conn., writes: 
'• As an enthusiastic student I have found Thk 
Journal a great help and iuspiratiou, and 
mean to help along its circulation as niui-h as 

jUv'' photographs of two ornamental designs 
rg,' business cutedby^im. He excel* in script [H-n. 

r of yeoi"8 has been 

1 heavy stroke in the 
F, L. T)yl{'. Sponcprir 

shorthand, are taught at St. Paul's College, St. 
Paul Park, Minti,, under *' = ' 

. C. which 

Another of Mr. Dakin's specialties for years 
has been mail instruction, hundreds bt-iug in- 
debted to him for their penmanship skill. Tbe 



penman and commercial 1 

— Pres, Jno. R Cassin of the Spt)kane. 
Wash.. B. C, reports a bright outlook at that 

aU and other pictorial designs. 

— Barnes' Shorthand and Typewriting 

Magazine, St. Louis, has come tn life again 

gilt edged penman. 

— TheCatouNat. C. C 
euoies four entire floors i 
dbuildini^of that city. 

The growth of ha' 

Fahmsl'icU. Mc 
College: C. J. Btckei , Kal 
C. C.: W. C., 
E. Morriss, Oakw.iod, Mu 
of other beautifully writti 


institution. He'i» a pushing n 

— J. W. Runcie, the i 
per, Kan., Normal r 

r of the Har- 
lol & B. Chas added 
o'the growth of that institution in a 
short period. Penman " 
him. rhe shorthau<l v 
tntendence of James Miles, Jr. 

— One of the old^^t nnd m >st stable business- 
teaching institutions in the South is Moore*s 
B. C, Atlanta, Ga. The twenty-fourth an- 
nual announcement, recently received is neat 
and tasty. 

— J. A. Christiuan, a capable penman and 
experienced commercial teacher, has charge of 
the Heidelburg B. C, Tiffin, O. He is one of 
the rising men of the profession. 

— The la. Com. Coll., Davenport, enjoys the 
s of three good penmen, not counting its 
■nt. B.C.Wood, who is "way up "^ m 
I. The others are H. S. Blanchard, L. 

b. teter, Geo. W. F. Kubne. 

— Chas E. Baird. is making a success of his 
work in charge of the Oenewo, III., Collegiate 

— T 

are well satisfied with the outlook. 

— All the commercial branches, iucludii 
penmanship, shorthand and typewriting, a 
taught at tbe Tillotaon Acad., Trinidad, Coli 
by J. C. O. Tompkins, an experienced and c 
pabltf pwDmun. 

that a 

the annual cutnlogue of the Elmira Coll. of 
Commerce, of which N. A. Miller is the head. 

—A clean printed and nice looking "out- 
line" has been received from the Stillwater, 
Minn,. B. C. W. P. CaiilMd. Prin. 

^ \ihitii. I iM II pi ml. ■! ' ■(iii|ii>;ue is from the 
1. ,! , , ■ II. I i: f" , ■ 1 'aIiu'Ii J. F. Barnes 

of the Biiyl 
Sparta. Wh 

—We find In 7'A^S?udi"nf,ValparaiM>, Ind., a 
welt written end highly interesting account of 
the stirring scenes which were enacted in the 
ityof San Antonio. Texa^^, duiing tbe Mexi ~ ~ 

fact which makes it unique among the e 
prising citi>^ of the Empire State. 

— Wm. N. Smith looks after the commer- 
cial and penmanship departments of the N.W. 


— The State Normal School. Greeley, Colo., 
has an art dept., which includes penmanship, 
in charge of Edgar L. Hewett. The Greeley 

ney \'t.; F. 1. 
hlaf».; A. L. S|>e 

'bkeepsie, N. Y ; 
Mr. Moore's let 
isheddeslgu, whi 

d, Put- 

Texan war. This " Storv of the Alamo " is by 
E. M. Barber, late teacher in the Alamo City 
B. C, but for the two year« connected 
with Packard's B C. of this city. Mr. Bar- 
ber's good work in this capacity has, by tbe 
way, earned for him a promotion to the head 
of <>ne of the most responsible departments of 
Packard's College. 

Rice& Kern, who havt- had charge of the 
e parted com- 
having opened 
. Utah. E. W. 

Wis. Bus. Uni.. Mil 
Wilmot is president. 

— Tbe York. Neb., Coll. of Com. is in 
charge of C. F. Warren, who was lately con- 
nected with a B. C. at Toledo, la 

— N. C. Brewster has nearly completed his 

The tortoine is tbe longest 
mala. Many have attained 
years, while one is known to 
age of 4.50 yinro. 

showy and beglBohi 

•faould be, cbci 

orili at leant «!■> 

: Salt Lake Citi 


The Penman's Leisure Hour— Continuing The Journal's -Galaxy of Flourishers " Series. 

Tl„/lr,l out «bm,- is h, Oeo. nmsM. SM,»lcr Coll. of Co,,,-, Mmmyunk. PUIla. : (k. ,„iddle design i„ hy c. R. Walle,; N,.r,o,„ v,;.k 1« • ami )*.. (,„„„„ „„, fc„ 
C i. i,„66,. /.„.»„„. Ore, B C. ^«' monj* tk. fea,.„ of Ms a,part..,nt .ill t. a lar„, „.»Lr-p,>„ ,..j M. B. Moor,-. 1,0^^.. Z f "Zap ,t 
shounesi and mast elaborate design of hU that has euer been engraved. , u . ii. ,, ,s prrnaps rne 

~Cyen/na/y> (::iytitQyoicma,(3 

Penmaaahip DrSollloo 

-Tr ADclrnt 

..._.„. .. \hii thfrf art 

"mtiualM'' and " miuiUi.'" » to npeak. 
Our briaht young frirnd, J. f. Tyrrelt of 
JUUwavIue, ia resutmtiblt for the onr 
above, ami thin in hia dflicntory fomm^nt : 
• Th€ * mxMnat ' i* merklu dediciled to Frof. 

, who I am informed ha* a great 

' ■ the mUtat of ancient per- 


A BuBY DAT.—Itecording Angel : " I want 

some assijitancc to-day . " 
Michael: " Wbat Is the matter !" 
Rtcording Angel: "Three sewing circles 

meet thta afternoon. "—A^fU' York Herald. 
Employer: '"You put that note where it 

will bo iiuro to otlract l)r. Smith's -"—*—- 

wboD he cooien in. didn't you 
O^ce Boy : '• Yes. sir ; I ' 

it and put It OD bi» (.-hair 

When ft boy begins 
leiDg told It 18 a sign i 
ordeat of liis first luve alTair 


to trnmp. 
' You seem 

) have a good appe- 

cQUght a bear. 

Mr. f!r"fr-'>',rurn 
tbnt ^VrsMii u..ri,.i 

AfM. '. '■■■'• 

-DetruU J ,r. /...v 

A certain |»reacher, diiwoureiag upon Bun- 
yau and hl8 works, caused a titter among liis 
Learora by exclaiming ; " In these days, my 
brethren, we want more Bunyans."' 
One Fingered Jake tlius spake : 



I Miid hn lied, 

I him, along its r 

Zip! Klip! Hill was right." 
Edith ; " You can't imagine bow Mr 
fioch complimeuted your singing." 

" Old he, though r" 

Yes. he said it was simply 



'twftB simply unearthly."— tfo«(o>i Courier. 

firowth of the Human Animal. 

Observations resiirdiiiK the growth of 
man have detennini'd thi'ftjUowiiig inter- 
eating lacts: The most rapid growth 
takes place immediately after birth, the 
growth of an infant during the first year 
of its existence being about eight hichi 
This ratio of increase gradually decreases 
until the age of three years is reached, at 
which time the size attained is half that 
which it is to become when full grown. 
After five years the succeeding increa.'^e 
is very regular till the sixteenth 
year, being at the rat«, for the average 

man, of two inches a year. Beyond six- 1 
teen the growth is feeble, being for the 
following two years abimt six-tenths of 
an inch a year, while from eighteen to 
twenty the increase is seldom over one 
inch. At twenty-five the growth ceases, 
save a few exceptional cases. — Happy 


OUainguee, NerrrpaptTs, PtuiUtgrtipfw, . 



teacher of bookkeeping, sbnrt 
mam and typewrlttn? (RemlairK 


'rEiCHRR of bookkeeplnz and comn 
J clul arlthmecic. quallHed also to handle 
other braachea usually tuuehl in a commer 
collet, except peamnnsliio. Is ready for 
mentat any time. Ten seirs' succes 
>l room exoerlencp. " COMMEKOIA 

of assistlne la bnokkccpiDK. cirrcspond- 

oolleKe He«t of i 

POSITION WANTED by a well-educated 

_ profcsBlooal teachei 
irltbmctic, higher mattie 
brauches end sciences, wli 

ho has had iS ye 
Hearty at any ti 

uustuess, ia open to eogagement. 
wita a moderate salary, ''orresuoi 



band <le] 

TKD.-Two tracbers. fully oompctcnt 
» take cbann- of commercial or shori- 
lepartment. .Must l>c able to take one 
nd dollars' stook. To right parlies this 
law oiwoinir for permanent buslneis. 
•RMPLOyMKNT," care Pknman'k 

plain and or 
pable of teachinii c< 

dress MKRHILL i 

lal branches Apply 
' photOKniph. 8peci- 

S rOLLEGb, Stam- 


Business College that has made for I 

Address- H.. 

i Art JorRNAL. 

WANTED —To corrcspood with all travol- 
luir leathers of pcumanDhip. We have a 
bonaoKH lor them. Write. cnclnBln? specimens 
or work. Address "BONANZA." care Pbn- 

The Secret out! 


the lendlnir p^omfi <> 
nnmvly: W. V- Gies-^. n 
fend for cataloiruc 
MGHAN, Pr«ld«'nt 

FOH, S^4.1L.E. 

Citabllshcd '20 year«. 

A Biisiiic^Colie)£el( 
population. Has bet 
draws patronage from seven States: has no com- 
petition. It has fraachisas possessed by no 
other businesa college in the U. S Will tell for 
icss than valuo of the franchises if taken with- 
in the next sixty days. This is the cheapest 
property in America. Do not answer this ad- 
verttsumeot unless you can furnish at least 
$4,1)00 us first payment. .Satisfactory renaons 
for selling. Address 




It is a common-sense self-instmctor i 
plain and omameutal penmnni^hi]). I 
contains 2.") beautiful plates, size ot viw 
1' . X wi„ inches, and ii book of iu^tnu 


II i.-iu-ln;8 Card Writing. Business WriHrii 
Pmi.y U'niinki. oiT-Hand VlounshtiiH. Pen i.e 

1( ti-lls Imw to iMJcome a succeatful Cur 
iviiter. It ttlh liow to teach penmanship. 
ajIIh Iiuw to make penmansliip pay. It coiitali 
i^he luo^t bcaiiliful. bold, dasny and simnti 
:ouies of any work on penmanship yet pm 

It was gotten up expressly to inspire pu|>il« 1 


ord to be 
tpitomecomplftf* lasenl to any 
!lpt of JI.OU. CircHlnmf tfe. Add 




l'ix-«isi-ly tilt* Best Fons iimilt-. If tlinfa tlic 

kind you want, eclid 30 cents Tor 

quarter gross ; tl.oo for gross. 

fftlLDS Soiiif of the most attractive novelties in cuts ever made — Me 

Rl/SINFSS '"°^' attractive, we think — are to be found in our New Adv. Cut 
\ /TV'vr r prv Catalogue. It is way out of sight of anythitig in this line ever 
I'® issued. The beauty of it is, that while the cuts are the best 

'made, they cost only about one-lhird what you could have even poorer cuts 
especially made to order. We have another cut catalogue showing ornate 
initials, end-pieces, &c. The school that hasn't these catalogues is simply 
" going it in the dark." Either will be sent for 15 cents, both for 25 cents, which may be 
deducted from first purchase amounting to $1. 


to get the best when 

DIPLOMAS.— Not being rushed 
spring and summer, we are prepared 

g your engraving? Are you getting the *cjr r««//r,^ Compan 
s/utr/i»esi, j'c/icoc/, iitibrifkctmess, (leamtii of line. It ought to be 
than you pay for ordinary. 

a TO eeeon^^ 



Modern, rraclinil ) 

9 l>rlUs.andlDdlvldual In 

. Prflirresslve The 

Finest Ponman'a Supplies 
" Frosress," tt x tS, worth »iui 
Business Writing, treah from 

IteautifU'ly Illustrated Catalogue, stiovintr 

_ jdinf'- -■ ' -1 —-_ =-- 

pen, 91.SO. 

a dlod In tut>e, postpaid, 50 c 

FeD Studies*'* twelve graded studies (or home atudente In pea drawing. Ml ceuts. . .. 


'^Cye/wmrui Q^^TALC^yotUAiiccj^ 

An Old School in a New Location, 

Main Bulldlog. S6& Feet 'Front. 


BeHutiful, bealtliv location, matrnitlceat buildines, fine equiinacnt^ (water t^roulrllout 

rii li(-flt fi..,fii.' itL'hf ^liitp hlMckhniiiilf. ptr )_siinrrior nccommnrintioiis, amcrcsln cunipuc 

I nni) Christian inUucDcts 

I'lml' the C(iMMEUCI\L 
I iMMEHCIAL department 



G. WALT WALLACE, Principal. 

Ilai-.- )>, prinriPiil nl tlip (iRpni-trat^nt uml makt-s u specialty df d 

iste^' hns plain penmanshiT: 

I penmni 
ogh. Mrs. G. W.Walla 

e hav. ii>r •.■it<.t\ ill- roiirses: 1. Pron-N<«lounl. 3. IllustratlDe. 3. Public 

Srliodt Coiirvr. 
I" -■<ii.>rk (amiht. Whnt t^ • ' ' i' 'I nrnainentftl writintr (inchidinu 

hi i I I. II u ii-:i, letteilng. de9iinii[i-- ■ tin BDd brusb, tlourishinir. piirtly 

1 I - : ilriiwiDC from the < ;i-i . ■ '';il and ink; OUt-donr Slietchinu ; 

1 1 1 M' .||IL^^ NIL- III iirR". stipple anil hat i-li : i' i ^ . .i n- tiiid drawing; methods of teacli- 

i; , Li'jiv;i>-it"-i jHu-inttine and methods ut |ii' i'umh- 'Iv-i;^ii^ lurengrnving by all processes; 


We will pay the railroad fare of all students from their homes to Lincoln, provided the^ 
epreaentontheopeniujf dayof theFallTei-m. WHITE FOR PAKTKULAHS. 

Fall Term Begins September, 1892. Catalogues and Circulars FREE. 

WM. M. CROAN, Pres't, or W. J. KINSLEY, Secy and Treas. 
"Western ITorma-l College, 




Good positions are always open for all that are proflcientin pen diinvlnurand text lettering 
I of the yon 

!i that ( 

f purs 


Is iJicidLilly [lie lust published. More alphabets and tinting than in all other 
combined. Is iiiiiallj' adaptfd to automutic Sha " 
Pointed Pens. Hecipc for ail colors of Shading Ink 
1 pays for both 

MarldnK, Double. Triple and Hroad 
ed. Price by mail $1.50. 

Instruction in both Is very plain. 

xplfcit and most complete. 


The best place to become an nll-roimd Penman. Artl^it and Teacher in the United States, 
■ouree Is most comprehensive and practical— tnatructlon unexcelled— eight boiirB per day. 
uitlon and board reasonable. 

Book, MatrazliiL' Covi?rs, Title Pages. Diplomas. &c.. &c,. executed and engraved in stiperioi 



"Lessons In Hapld Wrltlng."byH. A. Howard 
and E. h- Bron-o. is the best system of penman- 
ship ever devised. Thirty-three pages of pholo- 
eagraved writtnir. One huodred pages in all. 

Initials, etc., and bouod 

in flexible pebbled cover, with gilt side stamp. 

Mailed to any address on receipt of One Dollar. 

Descriptive Circular and Terms to Agents on 


One Thousand Dollars 



2 of $100 each $200.00 

4 of 50 " '.iOO.OO 

13 of 25 " ,100.00 

30 of 10 " 300.00 

48 amounting to $1,000.00 

Each contributor to remit $1.00, for 
which full value will be given in a gross 
of ft new pen and a new penholder, 
stamped, respectively, the Poet's pen and 
the Poet's penholder. Poems must not 
exceed 24 lines. Lines not to average over 
8 words. Write name on separate sheet 
from poem and send before ,Ian . let, 1893. 
Awards made by competent judges as 
soon after as practicable. Send postal 
for circulars. 

20. John St., New York. 

"A Perplexing Question.*' 

If you are thinking of introducing SHORT- 
HAND into your school, or .ire not sitisfied with 
the system you are already teaching, send for 
a new 32-page pamphlet entitled : 


This new and ele<;ant book present?! 
the principles of Qraham phonography 
in a very clear and systematic manner. 
It saves time and labor and prevents 
discouragement. Position taught from 

The simplicity of the rules and their 
freedom from exception insure higher 
speed and greater legibility. Number 
of word-signs greatly reduced. Large 
type, elegant paper, beautiful engraving. 
The cheapest and best text-book. Sent 
postpaid, securely wrapped, for $l 5c, 

To teachers, with a view to intro 

Bryant & Stratton Publishing Co., 

Good Writing is Capital! 

THE BEST FEN■l^a:A-l^T 1 



writing It. with 
stamp, and I w' 
band, price list 

tended Movem 

Cards. Flourlehtng. 

I you addre«sed In mv own 

._. _jtiv9of Lessons by Msfl, Ex- 

ded Movements, Tracing Exercises, Capitals, 



'YOU KNOW '-r' 


. rOrV I FA2U£n S CALL 

All iillrartivc ciil for Catu/oi/iie Displiii/ or lilr 
Made iu The Journal Office. 


ibout 2 X 3H in., line fhill surface ; 1.5 cents i)ei 

TJEIE CiOOX>-S-E.A.H. X>XTJSXiX8:BCZZa'<3- ooB/zi'.A.xa-sr 

. .HGs- (;oi<i.B(:e cuii 

ON ^ 

jiar niovemeni Wrltlnir.; By S H, Qnodyew. author of the Oootlyear Ct>maierclai;serlea. It ta i>ropftred for 
'I'l-h'* 11^"""^ """;'' **'*''■'"'''■ """"il 1" iiianllaciivtTM. i.ercnpy 2 & cents ; Diund Id cloth, with side ilamp, per copy, so'cenia. Special raies lo aohaolR' 

,^ ., „ lor Roplda. lown, or washlnKKin, D. C. 

a Sixty Lci 

'C^^na/Ci (iTVtt' C^u tAXiW 


Look at this U»t: There's about the same proportion in every State. 


. Hoitlcmakfr, Stonhnl 

All the above named "Graham" wi 

Book ov Stasdark PnnNor.RAi-Hv, the be 

Send for a free cn|.y <>i An. Anon \ 

tcrs learned the ^yslcm from Ihc Ha 
: shor(hand text book ever published. 
[oNor.RAi-iiY. the larnesi and handsoti 


Author and Publisher, 

744 Broadway, New York, 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting, 

744 Broadway, New York. 


lArpeetlikoeJ-lalilishmmt inthftworM Flrst- 
cIoBsSocpnd-hftn.! InBLnnnt-jilsat Lftlf n.-wpncj-fl. 
Unprejudiced aJiic« civen un all uiukc^. Wa- 
clilneB sold od moothly pajTnentB. Any Instni- 
tneotmaoufactQredBbippwljpriTllejtetoexflin ne. 
EXCHAMJi^O AFPECIA.LTY. Wbolosale Drlcca 
■ ■ lHustrated Catalogues Free. 



w pamphlet of Infur- 
latloii. by the editor of 
it'ccftl)/. that tolls how tij 

S K O R. T H-A-lSr D . 

Book sent to colleges for i 

H. M. PERNIN, f^tf 

Detroit, ... ii^ioli. 

)ArK nithbebs < 


Mrs. Packard's Complete Lessons 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 


The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
/eporter of 25 years' experience, author of "Aid to Graham." 
" Shorthand Copy-Book," &c., President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It docs not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
System in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system l)y reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are uncqualed in tlie histor}- 
of shorthand teachers. The publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The bo(jk. beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will he sent 
by mail post-pnid to anv address on receipt of the price, $1.50. 

«i«lF1FTH edition es 


THE BL'RROWS BROTHERS CO., Publishers, ,.^ 
23 to 27 Euclid Avenue, - Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Benn Pitman System of r honography 


American System of Shorthand. 



wlthTpw p]tcoutlons,"nH"bii»lii««s coUcbp* m>w h«Va » " dciwruni 

hAiKl " A DuiDt)«r uf ajstcni* nrv tauKbt, but ihKr oIUpdu «•■» 

Ik m'ore itrD**rnlly UReil than hiit ulbor In intn cauiiiry. niid 
msT b« cnlled tlie •• AmMicmn Hi«eiii "-Kjrtrfl** /vt.m rAr Kr 
i^rioj tKt ' ommtwioiwr 0/ IMM«i«on Wathington. O. t\ . for th* yrar 


has since 1855 been the standard tfxt-book o( shorthand instruction in Amerun. It 
has been twire revised and re-writlen (in 1800 and in 1885)— llie hiat time li.v IViin 
Pitman and Jerome B. Howard in collaboration— and it is now more largely usiii in 
.\merican schools of shorthand, business colleges, seminaries, academies, public sfli,,.ils 
and colleges, than are all other jhorthimd textbooks combined. It has reachid il* 
275th thotisand and is now issued at the rate of over 25,000 copies n jear. It contHins 
U4 duodecimo pages and retails at $1.00 a copy, in cloth covers, or $.80 a coiij in 

.lerome. B. Howard, is the ,>!jl\ oMUtial Irxt-liook besides tlie .Vmuifi/, and cuikIihIs 
tbe student to the bii.r,st siiie of uriiiiii; u^ed by professional repjrten. 12nio, 
18- pages. Price in cloth, *l.jr,; in li.iarcls. tl.OO. 


B. Howard. Large 8v", It "t t ,■ i.ii;,s monthly, among which are eight pages ol 

beautifully lithographed phoiutii sl„,rtliand. A periodical complement to llic text- 
books and the authentic organ of the Benn Pitman system of Phonography. Sub- 
scription price, $1.50 a year. Now in its sixth volume. Vols. I-V in cloth covers, 
$a 50 each. 

Send for 


en pages of all photiogrHpliic [mblu iiti 

A liberal discount will be made to all schoola and to teachers 
of Phonography, and special prices will be quoted for introduc- 
tion and exchange. 




. LAND - o'WTJERS r::r/„g/i;'.;;g 
Aaentsra IXW:> Cash 

M££2^JiXf^^*^'^St. foljIsJWo. 


ICHWATER MARK of the penmakers art. 




Better made, 

Runs easier, does 

Better Work, and 

More of it, than any other. 

Constantly improved. 


Wyckoff, Scamans & Benedict, 

!27 Broadvvav, New Yi.rk. 


Learn Shorthand? 

I have applications continually for 

mng men which I cannot fill. I could 

ive l-'cnted two or three times as many 

young men thf last year if I lia<i the* 

There is no belter field forsmMrt ynunR 
1,1.11 til. in sliorthand Writing. L'-t it tie 
,1 -!• [tiniiL.' 1 1 Hit- for something hiyhiT. 

SPANISH '.iii«ht by mail and person- 
,,ll^ .^i.:unrirds t-,nKht English, Buh- 
ioe.-^-H men furnished competent Slen- 
ographers without charge for my services. 

08WECO, N. Y. lit 

W^^ rJ/e/wuin^(l^tk,C'Oj'otuna/o 








Adapted for use with or without Tcxt-Book. 

and the only set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 



^Ki n\|i i:i -.i-.Tss SERIES.> ^iiiMii- -ii.-,,i* innde with Business 
(;oIlege^* ami IMMh- :uii1 I'iUju.- Selioola fur intru- 

Tue best Pen lu the U.S., and best peumen use them, 


Thi3 IVn, I II. .■.■,!) ' y .!■■■ i-'ii' title, is manufac- 

turedfifilj. I..- !!■ fullyselened. They 

I'lilillc and Private 

r^. ': i-tiMid. on receipt oi 


n«& l2I William St.. N, Y. 



UTS Uuslntuui HoUi'ge. Wui 



GOLD MEDAL, Paris exposition, 1889. 


Written on the fin- 
est quality of curds 
in all possible styles 
and combitiatious 
by a man who stand? 
without a superior 
ill this line of work, 
for only 40 cents. 




res!i,aiid will be ready for ilie Irar 
nthmetiu, Commt;rclal Law, Cui 


DmwlDK are In course Of prepara^on'^'or full Tnfortioiition address A'J.CATON, 90 

niuiile coi.v will bu sent, upon rt-celpt 

ed eoon. O 
pby. Shorthand, Typi 

tklktn , advertisin' pays 



Duiansbip, by mail, for only $;i.00 cuab In 

)ve been more successful and have taugtit 
pupils by mail than any other penman in 
;ouiitry. Many of tbf llnest iipnmen and 


College circulars. 



enables you to read re3ult9 in addition (long or abort columns) and all of the every-da}- 
computatious of the counting house as easily, rapidly and accurately aa one reads print 
from word pictures. The only full development of this wonderful method publishel. 
Cloth, 7x9, *1 permnil. Address C. C. Cochran, Ljclt Box 573, Chicago, 111. 

Over 200 letters of recommendatiOQ received, of which the following arc sample ex 
From Geo. F. Schoel, l^ years old, now bookkeeper for Magnolia Iron Co. ; salary $75 

onth : 

1 bookkeeper— salary 812 p 

have done the work 1q this omoe except for your Kapid Drills. 
CniCdOO CAB A.JfD LireJCr CO , Sept. S«, 1S9 
the employ of 

pally to your Rapid Add 
From E. M. Slandish, aged 20. 
BOBJtf.AAr M1L,K Atil> HAIRY CO., Mar. 2S, tSOt. 
"U is now si I months Biu'ie I secured my place and I 

KJC'Sfif anrarlv ndvani^e. 1 wish to say that I placd 1 
rills and obort ITuts." 

Mr. Slandish is now bookkeeper for R. B. Crouch, 0.1 Merchant, Chxago, III. 
difficult and responsible position. 

FromU. B. Hardy, bookkeeper for 
I'. C. WILSOX * CO., Sept, Its, 189 
" Tour Uttpld Addition Drills 

iiiimltad V 

' muntb, with pioM- 
our Rapid Addition 

r-day worlt,caabltDjf metouddlongcol 
0/ C. S. SOSE (C CO., Chicago, TIK 

'Rapid Addition Drills and Short Cuts are 

D be of Inestimab e 

of Hffures with speed, ease and accuracy.' 

ef foothold with above flrms" 

C. S. UUffEltS, Uuokkeeper. 

Price List of 

Penmen's and Artists* Supplies. 



JUCua' Book of Alpbat>et«. . 

muBhIp 18 00 

■ ■ ibeta 1 BO 

[itlcal and ArtlsUo Pen- 

lanablp. In paptjr SOu.- In cloth 7B 

Ame*.' Conv 81l"8 for f^eif-Tcacbero . . 
rd Praottoa 
Brotbara . 

otuDdard Praottoal Peomansntp, Dytae apea- 


New Spenoerlan Compendlam, complete hi 8 

Lord's Prayer 19x24 

" undlng Stag 24x82 

>url9bed Eagle MxSi 

KIbbe's Alp&aneta, five allps. SSo.; complete 

Old RnKli^h Alphabet, per slip, 5c ; per dor.. 

German Text Alphabet 

ui aui Memorial eeuta uiohea 

Pamlly Record 18xSt " 

Marriage Certlfloate 18x28 " 

" '• 1I1I4 " 

darfleld Memorial 18x34 

Lord's Prayer. 
Bounding Stag 
Flourished Ea^: 
Ct!Qtenulal Iloture of Pn 

Eiilotiy of Lincoln ai 
CARDA. CAR fi^fi;; 

Note.— We can »upp>v "' 
tj-ctvt the article »latea below. 

uc^.'originarsuid artistlo, per' pack of 60, 

lOObymaU ,W 

BOC " 

1000 " f4.50; by express . ... 

Bristol Board, S-Bbeet thick, 88x28, perabeet. 
" a!xS8 per sheet, by expreas... 

French B. B.. 24x84, " " 


Kithing i 

Grey Board. 22x28, per sheet, by ex.. 
d length (the very thine for 
r yard (by pxpreas), 

tine penmansbtp! 

Black Card-board, asi 

Black Cards, per 100 w 

Black Cards, per 1000, by express 8 00 

per sheet, quire 

Whatman's oy mall, by ex. 

Drawing paper, hot-press. I!sx30..t -IS $ 1 »> 

17x23.. .20 2 00 

19x24.. .20 2 30 


.05 7 

equality Tracine Paper, yard 1 

White Ink, per bottle, 
Qold Ink. per b< 

paste torra. per i 

Penman's Fa' 
BnKTOSBlnfPens (or lettering, 

iiTr "-- '-^ 


rrawTng, doz.. 

Sonnecken Pen, tor text letteting— Double 

.■' Points— set of three 

-Broad— set of five. , 

h 10c. ; p 

0.; per dozen, I ( 

lullTPen, very fine, 

^ - Q, for te 

of three. 

___of five 85 

Oblique Penholder, each 10c. ; per dozen 1 00 

"Double" Penholder (may be used either 
straight or oblloue). each '~ 

-.- Jght -, 

Oblique Metal Tips (adjustable to any holder), 

eaohSc; perdozen 

Writing and Measuring Ruler, metal edged. . 

" plain 

New Improved Pantograph, for enlarging 01 

diminishing drawm 

i B'nder. a tine, stIfT, t 

Ready Binder, a simple device for b'^Idlng 

New Handr Hinder, light a 
Common Sph 

binder, Jocrnai. size, very d 
Roll Blackboarus, by expreas. 

No. 1, size a x3 feet 1 iio 

No. 8, " SHx^feet... iw 

No. 3. " 8 X4 " 3 00 

Stone Clotb, one yard wide, any length, per 

vard, elated on one side 1 SB 

4H Inohes wide, per yard, slated both sides. S S& 
Liquid giatlng. the best In use, for walla or 

wooden boards, per gallon .. 00 

on good bank note paper Is kept in stock, and 
orders will be filled by return of mall or express. 
The fraotluDal denominations are : 1 's, 5's, lO's, 2Q'8 
and 50's. In convenient proportions; the bills are 
in the denomliiatluns of I'b. 2'a, 6'8. lO's. 20'8, 50'n, 
100s 600's and 1,000's, whkh ure printed on sheeta 
i)f lifteen bills each. They are prupurtioued so aa 

make3o«M.a(p/w.2;IrM 2 ■• - •• -•• 

the '20. 50, 100. 500 and 1.000 d 

e different denomtna- 

the demands and c 
le. We cannot fu 
>ns than those na 
Dd at additional o 

if display 01 
• timat_ 

M-nd for estimates. 

,t of the thousands of ( 

work on penmanship In print ; 

orders are assured of prompt and efficient sendee. 


^"^^ "cJm/nan^ QyttCCL^tunjo/o 

U/illiansO I^oc^ers' ^ommergal Pijb!ieatio95 


nlv . 


NKW H(MiKi<i:i:i'iN(:, 



^tfoU of n 








PEN-WlilTTEN COPIES (Reproduced), complete edition, 
PEN-WRITTEN COPIES (Reproduced), abridged edition. 

■ ..)0 

I Practice fur Commercial Schoolf, Blanic Books, Bunncsn Forms, College Van 
and Shorlliand IHploman and other Commercial School Siiitplies. 

or examination at haU price. Specim 

onials, sent free to teachers oa applica 



Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 


The following helps in teaching Munson Phonog- 
raphy are offered to the fraternity, at prices 

/. — Short Reading Lessor>s, as follows: 

The luii^lish Tongue— Words of one syllable— The Girl Amen- 
iicnsis.— I'.tre in a Horse Car— Illustrated.— Return of the Birds. 
Daniel Webster's Speech at Albany. -The Babies— Mark Twain 
and The World We Live In.— Talmage— Testimony— Taken from 
Mr. Munson's Court Notes. — Law Forms. 

/'rice, lo crtits each, or three for i'i cents. 
2. — Fifty-two pages of readirtg matter prepared for use in classes, 
printed on one side of the leaf, and divided into short num- 
bered paragraphs, including ; 

Short Words Are Best— 6 pages —Success in Business— By Hor- 
ace Greeley — 29 pages. — A Talk to Young Stenographers — 8 pages. 
Post Offices on Wheels— 7 pages— .\n Interesting Reminiscence— 
2 pages. 

Pi ice. I ccnl per page. 

3. — How to Make a Living. 

A book of 79 pages. Cloth binding. 

4. — Lessons in Munson Phonography— 35 leaflets (including Con- 
tractions) to be used in connection with the Complete Pho- 
nograph er. 

Price, One Dollar. 

S — E.Kercise Book, to accompany lessons, in form of reporter's note 
book, with spaces for phonographic outlines. This book saves 
the labor of writing about 2,700 words and phrases in long hand. 
Price. 30 cents. 
6. — List of Contractions, with phonographic outlines and " An Incon- 
sequent History " illustrating them (with key) — 14 pages. 
Price. 15 cents. 
Sent on receipt <>f money, 

S. S. PACKARD, P ublisher. 
101 East 23d Street/ New York. 

<^ /? l^/(/BBE. 
-- '^ /a/ TREMONT ST., 


nietic leaches it. A short, simplf. 
method by E.C.ATKINSON. Pri 
Sacramento Business CoIleRe, Sac 
Cal. By mail, 50 cents. Address; 


scd in Busi 

t be had? 

The Counting House, 535 pp., Retail, - $2.00 
" Commercial, 41 I '• " '■§'-' 

•' Essential , 303 " " 1.25 

cs of either of the above will be sent to teachers onlll for cxamina 
,aiof\Son Hi one-half retail prices. Address W. H s.ii.lkr. Pr 

ion with 


This is the latest work in a series of text-hooks by the sainf pnlili»lier». Like 
the popular books preceding it. Plain Ell(;liHh Iiiw heeu prepared for nsi 
Busitiess Colleges and Schools that teach practical subject" in a practical way. The 
book is just from press. Specimen pages mailed free to any adcUcBS. A sample 
copy, post paid, for 60 cents. 

Spelling and Letter Writing, now in its 34th thoiisaad. TypcwritlnB 
Instructor and Stenographers' Hand Book, pnbliflhc<l this year, is used by the . 
lar.gest and best schools. Shortlmnd, nearly ready, will he a model book on tbil ^ 
subject. Bookkeeping and Coninicrcial La%v. in preparation. For full in-' 
formation, address the pnblishers. Spciiecr, Fclton & Luonii.H, ('i.r:vi:l,.\Nn, 




Vol. i6. No. ii. 


An annoying accident makes it neuee- 
sary to postpone the opening of Mr. 
Zaner's Lessons in Business Writing, an- 
uonnced last niontb for this issue, until 
nest mouth, The accident is the loss of 
two important plates somewhere between 
the engraWng department and the office 
of publication. The loss was not discov- 
ered until we came to 
■'malie up" the pages for 
this number, and too late 
to be corrected. It is, 
however, only a good thing 
deferred — not lost — and 
only deferred a month. 

I want to say rigbt here 
that I have already in hand 
material, both test and en- 
graving, for a number of 
papers of this coui'se of 
lessons, and I feel quite 
warranted in saying that 
nothing of the kind, to my 
kiwwhihjc. ha& ever been 
better done. These lessons 
cover more ground, require 
more engi-aving and more 
expensive engraving, and 
will cost The Journal 
more money than it has 
ever expended on a single 
feature in the sixteen years 
of its history. Such a 
course of lessons would 
have been worth a small 
fortune to me when I was 
a boy, and I see no reason 
why they should be less 
valuable to young people 
now ; nor need any teacher 
fear that they will inter- 
fere with bis own work or 
exert any influence other 
than helpful. 

The December Journal, the largest is- 
sue of the year, will be made as brilliant 
in text and engraving as I can make it, as- 
sisted by half a dozen artists employed at 
The Journal office, and by fully twenty- 
five other leading representative Amer- 
ican penmen. One of the pictoral feat- 
ures will be a full Journal page plate of 
modern engrossing. Another will be a 
very elaborate composite design repre- 
senting cards— autographs, plain, flour- 
ished and otherwise ornamented, by Far- 
ley, Schofield. Stubbs, Patrick, Christie. 
Zaner, Bloser. B. F. Williams. Pierson, 
Tucker. Dakin, Hall, Page, Wade, How- 
ard, Brown. Courtney, Parks. Hallett. 
Wallace. Giesseman, Kibbe and Webb. 
A number of other artists will be repre- 

lu flue, (he December, I 893, QDinber 
or The Pciiiiiau*» Art Journal Ib pre- 
fl«cly Ibc one iliat roii canM alTord to 

The Pen Still Holds its Own. 

What say the Bar-Lock Typewriter 
Company? ** The pen is doomed, except 
as an adjunct. It is still useful for signa- 
tures and in bookkeeping, but for corre- 
spondence, and the great bulk of literary, 
professional, and business writing, it has 
seen its day." 

Seen its day t We hope not, The type- 
writer possesses many advantages over 

opened this branch in London in 1881 with 
one clerk. I now have nine clerks and need 
another. If one uses a typewriter con- 
tinuously, then he needs a pen that will 
not corrode when he does not pick up the 
pen, as he must sometimes use one. It is 
pleasant to use tbe pen to-day that one 
used and liked yesterday, or last month, 
or last year. Many of our gold pens have 
been used forty years." 




Exampte of high-ctass penwo}'k i 

the pen ; on the other hand, tbe pen pos- 
sesses many advantages over the type- 
writer. The literary piano has been in 
general use some three or four years, and 
during the last twelve months the sales 
have greatly increased. What has bi-en the 
effect on the sale of pens ? This is the reply 
of Messrs. Macniven & Cameron : " We 
have completed the statement of our pen 
sales for last year, and find them con- 
siderably over the sales for 1890. This 
increase shows itself in all directions; 
not only have our home sales increased, 
but our export orders for both the colonies 
and tbe Continent have been greater and 
more numerous. To this result we do 
not wish to deny that the special quality 
of our pens and our own pushing have con- 
tributed much ; but we have no fear for 
the future of the pen trade. The type- 
writer has its particular uses, but can 
never compete with the steel pen. 

Theexperienceof Messrs. Mabie, Todd& 
Bard is precisely similar, forthe manager, 
Mr. Dickman, writes: " The typewriter has 
had no effect on the sale of gold pens that 
can be traced (I know nothing about steel 
pens). I have a suspicion that the type- 
writer has helped the sale of gold pens. I 

;ial iju7'poses. Size of pn 

Mr. Dickman's theory that the type- 
writer h.'is helped the sale of gold pens is 
borne out by the experience of other 
agents. Even in the home of tbe typewriter 
itself the pen is potert still. According 
to the P/'OJ?of/rnp/tic Magazine o( Cincin- 
nati, pen manufacturers are producing 
millions of pens more than before tbe ad- 
vent of the typewiiter. 

"The pen is essential to the office, to 
the school, and to the home, and nothing 
can supplant it for the reason that noth- 
ing else can set forth the individual 
characteristics of the writer in the shape 
of autographic peculiarities, which al- 
wavs distinguish any individual writer 
from all othtTs/'—TheCounting-Hotme. 

sheer walls 215 feet liigh. and thousands 
of feet long, with white battlements and 
shadowy bastions. Notliinir%vithout wings 
could mount there ; but a few hundred 
yards sontli of the tower the mesa can be 
scaled— by an ancient trail of separate 
foot-holes worn deep in the rock. At the 
top we find that the wedge is hollow— a 
great V, in fact, for a caSon from l>ehind 
splits the mesa almost to its apex. Upon 
the arms of this V are tbe 
ruins of two pueblos, facing 
each other across the deep 
gulf. These stone •' cities " 
were over 200 feet sciuare 
and four or five stories tall 
— ten-aced, human bee- 
hives, with several hundred 
inhabitants each. 

Tliis remarkable rock was 
known to the Spanish 
piriiiPft« miicli more than 
tw-n i-riitiirirv auy of 
..111 S;(\Mn t.ii.'i.niierspene- 
inir-<l rh.' .l.'MTts of the 
Southwest : and even in 
this land of monumental 
cliffs it is so stiiking that 
they gave it a name for its 
very o^vn. They called it 
El Movro (The Castle), and 
for over 300 yeai*8 it haa 
bonie that appropriate title, 
though the few bimdred 
"Americans" who have 
seen it know it better as 
Inscription Rock. Histor- 
ically, it is the most pre- 
cious cliff possessed by any 
nation, and, I am ashamed 
to say, the moat utterly 

Lying on the ancient 
road fi'om Zuni to the 
river, and about thirty 
miles from the former, it 
became a most important 
landmark. The necessities 
of the wilderness made it a 
camping place for all who 
pas.sed, since the weak 
spring nnder the shadow of 
that gi-eat rock was the 
first water in a long day's march. 
There was also jilenty of wood near, and a 
fair shelter under the overhanging preci- 
pices. So it was in those grim centuries 
behind this that every ti-aveler who came 
to the Morro halted there, and they in- 
cluded neai'ly eveiy notable figure among 
the fii-st heroes who trod what is now our 
soil. The sandstone of the cliff was fine 
and very smooth, and when the supper of 
jerked meat and pop-(;<)m meal ponidge 
had been eaten and the mailed sentries put 
out to withstand the ijrowling Apaches, 
the heroes wi-ote their autogiuphs upon 
the perpeudicnlar page of stone, using for 
pens tbe sworthi \vhich had won the New 
■Wurld !— C F. LnmmUi, in October St. 

A Natural Autograph Album of Stone. 

As we move west down the valley the 
mesas grow taller and more beautiful, 
and ijresently we become aware of a noble 
rock which seems to be chief of all its giant 
brethren. Between two juniper-dotted 
canons a long, wedge-shaped mesa tapei-s 
to the valley, and terminates at its edge in 
a cliff that reminds one of a Titanic castle. 
Its front is a great tower, and its sides are at the World's Fait- 

Men's Engraved Visiting Cards. 
[I's cjirds are of the .-^luie quality as 
of women, but n<it quite so heavy. 

The present 
is iCg uy 1 y-iu. The prefix 
ariable.' and the engi'aving 
icript.— /xH/iW Home Jour- 

:. fl/enman^ QPtiC QJctuna^ 

Western Penmen** Programme. 

Oatltn** mi ■h*' »«'fllnK l» he HHd ■! 
Cclnnba-. O.. l»f<-CKibrr JJ C« 'JB. 

" AitilrrM of Welromr."— Prof. Jacob A. 
Hhtiwan.siiperintenilent of pnblic8chool«. 

" Prrjtulenfa AflilreMi."—Vf. F. Gieaee- 

.1. O. Wi«e. Akron. O.— " Mechanical 
Dovic<« in Pnblic Sch(wl«," (Lecson.) 

G. W. Br«wi..Iackson%ille, 111.— "Fut- 
nr« Work of Pi-nnien in Bosiness Col- 
leRwi." (Paper.) 

J. F. Bamliiirt. L^-lianon. O.— * Move- 
HMTit DrillH in ynnnnlH." (Lfjsson.) 

D. T. Ann-K. N. Y. City.— "Scientific 
InvGtttiKution of Handwriting." (Pajjer.) 

Misi* Holun Fraser. Columbus, O.— 
•• Fonn Stntly and Drawing." (Lesson.) 

O. E. Nt'tllcton. Pcorin, 111.— " Should 
Teaclier of Bookkt-eping be the Teacher of 
PennianHliip? " (Paper.) 

W. T. Parks. Nashville. Tenn.-"Text- 
ing." (Lewon.) 

S. C. Malone. Baltimore. Mil.— 'En- 
gro»King. " ( IlhiHtrations. ) 

Kreontt Dai/^Wednmnday, 

Mi.-*» Alin- <1. Bn.wm*. Urlxina. Ohio- 
" ITw and Miwwe fAJ.'opyliooks." (Paiier.) 

A. R. Kipp. CVflar Rapid.s, Iowa— 
"Simon Pun* Mnwnlar Movement.'' (Les- 

P. H. Speneor, Detroit, Mich.—" What 
A Penman should Know and be Able to 
Do." (Paper.) 

D. H. Farley. Trenton. N. J.— "All- 
round Pennmnnhip.'* (Xllusti-ations.) 

W. N. FerriH. Big Rapids. Mich.—" Eil- 
ncntional Needn of Penman." {Paper.! 

J. P. Bvnie. Erie. Pa.—" Business P.-n- 
mansliip." (Lrs..on.) 

C. T. Smith. Atcliison. Kan.— " Nonnal 
Selinnl Pciimjiiisliip." (Pai)er.) 

Frank Goodman, Nashville, Tenn.— 
" Indinduality in Penmanship." (Illus- 

Third I>at/-Tltur>idnt/. 

W. F. Lyon, Detroit. Mich.— " Special 
Temrherw* Duties." (Paper.) 

A. C. Webb, NnshviUc, Tenn.—" Beauty 
of Sketches from Life in Illustrations." 

A. H. Hinman, Worcester, Mass. — "To 
what Extent may Flourishing be Taught 
in Businrws Colleges?" (Paper.) 

H. A. Sp. ncer. Louisville, Ky.— " Sim- 
pliHed Penmanship." (Lesson.) 

W. F. (b'isseman. Des Moines, la.— 
" Penmanship from the Standpoint of Psy- 
eholojfv ami Pliysiolugy." (Paper.) 

H.nvard Champlin, Cincinnati. O.— 
" Means of Securing Freedom of Move- 
ment in the Public Schools." (Lesson.) 

J. W. Wan-. Mnline. Bl.— "The Pen 

and the Tvii-u-viT-r " (P:ipiM-.) 

W. .1. Aln -, ,, \V i-lnn-lMn, pn.-"Pen- 

mansliii-iii 1 ir:i ...l, .1 s, ii,„.is." (Lesson.) 

Th<*n- will ir niii, , Mill, .sts in mind and 
inmuseh', r.vitatit.nsaiid illustrations in 
connmiion with above programme. 

Everj-boily is earnestly retjuested to add 
to the interest of the procee<lings bj- bring- 
ing specimens, mechanical devices, hooks. 
olc, for exhibition. 


The convention will he held in the 
Teacher}!' Assembly Room of the Public 
St'hoot Library Biiildijig, on East Tonm 
Stnet, It is one-half block from High 
street, the priucii>a1 business thoroughfare 
of the city, and seven squares from the 

The Zmierinu Art College, which will 
W o|h'n to the members, is located in the 
TuHer Building, comer Fourth and Gay 
strt'ftj*. four sqnares s.»nth of de^wt and 
two east of High street. 

on the programme for iiajters or si>eeches 
an- requestetl to keep them within twenty 
miuntos* time fordeliver>-, and those giv- 
ing le!«tuis, itiirty miuntes. 

The American RoteJ, locateil on thecor- 
ner of Slat.- and High stiwts, a n-gidar 

$3 houiie. will accommodate the niemliers 
of the association for fl-oO per day. 

Similar arrangements havebe^n effected 
with the Grand Centrtil. 32 West State 

"Smilh'it Kurojfean Hotd" Capital 
Siinarc, North, will fnniish nioms for |t 

Board and Room can be secured in pri- 
vate fawilint at reasonable rates. 

Railroad BaUt. 

Past experience seems to indicate that it 
is best for each to secmre the best rates 
possible for round trip, at place of start- 
ing. The iKsst plan will be to take ad- 
vantage of the usual one and one-third 
fare rates. However, if you can buy a 
broker's ticket cheap to Columbus, you 
will no doubt be enabled to secure similar 
tickets at reduced rates to return on. 

A -l;MH..;ittli.'>»-ill !..■ v„ffi- 
,..,.,1, 1,, |..^,;(l til,. ,AV, II,. hi t:ll, III Whi.-h 
will ,'nl,Tt.ini ;iiMi in-trn-t tli- A~->" i..linn. 
Can > uu iitruul U> ini=.-> t\n> nir^lm^- 1' 

Thiimgh the co-operation of Prof. C. 
W. Slix-inn, Snpt. Pennmnship Columbus 
pul)Iic schools, we liave secured the As- 
sembly rorjm of the Library Building, and 
tlirongh liim we exi>cct a good attendance 
of local tejichers. 

Come, we bid you a right heartv wel- 
come ! C. P. Zanek, 
Chairman Ex. Com. 


Frank Goodman, Nashville. Tenn. 

J. W. Warr. Moline. HI. 

C. P. Zaner. Colmnbus. Ohio. 

Boys Who Succeed. 

day," said a wholesale gi-ocer merchant to 
his wife at the supiier talde. " He was 
hired by the firm at the request of the 
senior member, who thoughtthe boy gave 
promise of good things, but I feel sxire 
timt th*- liov will be out of the office in 

1 tlia 

" What makers you think so?" 
" Because the first tiling he wante<l to 
know exactly how much he was expected 

"Perhaps yon will change yonr mind 
about him." 

■' Perhaps I shall," replied the merchant. 
■' but I don't think so." 

Three days later the man said to his 
wife : " About that boy you remember I 
mentioned to you two or three days ago. 
Well, he is the best boy that ever entered 
the store." 

" How did you find that out ? " 

" In the eaidest way in the world. The 
first morning after the boy began to work 
he performed very faithfully and system- 
atically the exact duties assigned him. 
When he had finished he came to me and 

said : " Mr. M , I have finished all 

that work. Now, what can I do ? " 

" I \Vas a little surprised, but I gave him 
a little jol) of work and forgot all about 
him until he came into my room with the 
question, 'What next?' That settled it 
for me. He was the first boy that ever 
entered our oflBce who wsis willing and 
volunteered to do more than was assigned 
him. I predict a successful career for that 
boy as a business man."^TI'V.sfcr» Plou>-' 

The New Postal Card. 

The Morgan EnvclopcCompany. Sj.ring- 
field. Mji.sN.. lias the contract fur •.;4.(H>i).. 
000 double postal cards, a new device 
which has long been considere<l by the 
Past Office Department. The card ^viU 
be 53^' X 3;^ inches, and will be folded in 
the middle, presenting four surfaces. The 
ontidde surface is for the address and the 
inside for the message. At the fold the 
canl is i>erforateil so that the recipient 
may tear off one-half and answer on the 

> omitt^ sontetbing, Ma- 

Teachfr: " Yon'v 
tel. Id making tout Iftttr • i's.' What T 
MnM : '■ I guess I forgot to put eyetH-o< 

Business Education at the World's Fair. 

An important meeting of business edu- 
cators was held at the Metropolitan Busi- 
ness College, Chicago, on Saturday, Oc- 
tober 22. It was the meeting of the 
World's Fair Exhibit Committee of Fif- 
teen, appointed hist July at the Saratoga 
Convention of the " Business Educators' 
Association of America." 

Those present were Pres. S. S. Packard. 
New York City; R. C. Siwncer, Milw;.n- 
kee: W. H. Sadler. Baltimore: L. L. Wil- 
liams, Rochester; A. D. Wilt, Dayton: 
R. E. Gallagher, Hamilton. Ont.: H. T. 
Loomis. Cleveland: J. E. Soul^, New Or- 
leans: C. C. Curtiss. Minneajmlis; Mrs. 
Sara A. Spencer, Washington. D. C: G. 
W. Elliott, Burlington. Iowa;0. M. Pow- 
ers. Chicago: H. W. Bryant. Chicago. 
and Secy G. W. Brown. .lacksonviUe, 111. 
There were al>o i)resent J. \V. Warr, 
editor Bubiucts Ediicntion, Moline, 111., 
and A. N. Palmer, editor Weafeni Pen- 
man. Cedar Rapids. Iowa. 

Pres. Packard stated that the object of 
the meeting was to lay the report of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee before the Committee 
of Fifteen. He then read his report show- 
ing what progress in the work, relative 
to an exhibition of Business Eilncation at 
the World's Fair, had been made. His 
report was supplemented by an exhibition 
of floor plans, elevations of the proposed 
exhibit desks, counters, railings and the 
like, which was presented by Mr. Pow- 
ers. After some discussion the report 
was received and unanimously approved. 

Resolutions were then offered by R. C. 
Spencer, authorizing the Executive Com- 
mittee to proceed with the plans relative 
to a ■• still " and an " active " exhibit of 
Busine-^is Education at the World's Fair 
of '93. The resolutions authorized the 
committee to issue an appeal to the col- 
leges of the country, explaining the plans 
of the exhibits proposed, stating the ex- 
pense to the exhibitors, and the Iik«. The 
resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

It was also decided that the work 
placed on exhibition from the business 
colleges of the country be exclusively 
prepared by students of the presentschool 

The meeting was characterized by great 
harmony of action and earnestness of 
spirit. It is proposed that the business 
colleges of the country shall have one of 
the most attractive, characteristic and 
effective exhibits in the Educational de- 

(i. W. BitowN, Sec'y. 

T/tr iroi'lWa Conffreaa AuxttUary. 

Immediately upon the adjournment of 
the Committee of Fifteen, Mr. R. C. 
Spencer, chaiiman of the Congress of 
Business and Commercial Colleges, called 
a joint meeting of the Congress and B. R. 
A. committees. After preliminary re 
m.irks by Chairman Spencer, it was voted 
that the chairmen of the two commiitees 
be requested to prepare and issne a joint 
circular in relation to the two interests 
represented by these committees. This 
circular to he sent by the business col- 
leges to their former students and friends, 
and to be accompanied by a .•special cir- 
cular or letter making such reference to 
the interests in question as the several 
colleges may wish to make. The joint 
circular to be supplied to the colleges at 
their expense. 

The following-named persons were rec- 
ommended to Pres. Bonney of the World's 
Congress Anxilliary and Com. Wm. T. 
Harris, chairman of the Dept. of Educa- 
tion, as suitable persons to preside at the 
meetings of the Boainess College Con- 
gress : 

For chairman of the Business Edu- 
cators' Congress, R. C. Spencer was 
unanimously selected. 

For chairman of the Business College 
Graduates and Students* Congress the 
following names were proposed : 

Lyman J. Gage. Chicago : Judge John 
S. Woohon, Des Moines; Hon. Wm. 
Dudley Foulke. Richmond. Ind. 

After attending to other mattt-r^ i>re 
liminary to the Worlds Congrt*?.. [ho 
meeting was adjourned. Chairman Silen- 
cer and Sec'y Brown announced that they 
would hold interviews with Pres. Bonney. 
Dr. S. H. Peabody. chief of the Dept. of 
Education at the World's Fair, and had 
also accepted an invitation to attend a 
meeting on Monday, October 24. in the 
interests of education at the World's 
Fair, and to be addressed by Hon. Wra. 
T. Harris, U. S. Com. of Education. 

G. W. Brown. Sic y. 

The JIitil«ir»« Cotteg* XirhiliH. 

Editor Penm.\s's Art Jouiinal: 

I had hoped to be able to furnish you 
for the present issue cuts of the plans of 
the Business College Exhibit decided 
upon at the late Chicago meeting, bnt 
find that it will be impossible. 1 would 
say, however, in addition to the facts con- 
tained in my former communication that 
a complete circular will soon he ready for 
distribution, wherein all the details of the 
exhibit will be given, and which can be 
had by applying to me. ThiMin- niar will 
say. among other thiiig>. ili;it the num- 
ber of exhibitors will be limited ; tliHt it 
will cost 1100 to be represented in the 
" still " exhibit, this amount covering the 
services of a superintendent and tlie cost 
of the indi\idual show case, which will 
remain the property of the individual ex- 
hibitor : that each exhibitor will hnve to 
make a personal application for space to 
the Director General, and that these ap- 
plications will need to be in before the 
first of January. Those who wish to be 
reprasented in the ■• active" exhibit will 
have to go to the expense of fitting np 
offices and desks, the cost to each being 
estimated at about flOO, all tohl. It is 
proposed to make the exhibit in .'ill re- 
spects first class, and it is an estahlislied 
fact that no amount of local advertising 
which any college can do at home is to be 
compared in importance with the jidvan- 
tages which inhere in this World's Fair 

Those wishing to apply for space in 
either exhibit can get the blank forms 
suitably filled in, except signature, by ap- 
plying to the undersigned. All applica- 
tions should be made before January 1, 
1S03- S. S. Packard, 

101 East Twenty-third street. New York. 


andbiv.^iii.' ,1 . iti ■■ [, .,1 ii:. I Miti-,i states. 
Hurrah for Clarence : Thais the kind of 
Englishman we welcome to America I 
Now he's welcome t« our dollars anrl wi-'U 
help him to make them I— Phtui"'/' •'I'l'ir , 


rolled t" asked the fiifereitedyo 
aplifd the fcfiU 

rathvr flat."— /•/.'./„ 

and totiaeco 711.330. 

The first stamped envelopes wert* i 
ISW, of the two dpnoitiinationsof tli 
six cent?, and it was not until two yw 

Calhoun County, in tho n-est part n( 1 1 
between the MissisMippi and Illinois rivfi 
settled in 1801. and yet there is not n im 
a telegraph, a relepfione, a ucKro, a t»H 
au fiprees office iu the entire county. 

It might be a K'>od thing for h«ii* 
If It were the custom to take down jq 
band tverythinj; that the l^ride anil i 
promise <>n the wedding day and bove ii 
ten on the tjrpewriter and rramed t'» hu 
the parlor wall. — SomrmlU Journal. 

DicTATEn.— I hiive iust receiverl a m 
froiu our PbilHdelphlB 

I'rile cheek. Please Send letter ' 
In front of a shop in Colorndo then- ii f 

benrinK the following inttorlpllon: " M-.i 

the root of all evil: give uh a few rnot-,. ' 
Some bofks are to be taHled, othf r^ 

Bwallowfd. and !^ome few to be chcnx 

dig«>t ed . — tiftcon . 

All the armies on earth do not 'l^-tr 

maay of the human rare, nor alieuut*' -" 

property, as drunkennehs. 


Cyen/fian^ QS^C CLyawi/utCP 

liji A. C. Webb, lllxistratiny 

Instruction in Monogram Making. 

No. 1. 

We desire to give in a few lessons to the 
many aspiring young pen workers who 
read the Journal a few points on the 
combining of letters into a monogram. 
While there can be uo unvarying rule laid 
down, yet there are certain general prin- 
ciples which must be followed in order to 
get anything like a harmonious arrange- 

The first point we will call yonr atten- 
tion to is that every letter of the alphabet 
may be changed from its usual propor- 
tions. Fig. 1 in cut represents regulai" form 
of tbe plain Roman O. While it would often 
be found in a monogram in its regular 
proportions, it woiUd more fi-equeutly be 
foimd stretched from left to right as in 
Pig 2, or vertically as in Fig 3. A 
good plaii for the beginner in this line of 
pen art would be to practice sketching 
fi-ee hand with a pencil the different let 
ters of the alphabet, first in their regular 
form, then extending them as suggested 

Another very important point to be no- 
ticed is in the crossing of letters. By 
studying the skeleton combinations given 
for this lesson you ^vill observe that all the 
letters cross each other in such a manner 
as to form or nearly fomi right angles. 
This pi-iuciple must be closely adhered to 
in order that the different letters may be 
clearly ti'aced throughout the (;onibina- 

After cop^nni; thpsk^'lc^ton outlines until 
you can skttcli tlirm without looking at 
copy, takr n|. ;iii\ twi. Ml tliiee letters and 
arrange tlnin iKcniniL,' to the general 
principles given. Wlien these are mas- 
tered you have the foundation, and also 
the framework of monogram making com- 

In a future lesson we will give skeleton 
monograms of the fii-st six names of young 
persons who inform us that they desire to 
follow us through these lessons. 

A Typewriter for Use in Bookkeeping. 

For a long time we have been looking 
for the fellow with ingenuity enough to 
construct a typewriter that could be used 
on books as well as on loose sheets. Two 
Tesans. William J. Borilen and J. W. 
Johnson, think they have solved the 
problem and have secured a patent for 
such a machine. We find thie rather 
technical description in TJie Scientijlr: 
American : 

The machine is especially designed for 
writing upon blank books, facilitating the 
making of official records in improved 
style, while it is also capable of use for 
the ordinary work of tj-pewriters. Spring- 
pressed type are carried by the type 

if V5 ^o^^^ 'C.O.G.t. 

his Lesson Accompanying. 

wheel, which is supported by an oscillat- 
ing frame connected with an actuating 
mechanism, a sliifting and driving mech- 
anism beinic also connected with tbe 
wheel, while a trip mechanism in the 
path of its rotation acts successively 
upon the type. The frame is journaled 
in a vertically movable carriage, upon 
which a sleeve slides laterally, arms pro- 
jecting from the sleeve engaging the 
type wheel at opposite sides. Owing to 
the manner in which the line spacing and 
letter spacing is effected, type of different 
sizes may be employed. 

Spurgeon as a Business Educator. 
The Rev. T. Philpot of Liston. Cam- 
bridge, has sent the British Weekly a copy 
of an advertisement inserted by Mr. Spur- 
geon, over forty years ago. which runs 
thus : '* No. 60, Upper Park street, Cam- 
bridge. Mr. C. H. Spurgeon begs to in- 
form his numerous friends that after 
Christmas he intends taking six or seven 
young gentlemen as day pupils. He will 
endeavor to the utmost to impart a good 
commercial education. The ordinary 
routine will include arithmetic, algebra, 
geometry and mensuration, grammar and 
composition, ancient and modem history, 
geography, natural history, astronomy, 
scripture and drawing. Latin aud the 
elements of Greek and French if required. 
Terms, £5 per annum."— W« the Count- 
ing -Room, \LoHdon. 

Facing Trouble— Pluck is H&lf the Battle. 

" I had plowed around a rock in one of 
my fields for five years." said my neigli- 
lK)r, Farmer Luce, "and 1 had broken a 
mowing machine knife against it, liesides 
losing the use of the ground in which it 
lay, all because I supposed it was such a 
large rock that it would take too much 
time and iabor to remove it. But to-day, 
when I began to plow my com. I thought 
that by and by I might break my culti- 
vator against this rock ; so I took my 
crowbar, intending to poke around it and 
find out its size once for all. And it was 
one of the surprises of my life to find that 
it was little more than two feet long. It 
was standing on its edge, and so light 
that I could lift it into the wagon with- 
out help." 

"The first time you really faced your 
troubl? you conquered it," I replied aloud, 
but continued to enlarge upon the subject 
all to myself ; for I do believe that before 
we pray we should look our troi^|(Sa 
square in the face. Imagine the farmer 
plowing around that rock for five years, 
praying all the while. " Oh, Lord, remove 
that rock,'" when he didn't know whether 
it was a big rock or a little flat stone ! 
We shiver, and shake, and shrink, and 
sometimes do not dare to pray about 
trouble because it seems so real, not even 
knowing what we wish the Lord to do 
about it ; when, if we would face the 
trouble and call it by its name, one-half 
of its terror would be gone.— E pin »'th 
Eei-ald. ' 

Bill Nye's Typewriter Again. 
The Joitrnal last month noted the in- 
teresting fact that Bill Nye had joined 
the ranks of the typewriters. When the 
impulse to such rashness seized this ever- 
fre*h humorist, it seems thai he very 
naturally applied to Typewriter Head- 
quarters, New York, the home of the 
Shorthand World, for information. 
Brother Miner, always alert for first-class 
attractions for tbe World readers, not 
only sent full information about leading 
machines, but succeeded in drawing the 
coy William out as follows: 

V> I i. HI , V, X. C, Junea,-;, 1892. 
TyjT \\ J ni !■ K . VI' r vRTERs, New York; 

your offeror a No. 2 Kemlngtoaat themteoff. 
Send me a good one and on office ease. I will 
then bless you and remit also. . . . 

Yourstruly, Edoar W. Nyb. 
The rest is best told in the accompany- 
ing cut. 

The Rail Around the Jail. 

When yim walk, the big earth JBrs, 
An' yer whiskers sweep the stars, 
Ad' you fill up the hull street, 
Whirl tbe worl' roun' with yer feet. 
\a' refuse to speak to me— 
Guess you don't know who I be. 
So yon won't wiv "howdy do," 

Of 111.' \.jnr 
Ef I Keen o 
Ottilia leu. 

-MM.n.thL. jail. 
e aro,,..' the jail, 

In tho big ] 

our Hundred gang. 

AiV the pre 

ideut. understan'. 

Is but jest mv hired man; 

An' I watcl 

an' boss wile be 

Dops the ae 

tiou's chores fer nie 

What we'rp 

gom' to do bimeby, 

'Fore the u 

iverse goes dry, 

lodifif'runce— see! 

'Twist sich 

chaps ez vou an' me 

', however, I broke my a 

n a quail-trap opera 
after one of my populai .Ei-iH.ta, 
Id now 1 uo not write or spell with so little 
rigue as formerly, and propose to accept 

Fletchers N.C. 
July 6.I892, 

One be jest ez good ez t'other, 
Both in love 'ith one another; 
While we keep outside the rail 
Of tbe fence aroun' the jail. 
Ynu hain't got no bluer blood. 

Comes from 111' -■ iliniHi |i.iil. 

Thet's a gouit ■|L..ut.-lj .i.i.I l.r me 
Tbet wuz" taught i„ul -liiil,-... 
Men are brutbers; gond enough : 
Men are bruthers; thet's the stuff! 
An' tbe time is goin' to be 
Wen we'll come to thot idee, 
Tbet all men outside the rail 
Of the fence arouu' the jail 

All' by tbet time Natur's 
"Will be riz enough to bake. 

S. W. Foss. in Vankee Btada. 

why he wags his tail up and down, instead of 

Mrs, Morris Park: "The poor thing has 
always lived with us in our Harlem Hat, and 
that's the only way he could wag it." — t'uok. 

A money Maker. 

It is so hard to get employment now i 
hard to make money, that I know others 
like to know how they enn make n Itttio n 
as I have done. Tell your suhHciitiers tin 
net nil the jewelry, table ^^ ^ ! im, - 

and spoons they can plate i ■ " ■ 

Tbe plating outfit cost^ - i 
fromB. F. Delno&Co. ni r, 
plates jrold. silver and nirlu i i 
of pliitintf the rtrst ilay. 1 1- 

& Co., Columbus, Ohio. 

GentsS^& —) 
yOoR M#chinncOme aLl Sri::;ghT & ^ 

i Geat ^"AlOngf IrStratt ' ■ * *Exc ept thjazzt YYoU phOrgoat -j 

2 sEnd AiiMiMKM. boOk oFF &&&&&& iNstructions withe X$_& k? 

bookTi I enclose check and vri-sh that you would kindly send the 
Yours Truly. 


A^-'^ y^^ 

'.Upnmdi mil Sur^s dxllying with a lupewriler. aa e.^ilaintil nltmr. Kejjnntnl from the ■■ PhonogiaiilKc World " 




The Journal's Public School Penmanship 
Contest— Awards of Certificates. 

•ih.- wii..,r-r- in \\w ynWxv ^*hnnl ron- 
t.'st. Hnnunni:*-.! im Thk .loi knal last 
(«priii«. are given l>elow. We are ven* 
imi(;h plfa*€'d with the int<>re8t taken in 
Ihe contest for tcachew and pupils. 
Hitnureds of Hpeciinens have been re- 
rcivwl— which fact, in addition to un- 
nvoidable circnmstances mentioned in onr 
IiiHt itwue. has delayed the announcement 
i.f till- winners far later than we intende<l. 
For this we hope those concerned will 
fur^pve U8. 

Two of the «pecimen« received in this 
cont^wt are presented herewith. The con- 
test Rave ns ninterinl for a splendid 
i-xliihit in this linf*. and one tliut wSW he 
tlioroiigldy »pprociat.'<l I.y every te;i<hei- 
intorcMled in the peniiuinsliip work of 
that " bulwark of our republic." the pub- 
lic schools. 

It will certainly l)e a great advantage to 
us all to know what is being done in other 
HchoolH. and if they e.tcel us in any par- 
ticular, we nuist strive even harder than 
ever Id reach the standard which we have 
net up for ourselves and our pupils. 

We liojie that all of the contestants 
will feel that they have received justice, 
and we are sure that they would if they 
knew how much time and care have been 
given by the committee to studying the 
speciiiiciis in order that a fair decision 
might be given. 

As will be seen. Saginaw. Mich.. S. S. 
Purdy, SuiKjrvisor, has the larger number 
of i>reraiunis, and taking the writing 
{hrnuijh aU II,,' {irailts. it i^ I he finest we 
hiive'ever seen. On., pernliarity <,f tlie 
pupils' writing,' is Ihat it is ri.//*r/// with- 
out shade below the seveuth grade, and the 
smooth, light lineit and accurate fonns 
would win any one who could see the 
h(>autifnl effect to abandoning shade in 
the i)rimary grades. Much of the writing 
sent in from the primaiy grades was 
spoiled by the pupil trjing to shade before 
knowing how or having suflicieut move- 
ment and command of the hand. 

But the greatest surprise to us was the 
First (fradv WTitingfrom Saginaw, which 
is simply wonderful, and we rememlKT a 
stat^'uient in one of Bro. Purdy's articles 
ill The Joi-iiNAi. which may, to some ex- 
tent, account for it : 

" I wish to say juHt hore that all grades in 
our citj- ecboolK, frem first to vigbtb inclusive, 
usL< pon aud iuk this year; and the time is not 
fnr dixtaut when we will do away with slatrs 
entirely for written u'orA:, aud put the pen 
iuto the hunds of pupils when they first enter 

" My plDu for some lime past has been not to 
read Joi'RNals and tbeu I«y tbeni aside, but 
to rrnd and reread^ caretully sift, select parts 
that I think would bo a help to me in conduet- 
ing lessons." 

Right on the heels of Saginaw conies 
Fort Worth. Texas, G. W. Wan?, Super- 
visor. One of the First Grade specimens 
especially is i-ery fine, and we are sorry 
that it was not written with iuk, so that 
it i>>uld l)e reprotluced in TiiK JorRNAL. 
Then- are other goo<l specimens, which 
will be mentioned under their respective 

Manistw, Mich.. A. .1. t^»dman. Sojier- 
visor. sends the nicest arranged sjH'cimens. 
They are on slii>s apitarvntly niled fi)r this 
purpose with seven bine lines, a blank 
margin all n)imd and a bonier of two red 
lines seven-eighths of an inch from etlge 
of paiMT. cnissing at coniere and mnning 
ti. etlgf. The effect is verj* pretty, and 
we boi»e Bro. Cadumn will fa^-or the 
rvaders of The Jovrnal with an accomit 
of the preparation of ihes.' slips. By the 

way, Bro. Ware of Fort Worth has some- 
thing new in the way of prei>aring and 
binding K])ecimens. which we shall tell 
our readers about at some future time. 

Akron, Ohio. J. O. Wise, Supervisor. 
Bro. Wise did not send any specimens for 
the contest, but we happened to have two 
or three which he had inclosed in a per- 
sonal letter worthy of special mention. 
We regret that he did not send more, for 
we are sure from what we know of Super 
visor Wi-se and the Akron schools that 
they would not have taken a " back seat." 

Malta, Ohio. Miss Anna M. Hall. Sujwr- 
visor, sen(Ls the best specimens of High 
.School work, and the entire exhibition is 

MeatioD, Mary McLeod, Forth Worth, Texas; 
George HoffntBDn, Malta. Ohin; Uionie Lar- 
wn, Manistee, Micb.; Edith L. Beldeu, Akron, 

BT9de r. 

First certificate, Mauis A. Porter, Sag- 
inaw. Micb. 

Second certificate. Mat CmMiNOS, Fort 
Worth. Texas. Woriby of Honorable Men- 
tion—Carrie Friedman, F.irt Worth, Texas; 
ArselieSt. Lawrence. Saginaw, Micb.; Flor- 
enc« M. Benjamin, Malta, Ohio. 

Qradf Ti. 

First certificate, Jennie Brtce; 

Second certiflrate. Jessb F. Roqehs; both 
of SaeiDBw. Micb. Worthy of Honorable 
UentiOD— Clara Cappage aud Minnie Itiutle- 
man. Fort Worth, Texas; Flora Hanson, Man- 
istee, Micb. 

Orad» rir. 

First certificate, Anke Field, Fort Worth, 

Second certificate, Phila R RosB.Saginuvr, 
Mich. Worthy of Houornble Mention— Ida 
M. Seymour, Manistee. Mich. ; J. Hutcbi'son, 
Fort Worth, Texas; Florence Hadley, Sag- 
inaw, Micb.; Harry Hatch, Fort Worth, 

Grade nil. 

First certificate, Lizzie Schlukbirr : 
Second certificate, Conrad Einfalt ; bulb 

Orv-i^ctx -.-(>e.^Z!i/t' ^J^^fL-'Cw.^ ^"^'O-^sO 

Facsimile photographic i-eproduction of writing sjiecimens in our prize competilini 
first urade. The upper plate is first prize specimen, the lower, second. The plat < 
are about one-third smaller than copy. Who can show as good work t 

iwcellent considering the great obstacles 
Miss Hall has had to overcome during this, 
her first year, in Malta. The difference 
between the work there now and at the 
beginning of the year is remarkable, and 
Miss Hall has jiroven herself an energetic, 
conscientious, capable teacher, who is des- 
tined, at no distant date, to stand among 
the foremost of lady super\isors of the 
The awards in the contests are as fol- 

Pirst certificate to Ida Stabl; 

Second certificate. Lillib Wilk; both of 
Saginaw, Micb. Worthy of Honorable Men- 
tion, Jimmie Roy Gideon, Fort Worth. Texas. 

Grndf II. 

Fii-st certificate, Alha Besrends, Sagiuaw. 

Second certificate, Lacra Larson. Man- 
iitee, Mich. Worthy of Honorable Mention, 
Nannie Ketcbnm. Saginaw, Mich. 

First certificate, Minnie Zavel; 

Second certificate, ScrsiE Kogebs; t>oth of 
Saginaw, Mich, Worthy of Honorable Men- 
tion, Gi-acie E. Brodie. Manistee, Mich.— (No 
name) written in ttei-man, Akron, Ohio.; May 
Coughlin, Fort Worth, Texas. 
tirade ir. 

First certificate. Lola Slokan; 

Second certificate, Hellen Hctton ; both 
of Saginaw, Mich. Worthy of Honorable 

of Saginaw, Mich. Worthy of Honorable 
Mention, Esther Kenny. Frank Post, Jessie